Article

Variability of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Densities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Water and Oysters

University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564, USA.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 12/2007; 73(23):7589-96. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01700-07
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily
due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it
is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with
respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations
of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression
analyses indicated significant associations (P < 0.001) between total V. parahaemolyticus densities and salinity, as well as turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site.
Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively.
In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both
sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized.

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    • "Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been commonly associated with infections in aquatic organisms. In addition, it is a major concern for human health because it is a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide (DePaola et al., 2003; Gopal et al., 2005; Zimmerman et al., 2007; Turner et al., 2013). In Mexican shrimp hatcheries, the presence of VP is monitored frequently and has been associated with necrosis, slow growth, muscle opacity, anorexia, and mortality during seed production (Balcázar et al., 2007; Aguirre-Guzmán et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important cause of disease, mortality, and economical losses in the shrimp aquaculture industry. Bacteriophages are natural bio-controlling agents, broadly recognized for their ability to reduce pathogen populations. Hence, in the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of phage therapy in the prevention and control of vibriosis in Litopenaeus vannamei. Vibriosis was induced in shrimp larvae with 2 × 106 CFU mL− 1 of V. parahaemolyticus. The infected larvae were treated with different doses of selected phages and their efficacy was evaluated at different times after their application. Results revealed that selected lytic phages (A3S and Vpms1) are effective to reduce mortality caused by V. parahaemolyticus. In both cases, the early application (at 6 h post-infection) was effective to avoid mortality. Low multiplicity of infection (MOI) values (< 0.1) were enough to counteract V. parahaemolyticus infection. Delayed phage applications (> 6 h post-infection) hindered mortality and the progress of infection. This study provides the basis for the use of bacteriophages in the prevention and control of V. parahaemolyticus in shrimps.
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    • "Results from studies by DePaola et al. (2003); Parveen et al. (2008), and Zimmerman et al. (2007) also apply to data from this site. The maximum water temperature (33.8 °C) observed at one of Zimmerman&apos;s (2007) MS sites was the same as the maximum water temperature (34 °C) seen at area 2– 12 in the present study. 2. MS—area 6–salinities were 3–25 ppt, and temperatures 26–31 °C. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram negative, halophilic bacterium that is ubiquitous in warm, tropical waters throughout the world. It is a major cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is generally associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially oysters. This study presents a snapshot of total V. parahaemolyticus densities in surface waters and shellstock American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from open and closed shellfish harvesting areas, as well as "more rural areas" on two different US coasts, the Atlantic and the Gulf. Sampling was conducted from 2001 to 2003 at five sites near Charleston/Georgetown, SC and at four locations in the Gulfport/Pascagoula, MS area. V. parahaemolyticus numbers were determined by a direct plating method using an alkaline-phosphatase-labeled DNA probe targeting the species-specific thermolabile hemolysin gene (tlh) that was used for identification of bacterial isolates. The greatest difference between the two coasts was salinity; mean salinity in SC surface waters was 32.9 ppt, whereas the mean salinity in MS waters was 19.2 ppt, indicating more freshwater input into MS shellfish harvesting areas during the study period. The mean V. parahaemolyticus numbers in oysters were almost identical between the two states (567.4 vs. 560.1 CFU/g). Bacterial numbers in the majority of surface water samples from both states were at or below the limit of detection (LOD = <10 CFU/mL). The bacterial concentrations determined during this study predict a low public health risk from consumption of oysters in shellfish growing areas on either the Gulf or the Atlantic US coast.
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    • "Despite its broad distribution, V. parahemolyticus infections in the United States of America are most common in individuals living in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico [2-4]. Water temperature, salinity and turbidity correlate with increased densities of pathogenic V. parahemolyticus [2,5]. Filter feeding animals such as shellfish, blue crabs, finfish and planktonic copepods concentrate V. parahemolyticus. "
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