Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma
CD4+ CD25+ forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ T(reg) accumulate in malignant tumors and negatively regulate anti-tumor immunity. To determine the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (T(reg)), we conducted a retrospective study on 164 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent curative hepatic resection.
We investigated the number of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3+ T(reg) in formalin-fixed HCC specimens. The number of FOXP3+ T(reg) for each case was calculated as the total number of positive cells per 10 high-power fields (HPF) on light microscopy. Long-term survival rate after resection according to the number of FOXP3+ T(reg) was accessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.
The mean and median numbers of tumor-infiltrating T(reg) were 29.0 and 14 per 10 HPF for FOXP3+ T(reg). The number of FOXP3+ T(reg) was positively correlated with preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. The disease-free survival rate was significantly lower in patients with high T(reg) counts (> or =14, n=84) than in those with low T(reg) counts (<14, n=80) (13.6% vs. 25.7% at 5 years; P=0.02). By multivariate analysis, the high T(reg) counts, presence of portal vein invasion, and elevation of preoperative aspartate aminotransferase level were independent predictive factors of tumor recurrence.
The high number of tumor-infiltrating T(reg) is an independent predictive factor of tumor recurrence after hepatic resection for HCC.
Available from: Toos Daemen
- "Disease / progression / relapse-free survival Bates 2006 De Jong 2009 De Kruijf 2010 Li 2009 Perrone 2008 Sasaki 2008 Sinicrope 2009 Subtotal (95% CI) "
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ABSTRACT: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are often found in tumours, presumably reflecting an immune response against the tumour. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis, aiming to establish pooled estimates for survival outcomes based on the presence of TILs in cancer.
A Pubmed and Embase literature search was designed. Studies were included, in which the prognostic significance of intratumoural CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ lymphocytes, as well as ratios between these subsets, were determined in solid tumours.
In pooled analysis, CD3+ TILs had a positive effect on survival with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.78) for death, as did CD8+ TILs with a HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.62-0.82). FoxP3+ regulatory TILs were not linked to overall survival, with a HR of 1.19 (95% CI 0.84-1.67). The CD8/FoxP3 ratio produced a more impressive HR (risk of death: HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68), but was used in relatively few studies. Sample size and follow-up time seemed to influence study outcomes.
Any future studies should be carefully designed, to prevent overestimating the effect of TILs on prognosis. In this context, ratios between TIL subsets may be more informative.
Available from: Giulio C Spagnoli
- "Results of this study also identified several other types of TILs within the tumor center as having a positive impact on prognosis, for example FoxP3. The prognostic role of Tregs seems to vary significantly by tumor type possibly indicating differential roles of these cells in a tissue-dependent manner –. In colorectal cancer, most studies are in line with our findings indicating that a high number of FoxP3 Tregs is a favourable prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival time , , . "
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ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests a confounding effect of mismatch repair (MMR) status on immune response in colorectal cancer. The identification of innate and adaptive immune cells, that can complement the established prognostic effect of CD8 in MMR-proficient colorectal cancers patients, representing 85% of all cases, has not been performed.
Colorectal cancers from a test (n=1197) and external validation (n=209) cohort of MMR-proficient colorectal cancers were mounted onto single and multiple punch tissue microarrays. Immunohistochemical quantification (score 0-3) was performed for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD68, CD163, FoxP3, GranzymeB, iNOS, mast cell tryptase, MUM1, PD1 and TIA-1 tumor-infiltrating (TILs) reactive cells. Coexpression experiments on fresh colorectal cancer specimens using specific cell population markers were performed. In the test group, higher numbers of CD3+ (p<0.001), CD4+ (p=0.029), CD8+ (p<0.001), CD45RO+ (p=0.048), FoxP3+ (p<0.001), GranzymeB+ (p<0.001), iNOS+ (p=0.035), MUM1+ (p=0.014), PD1+ (p=0.034) and TIA-1+ TILs (p<0.001) were linked to favourable outcome. Adjusting for age, gender, TNM stage and post-operative therapy, higher CD8+ (p<0.001; HR (95%CI): 0.66 (0.64-0.68)) and TIA-1+ (p<0.001; HR (95%CI): 0.56 (0.5-0.6)) were independent prognostic factors. Moreover, among patients with CD8+ infiltrates, TIA-1 further stratified 355 (35.6%) patients into prognostic subgroups (p<0.001; HR (95%CI): 0.89 (95%CI: 0.8-0.9)). Results were confirmed on the validation cohort (p=0.006). TIA-1+ cells were mostly CD8+ (57%), but also stained for TCRγδ (22%), CD66b (13%) and only rarely for CD4+, macrophage and NK cell markers.
TIA-1 adds prognostic information to TNM stage and adjuvant therapy in MMR-proficient colorectal cancer patients. The prognostic effect of CD8+ TILs is confounded by the presence of TIA-1+ which translates into improved risk stratification for approximately 35% of all patients with MMR-proficient colorectal cancers.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an essential role in controlling immune responses to self and non-self antigens. It has been reported that the tumor infiltrating Treg cells are associated with a poorer prognosis in some cancers by suppressing the proliferation of effector T lymphocyte (i.e., cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)) to prohibit an adequate tumor-specific immune response, thus enabling tumor growth [18-23]. In contrast, other researchers have reported that the tumor infiltrating Treg cells are either linked to a better prognosis or did not affect prognosis in some malignancies such as follicular lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma [24-26]. "
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ABSTRACT: Increasing amounts of evidence indicate that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are correlated with the prognosis of cancer patients. This study focuses on the association between the densities of tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), activated CTL, regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg) and Th17 lymphocytes, and the prognosis and clinicopathological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients.
Double immunohistochemical staining was performed in 106 biopsy specimens from newly diagnosed NPC patients. Prognostic values of infiltrating lymphocyte densities were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression. The density of CD8+ TIL was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis, while the density of Foxp3+ TIL was negatively associated with T stage (P < 0.05). For survival evaluation, the density of Foxp3+ TIL or Foxp3+ TIL combined with GrB+ TIL together was associated with better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P < 0.01) in all patients and in the patients with late-stage diseases (Stages III and IV, P < 0.01). Meanwhile a low density of CD8+TIL or high ratio of FOXP3+TIL to CD8+TIL was correlated with better PFS in early stage patients (Stages I and II, P < 0.05). No significant association was found between IL-17+ TIL and clinicopathological characteristic or survival of NPC patients.
Our study identifies for the first time the tumor infiltrating Foxp3+ TIL as an independent favorable factor in the prognosis of NPC patients, especially for the patients with late-stage diseases.
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