Results of Modified Latarjet Reconstruction in Patients With Anteroinferior Instability and Significant Bone Loss
The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the modified Latarjet procedure for shoulder instability associated with an inverted-pear glenoid (bone loss of at least 25% of the width of the inferior glenoid) or an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion.
From March 1996 to December 2002, 102 patients underwent an open Latarjet procedure for shoulder instability with an inverted-pear glenoid, with or without an associated engaging Hill-Sachs lesion, by the 2 senior authors (S.S.B. and J.F.D.), and 47 of them were available for follow-up physical examination. The remaining 55 patients were contacted by telephone or letter to see if they had had recurrent dislocation or subluxation. The mean age of the patients was 26.5 +/- 6.6 years (range, 16 to 41 years). There were 46 male patients and 1 female patient. Preoperatively, mean forward elevation was 177.2 degrees +/- 13.6 degrees (range, 90 degrees to 180 degrees) and mean external rotation with the arm at the side was 55.3 degrees +/- 16.1 degrees (range, 0 degrees to 80 degrees). All patients had a positive apprehension sign preoperatively. The median number of dislocations before surgery was 6, with 20 patients having had more than 15 dislocations preoperatively.
The mean follow-up time for the 47 patients who were personally examined was 59.0 +/- 18.5 months (range, 32 to 108 months). Postoperatively, mean forward elevation was 179.6 degrees +/- 2.0 degrees (range, 170 degrees to 180 degrees; gain of 2.4 degrees) and external rotation with the arm at the side was 50.2 degrees +/- 12.6 degrees (range, 22 degrees to 78 degrees; loss of 5.1 degrees). As for postoperative functional scores, the mean Constant score was 94.4 and the mean Walch-Duplay score was 91.7. None of these 47 patients showed any further dislocation, and 1 of them still had a positive apprehension sign (2.2%) indicating subluxation. However, 4 patients out of the total 102 who underwent the modified Latarjet procedure had a recurrence. With 4 recurrent dislocations and 1 recurrent subluxation, there was a 4.9% recurrence rate. The 4 patients with recurrent dislocations were not among the 47 who returned for personal follow-up evaluation.
The 2 senior authors (S.S.B. and J.F.D.) have previously reported an unacceptably high recurrence rate (67%) for arthroscopic Bankart repair in the presence of an inverted-pear glenoid with or without an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion. They have recommended an open modified Latarjet procedure in such patients. The present study confirms the validity of that recommendation, because the same 2 surgeons have had only a 4.9% recurrence rate in that same category of patient at a mean follow-up of 59 months. Furthermore, the results of this study show the efficacy of the modified Latarjet procedure in the extremely challenging category of patients who present with such dramatic bone loss that soft-tissue reconstruction, either open or arthroscopic, is not a reasonable option.
Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Available from: Randy Mascarenhas
- "The mean age of the patients was 31.6 years; 10.5% were female and the combined mean follow-up was 55.6 months. The study by Burkhart et al.  looked at the open modified Latarjet technique while the remainder of the studies looked at either an open allograft bone block technique , an open J-graft autograft technique , or an open iliac crest autograft bone block technique [53, 59, 60]. All patients across the various studies were also treated with a capsulorrhaphy. "
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ABSTRACT: Recurrent shoulder instability and resultant glenoid and humeral head bone loss are not infrequently encountered in the population today, specifically in young, athletic patients. This review on the management of bone loss in recurrent glenohumeral instability discusses the relevant shoulder anatomy that provides stability to the shoulder joint, relevant history and physical examination findings pertinent to recurrent shoulder instability, and the proper radiological imaging choices in its workup. Operative treatments that can be used to treat both glenoid and humeral head bone loss are outlined. These include coracoid transfer procedures and allograft/autograft reconstruction at the glenoid, as well as humeral head disimpaction/humeroplasty, remplissage, humeral osseous allograft reconstruction, rotational osteotomy, partial humeral head arthroplasty, and hemiarthroplasty on the humeral side. Clinical outcomes studies reporting general results of these techniques are highlighted.
Available from: Boileau Pascal
- "The surgical treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability associated with severe glenoid defects and capsular deficiency remains challenging [8, 13, 32, 38, 39]. In these circumstances, the combined capsular and bone deficiency would render performing a Bankart procedure difficult and unreliable [7, 10, 20, 31, 42, 47, 49, 51]. It has been shown that patients with severe glenoid bone defects, involving more than 20% of the glenoid surface, risk failure after isolated arthroscopic soft tissue (ie, Bankart) procedures [7–9, 13, 15, 26, 32, 34, 38, 39, 51]. "
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ABSTRACT: Arthroscopic Bankart repair alone cannot restore shoulder stability in patients with glenoid bone loss involving more than 20% of the glenoid surface. Coracoid transposition to prevent recurrent shoulder dislocation according to Bristow-Latarjet is an efficient but controversial procedure.
Available from: Rogerio Serpone Bueno
- "However, the percentage that should indicate the use of a bone graft needs to be more precise, as this procedure can have complications [23,24]. On the other hand, lack of an implant may be associated with recurrences of luxation or subluxation, as the stabilizing mechanism of the shoulder has not been corrected. "
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to establish values and parameters using multislice reconstruction in axial computerized tomography (CT) in order to quantify the erosion of the glenoid cavity in cases of shoulder instability.
We studied two groups using CT. Group I had normal subjects and Group II had patients with shoulder instability. We measured values of the vertical segment, the superior horizontal, medial and inferior segments, and also calculated the ratio of the horizontal superior and inferior segments of the glenoid cavity in both normal subjects and those with shoulder instability. These variables were recorded during arthroscopy for cases with shoulder instability.
the mean values were 40.87 mm, 17.86 mm, 26.50 mm, 22.86 mm and 0.79 for vertical segment, the superior horizontal, medial and inferior segments, and the ratio between horizontal superior and inferior segments of the glenoid cavity respectively, in normal subjects. For subjects with unstable shoulders the mean values were 37.33 mm, 20.83 mm, 23.07 mm and 0.91 respectively. Arthroscopic measurements yielded an inferior segment value of 24.48 mm with a loss of 2.39 mm (17.57%). The ratio between the superior and inferior segments of the glenoid cavity was 0.79. This value can be used as a normative value for evaluating degree of erosion of the anterior border of the glenoid cavity. However, values found using CT should not be used on a comparative basis with values found during arthroscopy.
Computerized tomographic measurements of the glenoid cavity yielded reliable values consistent with those in the literature.
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