Vasculoprotective potential of olive oil components. Mol Nutr Food Res

Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.6). 10/2007; 51(10):1225-34. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200600305
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and clinical studies found that the traditional Mediterranean-style diet is associated with significantly lower mortality from coronary artery disease. Although it is difficult to isolate individual dietary factors, cumulative evidence suggests that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed cardiovascular benefit. Olive oil is a priceless source of vitamins and polyphenolic antioxidants, and has a balanced ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There are multiple mechanisms by which olive oil might impact the development of atherosclerosis. Olive oil decreases LDL-cholesterol and increases HDL-cholesterol, and also reduces oxidative stress due to polyphenols, which are able to scavenge free radicals and protect LDL from oxidation. In addition, olive oil components may interfere with the inflammatory response within atherosclerotic lesion, by inhibiting endothelial activation involved in monocyte recruitment during early atherogenesis and macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes, thus improving vascular stability. Other vasculoprotective mechanisms by olive oil components derive from anti-thrombotic and anti-hypertensive actions. The available data support the need to preserve certain dietary traditions, such as olive oil consumption, to counteract the burden of cardiovascular disease.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Egeria Scoditti, Apr 10, 2014
  • Source
    • "Our data strengthen the nutritional relevance of the phenolic fraction in olive oil in the aforementioned claims for the health promoting effects of the MD. Virgin olive oil, an excellent source of oleic acid, vitamin E and nonessential nutrients , greatly contributes to the low incidence of CVD associated with an adherence to this dietary habit in that almost all cardiovascular risk factors can be positively modulated by olive oil constituents (Carluccio et al., 2007). In this respect, there is a general agreement that the health promoting effects of olive oil intake result from the combined properties of all its constituents, including polyphenols (López-Miranda et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic antioxidant naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effects of HT on the oxidative and morphological alterations induced by mercury (Hg) in intact human erythrocytes. These cells preferentially accumulate this toxic heavy metal; more importantly, Hg-induced echinocyte formation correlates with increased coagulability of these cells. Our results indicate that HT treatment (10-50 µM) prevents the increase in hemolysis and Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS) generation induced by exposure of cells to micromolar HgCl2 concentrations as well as the decrease in GSH intracellular levels; moreover, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy, the morphological alterations are also significantly reduced by HT co-treatment. Taken together our data provide the first experimental evidence that HT has the potential to counteract mercury toxicity. The reported effect may be regarded as an additional mechanism underlying the beneficial cardio-protective effects of this dietary antioxidant, also endowed with significant anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Food and Chemical Toxicology
  • Source
    • "Dietary ingestion of olive oil has been also reported to have other physiological effects such as lowering serum cholesterol levels, suppressing certain types of cancer, enhancing liver function and reducing the effects of aging or heart diseases. In addition, the consumption of olive oil is related to the full of LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure, which are associated with the reduction of coronary diseases and age effects (La Lastra et al., 2001; Carluccio et al., 2007; Chiacchierini et al., 2007; Aliakbarian et al., 2008). In Da Silva et al. (2010) added that the olive oil composition constitutes of 71 g/100 g of mono unsaturated fatty acids; which are beneficial to health and the main active components of olive oil are phenolic acids and mono unsaturated fatty acids. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Olive oil (Olea europaea L.) which extracted by pressure system from Koroneiki olive fruit variety by using 2% NaCl during malaxation step was used in manufacture of modified butter blends. Different ratios (5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) olive oil/butter oil were applied to serve 4 treatments (A, B, C and D). The resultant modified butter blends were stored at 5±1°C for 6 weeks and assayed for organoleptic, physical and chemical properties. Obtained results showed that Free Fatty Acids (FFA) contents were increased by increasing oil percent either fresh or during cold storage. Peroxide Value (PV) took the same trend of FFA. On the other hand, Iodine Value (IV) increased by increasing the percent of olive oil and decreased gradually during storage at 5±1°C. Refractive Index (RI) was proportionally decreased by increasing of addition level of olive oil. Oxidative stability was also gradually increased by increasing percentage of oil and decreased during storage. Melting point took the same trend of RI. On the other, obtained data revealed that the modified butter blend made with 10% olive oil was the best treatment and it was acceptable for appearance, consistency and flavor. It gained the highest degrees, when fresh and during cold storage (5±1°C). Statistical analysis showed significant differences between oil percentage and storage period at (p≤0.05). On the other side, fatty acid profile indicated that palmatic acid (C16:0) as saturated fatty acids and oleic acid (C18:1) as mono unsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in control and all treatments. SO, it could be concluded that olive oil can be successfully used in preparing modified butter blend with good spreadability and satisfied properties.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · American Journal of Food Technology
  • Source
    • "Unlike other vegetable oils, the olive oil contains high doses of micronutrients such as polyphenols (0.1-1g/kg), tocopherols, triterpenoids and some other components [108]. Virgin olive oil is especially enriched with beneficial micronutrients because refination of olive oil leads to the loss of 80% of micronutrients. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The endothelium represents not only a simple cellular monolayer that lines the vascular tree in humans and other vertebrates. Depending on the location, the endothelium shows significant morphological and functional heterogeneity through differentiated expression of pro- and anticoagulant factors, presence and frequency of intercellular contacts, variable contractility, cell shape, and volume. Altogether, these properties are crucial for adjustment of the endothelial function and further maintenance of the adequate homeostasis in response in local microenvironmental changes. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a critical role in coordinated regulation of blood flow. This is achieved due to the capacity of ECs to create the active anti-thrombotic surface that supports blood fluidity and transfer of blood cells and biomolecules. However, in certain vascular regions that can occur in inflamed sites or in sites with high hydrodynamic shear stress, ECs could lost their anti-thrombotic properties and switch their normal quiescent phenotype towards the prothrombotic, proadhesion, and proinflammatory state. In such an athero-prone site, the proper endothelial function is impaired that increases risk for formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. The endothelial dysfunction not only precedes atherosclerosis but greatly contributes to atherogenesis in all disease stages. Healthy lifestyle and regular intake of correct antioxidant-rich diet such as fresh fruits, vegetables, olive oil, red wine, and tea have beneficial effects on endothelial function and could therefore reduce the cardiovascular risk.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Show more