Three-dimensional tissue cytometer based on high-speed multiphoton microscopy

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
Cytometry Part A (Impact Factor: 2.93). 12/2007; 71(12):991-1002. DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.20470
Source: PubMed


Image cytometry technology has been extended to 3D based on high-speed multiphoton microscopy. This technique allows in situ study of tissue specimens preserving important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The imaging system was based on high-speed multiphoton microscopy (HSMPM) for 3D deep tissue imaging with minimal photodamage. Using appropriate fluorescent labels and a specimen translation stage, we could quantify cellular and biochemical states of tissues in a high throughput manner. This approach could assay tissue structures with subcellular resolution down to a few hundred micrometers deep. Its throughput could be quantified by the rate of volume imaging: 1.45 mm(3)/h with high resolution. For a tissue containing tightly packed, stratified cellular layers, this rate corresponded to sampling about 200 cells/s. We characterized the performance of 3D tissue cytometer by quantifying rare cell populations in 2D and 3D specimens in vitro. The measured population ratios, which were obtained by image analysis, agreed well with the expected ratios down to the ratio of 1/10(5). This technology was also applied to the detection of rare skin structures based on endogenous fluorophores. Sebaceous glands and a cell cluster at the base of a hair follicle were identified. Finally, the 3D tissue cytometer was applied to detect rare cells that had undergone homologous mitotic recombination in a novel transgenic mouse model, where recombination events could result in the expression of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein in the cells. 3D tissue cytometry based on HSMPM demonstrated its screening capability with high sensitivity and showed the possibility of studying cellular and biochemical states in tissues in situ. This technique will significantly expand the scope of cytometric studies to the biomedical problems where spatial and chemical relationships between cells and their tissue environments are important.

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    • "The average laser power incident upon the specimen was less than approximately 20 mW. This experiment utilized a nonvideo-rate two-photon system, although even higher throughput can be achieved using video rate two-photon image cytometers described previously (Kim et al. 2007b; Ragan et al. 2007). The laser beam was raster scanned across the sample plane by 500 Hz bandwidth x–y scanner mirrors (Cambridge Technology, Cambridge, MA). "
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    ABSTRACT: Site selective two-photon tissue image cytometry has previously been successfully applied to measure the number of rare cells in three-dimensional tissue specimens up to cubic millimetres in size. However, the extension of this approach for high-throughput quantification of cellular morphological states has not been demonstrated. In this paper, we report the use of site-selective tissue image cytometry for the study of homologous recombination (HR) events during cell division in the pancreas of transgenic mice. Since HRs are rare events, recombinant cells distribute sparsely inside the organ. A detailed measurement throughout the whole tissue is thus not practical. Instead, the site selective two-photon tissue cytometer incorporates a low magnification, wide field, one-photon imaging subsystem that rapidly identifies regions of interest containing recombinant cell clusters. Subsequently, high-resolution three-dimensional assays based on two-photon microscopy can be performed only in these regions of interest. We further show that three-dimensional morphology extraction algorithms can be used to analyse the resultant high-resolution two-photon image stacks providing information not only on the frequency and the distribution of these recombinant cell clusters and their constituent cells, but also on their morphology.
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