Psychological stress and disease. JAMA, 298, 1685-1687
Despite widespread public belief that psychological stress leads to disease, the biomedical community remains skeptical of this conclusion. In this Commentary, we discuss the plausibility of the belief that stress contributes to a variety of disease processes and summarize the role of stress in 4 major diseases: clinical depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and cancer.Corresponding Author: Sheldon Cohen, PhD, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (firstname.lastname@example.org).Financial Disclosures: Dr Cohen reported consulting for Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies Inc on issues of stress measurement. None of the other authors reported any financial disclosures.Role of the Sponsor: This article is based on a paper commissioned by the Institute of Medicine Committee on Psychosocial Services to Cancer Patients and Families in Community Settings. The Institute of Medicine suggested the topic but played no role in structuring the paper; in the collection, management, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.Additional Contributions: We thank David Krantz, PhD (Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences), Margaret Kemeny, PhD (School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco), Stephen Manuck, PhD, and Karen Matthews, PhD (University of Pittsburgh), and Scott Monroe, PhD (Notre Dame University), for their comments on an earlier draft; the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health and members of the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center (HL65111, HL65112) for their intellectual support; and Ellen Conser, MA, Ashleigh Molz, and Wesley Barnhart, BS (Carnegie Mellon University), for assistance in preparing the manuscript. None of these individuals received any extra compensation for their contributions.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The Perceived Stress Scale Cohen (J Health Soc Behav 24:385-96, 1983) is a widely and well-established self-report scale measuring perceived stress. However, the German version of the PSS-10 has not yet been validated. Thus, the purposes of this representative study were to psychometrically evaluate the PSS-10, and to provide norm values for the German population. Methods The PSS-10 and standardized scales of depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and life satisfaction were administered to a representative, randomly selected German community sample consisting of 1315 females and 1148 male participants in the age range from 14 to 90 years. Results The results demonstrated a good internal consistency and construct validity. Perceived stress was consistently associated with depression, anxiety, fatigue, procrastination and reduced life satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a bi-dimensional structure with two related latent factors. Regarding demographic variables, women reported a higher level of stress than men. Perceived stress decreased with higher education, income and employment status. Older and married participants felt less stressed than younger and unmarried participants. Conclusion The PSS-10 is a reliable, valid and economic instrument for assessing perceived stress. As psychological stress is associated with an increased risk of diseases, identifying subpopulations with higher levels of stress is essential. Due to the dependency of the perceived stress level on demographic variables, particularly age and sex, differentiated norm values are needed, which are provided in this paper.0Comments 0Citations
- "Therefore future longitudinal studies are needed to detect developments and changes of perceived stress over the time. However, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provided norm values for the PSS-10 basing on a large and randomly selected population, which so far only exists for the American [4, 11] and Swedish population . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of elder abuse in a representative sample of older people in Aotearoa New Zealand. Analysis was conducted on responses from the second wave of the New Zealand Longitu- dinal Study of Ageing (NZLSA) omnibus survey of 3,923 adults aged 50-87 years. Using the elder mistreatment screening questions, the sample was split between those who identified of having experienced elder abuse (n = 529) and those who did not (n = 2417) from a large population-based study to compare on 19 variables (i.e. age, gender, marital status, living arrangement, education levels, ethnicity, personal income, total number of health conditions, physical health, mental health, ability to get around, economic wellbeing, loneliness, social and emotional loneliness, depression, happiness, satisfaction with life and quality of life). Significant differences were found on 16 of the variables assessed. Results suggested that those who have experienced elder abuse had a higher level of loneliness and poor economic wellbeing. They were more likely to experience depression, have poorer mental health and be less happy. The experience of abuse had significant impact on their satisfaction with life and overall quality of life. A better understanding of these risk factors associated with elder abuse in aging population will assist with both prevention and intervention.0Comments 0Citations
- "It negatively impacts older adults' overall health and quality of life, resulting in psychological or emotional distress, depression, damage to self-confidence or self-esteem, pain and injury, decreased functional ability, increased dependency, loss of autonomy, withdrawal and social isolation (Choi and Mayer, 2000; Lachs, Williams, O'Brien, Pillemer & Charlson, 1998; McDonald and Collins, 2000). It is well documented that stressful life events have detrimental effects on physical and mental health (Cohen, Janicki-Deverts & Miller, 2007; Pearlin, Schieman, Fazio & Meersman, 2005). Stress process theory contends that physical and emotional wellbeing is negatively associated with the number and frequency of stressful life events (Pearlin et al., 2005; Thoits, 1995). "
- "Stress, anxiety and depression appears to play important roles in both asthma and allergy, but also in EI (Study I), various measures of distress were key output variables in Study II, and such measures are important determinants for coping and social support, which was the focus of Study III. Accordingly, the field of PNI provides substantial evidence for factors such as stress (Cohen et al., 2007 ), depression (), social support (Uchino, 2006) and negative emotions (Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002) influencing both cellular and humoral indicators of immune status and function. It has been suggested that there is a potential negative loop, such that atopy may lead to psychological distress, which, in turn, may reinforce the atopy outcome (Chida et al., 2008). "