AIDS: Is There an Answer to the Global Pandemic? The Immune System in HIV Infection and Control
Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, United Kingdom. Viral Immunology
(Impact Factor: 1.45).
10/2007; 20(3):331-42. DOI: 10.1089/vim.2007.0044
HIV/AIDS continues to spread globally and remains a worldwide pandemic affecting about 40 million people. The prevention of infection remains paramount to vaccine studies. Although the best immune correlates for an efficacious HIV vaccine have not yet been discovered, progress has been made toward developing a vaccine. The identification of an effective antibody-binding site, targeted by a functional neutralizing antibody, and findings confirming that the Gag-specific responses are effective in protecting against disease progression are major advances in this field. This review highlights immunology-based developments in vaccine research and viral and host cell properties that could be employed to curb the spread of HIV.
Available from: David E Martin
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ABSTRACT: Existing antiretroviral treatments for HIV type-1 (HIV-1) disease are limited by problems of resistance and drug-drug interactions. Bevirimat is a novel HIV-1 maturation inhibitor with a mechanism of action that is distinct from other antiretroviral agents. Specific inhibition of the final rate-limiting step in Gag processing by bevirimat prevents release of mature capsid protein from its precursor (CA-SP1), resulting in the production of immature, non-infectious virus particles. Bevirimat inhibits replication of both wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates in vitro, achieving similar 50% inhibitory concentration values with both categories. Serial drug passage studies have identified six single amino acid substitutions that independently confer bevirimat resistance. These resistance mutations occur at or near the CA-SP1 cleavage site, which is not a known target for resistance to other antiretroviral drugs. Bevirimat has demonstrated a consistent pharmacokinetic profile in healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients, with peak plasma concentrations attained approximately 1-3 h after dosing. Plasma concentrations decrease in a log-linear manner with a mean plasma elimination halflife of 58-80 h, supporting once-daily dosing. Animal studies suggest that elimination of bevirimat is primarily by hepatic glucuronidation and hepatobiliary excretion. There is minimal renal elimination, with < 1% of the administered dose appearing in the urine. In responsive patients, bevirimat has demonstrated a robust dosedependent reduction in viral load (> 1.5 log10 copies/ml). Short-term administration (< or = 14 days) of bevirimat is well tolerated, even when used in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Further studies to evaluate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of bevirimat are currently underway.
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ABSTRACT: Cell surface receptors, such as the CCR5 chemokine receptors, represent key determinants of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into target cells. The CC-chemokine, RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), a ligand for CCR5, have been targeted to the lumen of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) using a KDEL (ER-retention signal) fusion termed RANTES-KDEL and this construct was found to prevent effectively transport of newly synthesized CCR5 to the cell surface. Lentiviral vectors have emerged as potent and versatile tools of gene transfer for basic and applied research are able to transduce nondividing cells and maintain sustained long-term expression of transgenes. For this reason, an HIV-based lentiviral vector expressing RANTES-KDEL, pLenti6/V5-R-K, was constructed and then cotransfected with the ViraPower Packaging Mix (pLP1, pLP2, and pLP/VSVG) into 293FT cells to produce a replication-incompetent lentivirus stock. The lentiviral stock was titrated using HeLa cells, and the expression of the gene of interest, RANTES, was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Based on the above results, the lentiviral stock was transduced into CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) separated magnetically from the cord blood (the purity was 96.8% evaluated by flow cytometry). Finally, the levels of p24 in the cultures of pLenti6/V5-R-K-transduced CD34(+) hHSC were detected after infection by HIV-1 DP1 (a R5-tropic HIV-1 strain, which was isolated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of China in Henan province in 2000 from a Chinese man who had asymptomatic HIV-1 infection with a history of blood transfusions). It was shown that pLenti6/V5-R-K transduction inhibited expression of the DP1 p24 antigen by 51%, 58% and 60% on the 4th, 7th and 10th day respectively (P<0.05).
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed saliva on cellular and antibody responses in an animal model.
The stimulatory and non-stimulatory saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy subjects and were then exposed to CS for 20 or 80 minutes. The CS-exposed saliva samples were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p) to male Balb/c mice. Then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and antibody responses to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was assessed. Moreover, the total white blood cells (WBC) counts and the blood lymphocytes counts were determined.
The mean of DTH responses of animal groups received 20 minutes or 80 minutes CS-exposed saliva samples was significantly lower than that observed in control group. Moreover, The mean titer of anti-SRBC antibody was significantly lower in animal groups who received 80 minutes CS-exposed stimulatory or non-stimulatory saliva as compared to control group (P < 0.04 and P < 0.002, respectively). The mean counts of blood lymphocytes in 80 minutes CS exposed-stimulatory saliva group was also significantly lower as compared to control group (P < 0.05).
These results show that the CS-exposed saliva samples have profound suppressive effects on both cellular and humoral immune response in a mouse animal model.
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