Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, PO Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan.
Singapore medical journal (Impact Factor: 0.6). 11/2007; 48(10):906-10.
Source: PubMed


Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and a lighter meal before sunrise. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns during Ramadan fasting.
This study was carried out during Ramadan in October 2004. A total of 57 female subjects were recruited from The Hashemite University in Jordan. Body weight, fat percentage, muscle mass, and percentage body water content were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Estimated food records over a duration of three days were used to assess the intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and sugars before and during Ramadan fasting. Physical activity patterns were determined from a three-day activity diary before and during Ramadan fasting; the amount of physical activity was expressed as the physical activity level.
Body weight and BMI decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting. The mean energy and nutrients intake before Ramadan (energy; percent carbohydrates:protein:fat was 1,252; 56:12:33) and during Ramadan (1,171; 56:13:34) were not significantly different. The mean physical activity level was 1.54 before Ramadan and 1.51 during Ramadan, and this was also not significantly different.
This study revealed that there was a significant weight loss during Ramadan. Estimates of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and sugar did not change, despite the reduction in the number of meals taken. The overall activity patterns remained similar.

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    • "As mentioned earlier, the significant weight loss and reduced BMI during Ramadan was an expected outcome (at least in 12 other studies) especially when correct fasting ethics were practiced (Ibrahim et al. 2011; Mafauzy et al. 1990; Poh et al. 1996; Haghdoost & Pooranjbar 2009; Ziaee et al. 2006; Memari et al. 2011; Al-Hourani & Atoum 2009; Mansi 2007; Khaled & Belbraouet 2009; Al-Numair 2006; Sadiya et al. 2011, Hajek et al. 2012). As a result of this Ramadan weight loss all body composition measurements (body fat and subcutaneous fat percentage, visceral fat level) were significantly reduced except for the skeletal muscle percentage. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences
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    • "Many studies have assessed the effects of the Ramadan fast on different metabolic and anthropometric parameters, but have noted conflicting results. More specifically, some studies noted decreases in body weight and body mass index (BMI) during the Ramadan fast [1] [2] [3] [4] [5], while others noted no significant differences in these same variables when assessed prior to, during, and/or following the Ramadan fast [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the variations in eating behavior, appetite ratings, satiety efficiency, energy expenditure, anthropometric and metabolic profile markers prior to, during as well as 1 and 4 months after Ramadan in normal-weight and obese men. Anthropometric, energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry and accelerometry), metabolic (fasting blood sample), appetite (visual analogue scales), and eating behavior (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) measurements were performed in 10 normal-weight (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 24.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 10 obese (age: 27.0 ± 4.5 years; BMI: 34.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2) men. The satiety quotient (SQ) was calculated 180 minutes after breakfast consumption. All anthropometric variables, as well as resting and total energy expenditure, were greater in obese compared to normal-weight participants (P = 0.02–0.0001). Similarly, obese participants had greater triglycerides, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance concentrations (P = 0.02–0.002). Greater apolipoprotein B, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein concentrations were noted during Ramadan (P = 0.04–0.0001). Dietary restraint scores were also greater during Ramadan ( P = 0.0001 ). No differences in anthropometry, other metabolic profile markers, energy expenditure, appetite ratings, and SQ were noted across sessions. Lastly, changes in anthropometric measurements correlated with delta metabolic profile markers, as well as changes in disinhibition eating behavior trait and dietary restraint scores. The Ramadan fast led to increases in certain metabolic profile markers despite no changes in appetite and anthropometry.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of obesity
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    • "Many physiological and psychological changes are observed during RIF [14]. Despite the marked changes in food intake habits, some studies showed that RIF has no effect on body weight or body mass index (BMI) [14– 17], while other studies showed that RIF is associated with significant weight loss [18] [19] [20]. On the other hand, Ramadan fasting showed no significant change in levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) as indicators of lipid peroxidation, or protein carbonyl, with a slight significant reduction of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes [16]. "

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