Early Predictors of Massive Transfusion in Combat Casualties

Department of Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 11/2007; 205(4):541-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.05.007
Source: PubMed


An early predictive model for massive transfusion (MT) is critical for management of combat casualties because of limited blood product availability, component preparation, and the time necessary to mobilize fresh whole blood donors. The purpose of this study was to determine which variables, available early after injury, are associated with MT. We hypothesized that International Normalized Ratio and penetrating mechanism would be predictive.
We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in two combat support hospitals in Iraq. Patients who required MT were compared with patients who did not. Eight potentially predictive variables were subjected to univariate analysis. Variables associated with need for MT were then subjected to stepwise logistic regression.
Two hundred forty-seven patients required MT and 311 did not. Mean Injury Severity Score was 22 in the MT group and 5 in the non-MT group (p < 0.001). Patients in the MT group received 17.9 U stored RBCs and 2.0 U fresh whole blood, versus 1.1 U RBCs and 0.2 U whole blood in the non-MT group (p < 0.001). Mortality was 39% in the MT group and 1% in the non-MT group (p < 0.001). Variables that independently predicted the need for MT were: hemoglobin <or= 11 g/dL, International Normalized Ratio > 1.5, and a penetrating mechanism. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.804 and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test was 0.98.
MT after combat injury is associated with high mortality. Simple variables available early after admission allow accurate prediction of MT.

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    • "Several tools have been developed to identify the cohort of patients that will benefit from this resuscitation strategy but none have proved superior to experienced clinician judgement (McLaughlin et al., 2008; Schreiber et al., 2007; Yucel et al., 2006). Physiological parameters previously advocated for quantifying blood loss and grading shock severity have been found to be insensitive, with patients frequently maintaining normal physiology despite losing up to 40% of their circulating volume (Bruijns et al., 2012; Eastridge et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide, trauma is responsible for more than 10,000 deaths each day with hundreds of thousands seriously injured. Current trauma resuscitation strategies are based on supporting haemostasis, maintaining circulating volume and rapidly identifying sites of blood loss. Approaches include hypotensive/hypovolaemic resuscitation, avoidance of colloids and crystalloids, early blood product based resuscitation, early imaging to identify sites of blood loss and damage control surgery. In this paper, we focus on ways to minimise blood loss and preserve the circulating volume. These include minimal movement of the patient, splinting fractures, use of tourniquets, application of local haemostatic dressings/agents, keeping the patient warm and giving tranexamic acid to improve clot strength. The recent CRASH-2 trial provided unequivocal evidence that tranexamic acid reduces mortality in bleeding trauma patients. This will be discussed in detail. When employed as part of a package of care in a well-rehearsed trauma system, these interventions to preserve the remaining circulating volume have the potential to save lives and allow patients to survive until timely definitive haemostasis can occur.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Trauma
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    • "transfuse. One could also argue the case for the use of scoring tables for trauma patients to predict the need for massive transfusion to avoid unnecessary activations (Yücel et al., 2006; Schreiber et al., 2007; Nunez et al., 2009). A greater percentage of patients using MTR were those who would otherwise require MT, but due to earlier and aggressive component transfusion did not require MT. "
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    ABSTRACT: A massive transfusion response (MTR) was introduced in 2007 to provide blood and blood products in a timelier manner. Aim of this study was to determine whether implementation of the MTR was associated with a change in clinical practice or mortality. All MTR activations from 2008 to 2011 were included in the study. Patients who had received a massive transfusion (MT ≥ 10 units RBC in 24 h) as part of the MTR (MT-MTR) were compared with a historical group of MT patients (MT-Pre-MTR) from 2004 to 2006. Blood product usage including fresh frozen plasma (FFP) : RBC and platelet : RBC ratios and mortality were compared between the two groups. Out of 169 MTR activations, 13 patients (8%) did not use any blood products, 73 (43%) used <10 units of RBC in a 24-h period and 83 received a MT. The median number of units of FFP and platelets transfused in the MT-MTR group were 10 [interquartile range (IQR) 7-17] vs 6 (5-10) [P < 0·001] and 3 (IQR 2-4) vs 2 (IQR 1-3) [P < 0·001] in the MT-Pre-MTR group of patients, respectively. The MT-MTR group received a higher 24-h FFP : RBC ratio (1 : 1·4 vs 1 : 2·4, P < 0·001). Overall mortality between the MT-MTR and MT-Pre-MTR groups (29% vs 23%, P = 0·43) and 90-day mortality was 25% vs 29% (P = 0·40), respectively. Although there has been a significant change in transfusion practice in MT patients using a MTR, no change in mortality could be documented using such a protocol.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Transfusion Medicine
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    • "MT was defined as the transfusion of 10 units or more of pRBC in the first 24 hours after admission. Clinical measurements used to create the model included: blood lactate (BL) ≥ 5 mmol/l, heart rate > 105 bpm, INR > 1.5, hemoglobin ≤ 11 g/dl, and systolic blood pressure < 110 mmHg [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The early aggressive management of the acute coagulopathy of trauma may improve survival in the trauma population. However, the timely identification of lethal exsanguination remains challenging. This study validated six scoring systems and algorithms to stratify patients for the risk of massive transfusion (MT) at a very early stage after trauma on one single dataset of severely injured patients derived from the TR-DGU (TraumaRegister DGU® of the German Trauma Society (DGU)) database. Methods Retrospective internal and external validation of six scoring systems and algorithms (four civilian and two military systems) to predict the risk of massive transfusion at a very early stage after trauma on one single dataset of severely injured patients derived from the TraumaRegister DGU® database (2002-2010). Scoring systems and algorithms assessed were: TASH (Trauma-Associated Severe Hemorrhage) score, PWH (Prince of Wales Hospital/Rainer) score, Vandromme score, ABC (Assessment of Blood Consumption/Nunez) score, Schreiber score and Larsen score. Data from 56,573 patients were screened to extract one complete dataset matching all variables needed to calculate all systems assessed in this study. Scores were applied and area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated. From the AUC curves the cut-off with the best relation of sensitivity-to-specificity was used to recalculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV). Results A total of 5,147 patients with blunt trauma (95%) was extracted from the TR-DGU. The mean age of patients was 45.7 ± 19.3 years with a mean ISS of 24.3 ± 13.2. The overall MT rate was 5.6% (n = 289). 95% (n = 4,889) patients had sustained a blunt trauma. The TASH score had the highest overall accuracy as reflected by an AUC of 0.889 followed by the PWH-Score (0.860). At the defined cut-off values for each score the highest sensitivity was observed for the Schreiber score (85.8%) but also the lowest specificity (61.7%). The TASH score at a cut-off ≥ 8.5 showed a sensitivity of 84.4% and also a high specificity (78.4%). The PWH score had a lower sensitivity (80.6%) with comparable specificity. The Larson score showed the lowest sensitivity (70.9%) at a specificity of 80.4%. Conclusions Weighted and more sophisticated systems such as TASH and PWH scores including higher numbers of variables perform superior over simple non-weighted models. Prospective validations are needed to improve the development process and use of scoring systems in the future.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Critical care (London, England)
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