Natural Killer T Cells: A Bridge to Tolerance or a Pathway to Rejection?
University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United KingdomTransplantation (Impact Factor: 3.83). 10/2007; 84(6):679-81. DOI: 10.1097/01.tp.0000280551.78156.ac
Over the past 20 years, natural killer T (NKT) cells have been shown to play an important role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, the potential role of NKT cells in transplantation will be discussed, particularly their role in rejection and the induction of a state of tolerance.
Conference Paper: Machine vision based control of the ball and beam[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The use of vision systems in motion control applications puts hard real-time constrains on image processing. However, constantly increasing performances and decreasing prices of vision hardware make vision measuring systems concurrent to other measuring systems in these applications, where vision systems can be used to precisely measure number of variables such as length, angle, position, orientation, etc. The main advantage of a vision measuring system in these applications is its noncontact measurement principle, which is important in cases when it is difficult to implement contact measurements. Apart from real-time constraints, the biggest problem that limits the applications of a machine vision system is its robustness to the noise present in the image as well as to the scene disturbances caused by background and foreground objects and to the nonideal illumination conditions. A simple, computationally efficient and robust machine vision measuring system is described, which is suitable for real-time angle measurement. Its behavior is experimentally tested on a ball and beam benchmark process, where high quality measurement of the beam angle is achieved even in nonideal lighting condition and also when no white background is used. The implemented vision system is used for feedback control of the ball and beam.
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ABSTRACT: Kidney transplantation is a well established procedure in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Despite high standards, post-operative complications are common. In addition to transplant rejection, viral, bacterial and fungal infections are of relevance. Frequently, clinical examination and clinical chemistry cannot establish requested diagnoses in a timely manner. Here, we propose the inclusion of natural killer (INK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells into flow cytometric immunomonitoring of patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Patients were followed from the pre-operative to the 28th post-operative day. Using flow cytometry, we investigated NK and NKT cells and their functional markers, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, CD16 and CXCR3. Both cell populations were influenced by transplantation. Results were independent of the origin of the graft (cadaveric or living donor) and of the immunosuppressive protocol used. However, NKT cells were influenced by induction therapies and indicated organ loss. We conclude that detection of these cell types should be added to immunomonitoring panels in solid organ transplanted patients.
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