Phospholipids and sport performance

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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.91). 02/2007; 4(1):5. DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-5
Source: PubMed


Phospholipids are essential components of all biological membranes. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) are Phosphatidyl-phospholipids that are required for normal cellular structure and function. The participation in physical activity often challenges a variety of physiological systems; consequently, the ability to maintain normal cellular function during activity can determine sporting performance. The participation in prolonged intense exercise has been shown to reduce circulatory choline concentrations in some individuals. As choline is a pre-cursor to the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine, this finding has encouraged researchers to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation with PC (or choline salts) could enhance sporting performance. Although the available data that evaluates the effects of PC supplementation on performance are equivocal, acute oral supplementation with PC (~0.2 g PC per kg body mass) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a variety of sporting activities where exercise has depleted circulatory choline concentrations. Short term oral supplementation with soy-derived PS (S-PS) has been reported to attenuate circulating cortisol concentrations, improve perceived well-being, and reduce perceived muscle soreness after exercise. More recently, short term oral supplementation (750 mg per day of S-PS for 10 days) has been demonstrated to improve exercise capacity during high intensity cycling and tended to increase performance during intermittent running. Although more research is warranted to determine minimum dietary Phospholipid requirements for optimal sporting performance, these findings suggest that some participants might benefit from dietary interventions that increase the intakes of PC and PS.

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Available from: Ralf Jäger
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    • "Although PC, DAG and G3P did not directly activate mTOR signaling in our cell culture studies, it remains possible that chronic oral administration could potentially increase PA pools by acting as a substrate for PA synthesis. Consistent with this possibility, previous studies have shown that certain phospholipids can improve athletic performance [26]. For example, PC increases endurance by preventing exercise induced declines in choline levels and PS by blunting exercise induced increases in cortisol [27] and improving mental performance under stress [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance. Methods In phase one, C2C12 myoblasts cells were stimulated with different phospholipids and phospholipid precursors derived from soy and egg sources. The ratio of phosphorylated p70 (P-p70-389) to total p70 was then used as readout for mTOR signaling. In phase two, resistance trained subjects (n = 28, 21 ± 3 years, 77 ± 4 kg, 176 ± 9 cm) consumed either 750 mg PA daily or placebo and each took part in an 8 week periodized resistance training program. Results In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%). In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo. Conclusion PA significantly activates mTOR and significantly improved responses in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and maximal strength to resistance exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Nutrition & Metabolism
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    • "One such nutrient is phosphatidylserine (PS). PS is a phospholipid found in cell membranes of most animals and plants [1]. In humans, PS is located in the internal layer of cell membranes where it serves many functions including regulation of receptors, enzymes, ion channels, and signaling molecules [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid found in cell membranes of most animals and plants. PS has been shown to reduce stress and increase performance in runners, cyclists and golfers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a PS containing formulation on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and after intense resistance exercise. 18 lower body, resistance trained, college aged males ingested 14 days of supplement (IQPLUS Focus, providing 400 mg of soy-derived PS) and a Placebo (PL), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over manner. Following 14 days of supplementation, participants performed an acute bout of lower body resistance training. Mood (Profile of Mood States, POMS) and cognitive function (Serial Subtraction Test, SST) were measured prior to, 5 minutes after, and 60 minutes after exercise. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 5, 15, 25, 40 and 60 minutes after exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma cortisol and testosterone. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. PS supplementation significantly reduced the time needed for a correct calculation on the SST by 20% (reduced by 1.27 s per calculation; PL: 6.4 s, PS: 5.13 s; p = 0.001), and reduced the total amount of errors by 39% (PL: 1.28 + .69, PS: .78 + .27, p = 0.53), and increased the amount of correct calculations by 13% (PL: 22.1 + 2.24, PS: 24.9 + 1.52, p = 0.07) prior to or in response to exercise compared to PL. Following exercise, there was no difference in SST scores between PS and PL. There were no significant changes in regards to mood or endocrine response to exercise as a result of PS supplementation. PS supplementation significantly increased cognitive function prior to exercise. Improved cognitive function could benefit athletes and non-athletes alike. PS did not appear to affect mood or endocrine response prior to or following resistance exercise.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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    • "Due to safety concerns about potential contamination by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in recent years, alternatives to BC-PS, such as soy derived PS (SB-PS), have been developed. SB-PS however, differs considerably in its fatty acid composition as compared to mammalian brain PS, and while SB-PS was shown to attenuate both physical [9] and mental stress [10,11], further research is required to determine its ability to promote cognitive functioning [12,13]. The safety of SB-PS was tested in a double-blind placebo controlled study on 120 elderly [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a naturally occurring phospholipid present in the inner leaflet of mammalian plasma membranes. Administration of PS extracted from bovine cortex (BC-PS), which contains high levels of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) attached to its backbone, resulted in positive effects on brain functions such as learning and memory. Recently, a novel marine-sourced PS with omega-3 LC-PUFA attached to its backbone was developed (PS-DHA). In the present study, we evaluated the safety profile of the novel PS preparation in non-demented elderly with memory complaints. The efficacy study of this novel formulation indicated that PS-DHA may ameliorate cognitive deficits in non-demented elderly population. 157 non-demented elderly participants with memory complaints were randomized to receive either PS-DHA (300 mg PS/day) or placebo for 15 weeks. Standard biochemical and hematological safety parameters, blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated at baseline and endpoint. 122 participants continued into an open-label extension for additional 15 weeks, in which they all consumed PS-DHA (100 mg PS/day) and were evaluated for their blood pressure, heart rate and weight at endpoint. Adverse events were monitored throughout the double-blind and open-label phases. 131 participants completed the double-blind phase. No significant differences were found in any of the tested safety parameters between the study groups, or within each group. 121 participants completed the open-label phase. At the end of this phase, there was a reduction in resting diastolic blood pressure and a slight weight gain among participants who consumed PS-DHA for 30 weeks. The results of this study indicate that consumption of PS-DHA at a dosage of 300 mg PS/day for 15 weeks, or 100 mg PS/day for 30 weeks, is safe, well tolerated, and does not produce any negative effects in the tested parameters. clinicaltrials. gov, identifier: NCT00437983.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · BMC Neurology
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