Systematic review: The comparative effectiveness of percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass graft surgery

Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research and Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-6019, USA.
Annals of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.81). 11/2007; 147(10):703-16.
Source: PubMed


The comparative effectiveness of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients in whom both procedures are feasible remains poorly understood.
To compare the effectiveness of PCI and CABG in patients for whom coronary revascularization is clinically indicated.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1966-2006); conference proceedings; and bibliographies of retrieved articles.
Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) reported in any language that compared clinical outcomes of PCI with those of CABG, and selected observational studies.
Information was extracted on study design, sample characteristics, interventions, and clinical outcomes.
The authors identified 23 RCTs in which 5019 patients were randomly assigned to PCI and 4944 patients were randomly assigned to CABG. The difference in survival after PCI or CABG was less than 1% over 10 years of follow-up. Survival did not differ between PCI and CABG for patients with diabetes in the 6 trials that reported on this subgroup. Procedure-related strokes were more common after CABG than after PCI (1.2% vs. 0.6%; risk difference, 0.6%; P = 0.002). Angina relief was greater after CABG than after PCI, with risk differences ranging from 5% to 8% at 1 to 5 years (P < 0.001). The absolute rates of angina relief at 5 years were 79% after PCI and 84% after CABG. Repeated revascularization was more common after PCI than after CABG (risk difference, 24% at 1 year and 33% at 5 years; P < 0.001); the absolute rates at 5 years were 46.1% after balloon angioplasty, 40.1% after PCI with stents, and 9.8% after CABG. In the observational studies, the CABG-PCI hazard ratio for death favored PCI among patients with the least severe disease and CABG among those with the most severe disease.
The RCTs were conducted in leading centers in selected patients. The authors could not assess whether comparative outcomes vary according to clinical factors, such as extent of coronary disease, ejection fraction, or previous procedures. Only 1 small trial used drug-eluting stents.
Compared with PCI, CABG was more effective in relieving angina and led to fewer repeated revascularizations but had a higher risk for procedural stroke. Survival to 10 years was similar for both procedures.

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    • "It is reported that there are more than 220 million people with diabetes worldwide and the number is expected to rise to 360 million by 2030 [3]. About one fifth of patients with unstable angina or non-ST evaluated myocardial infarction have diabetes mellitus, which is associated with advanced CAD, accounting for a higher rate of myocardial infarction and mortality [4–6]. As the leading cause of mortality among diabetic patients, cardiovascular disease accounts for up to 80% of diabetes-related deaths [7, 8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction We aim to compare the midterm outcomes between coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in diabetic patients who had multivessel coronary artery diseases (CAD). Material and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify the related clinical studies with a follow-up for 1 year at least. The endpoints were death, myocardial infarction, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results Finally, the analysis of ten studies involving 5,264 patients showed that patients with CABG had worse baseline characteristics, a higher rate of stable angina pectoris, a higher percentage of triple-vessel disease, higher incidence of chronic total occlusion and a higher SYNTAX score. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between the two groups. Additionally, the rates of myocardial infarction and MACCE were markedly decreased in the CABG group. Conclusions The strategy of CABG is better than PCI for diabetic patients with multivessel CAD. The CABG can significantly reduce the rates of myocardial infarction and MACCE and is comparable in mortality despite the worse baseline characteristics.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Archives of Medical Science
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    • "Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses comparing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) demonstrated similar longterm survival outcomes for PCI and CABG [1] [2] [3] [4]. However, these studies may not accurately reflect current clinical practice of coronary revascularization for following reasons. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although there have been several studies that compared the efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the impact of off-pump CABG (OPCAB) has not been well elucidated. The objective of the present study was to compare the outcomes after PCI, on-pump CABG (ONCAB), and OPCAB in patients with multivessel and/or left main disease. Among the 9877 patients undergoing first PCI using bare-metal stents or CABG who were enrolled in the CREDO-Kyoto Registry, 6327 patients with multivessel and/or left main disease were enrolled into the present study (67.9±9.8 years old). Among them, 3877 patients received PCI, 1388 ONCAB, and 1069 OPCAB. Median follow-up was 3.5 years. Comparing PCI with all CABG (ONCAB and OPCAB), propensity-score-adjusted all-cause mortality after PCI was higher than that CABG (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.37 (1.15-1.63), p<0.01). The incidence of stroke was lower after PCI than that after CABG (0.75 (0.59-0.96), p=0.02). CABG was associated with better survival outcomes than PCI in the elderly (interaction p=0.04). Comparing OPCAB with PCI or ONCAB, propensity-score-adjusted all-cause mortality after PCI was higher than that after OPCAB (1.50 (1.20-1.86), p<0.01). Adjusted mortality was similar between ONCAB and OPCAB (1.18 (0.93-1.51), p=0.33). The incidence of stroke after OPCAB was similar to that after PCI (0.98 (0.71-1.34), p>0.99), but incidence of stroke after ONCAB was higher than that after OPCAB (1.59 (1.16-2.18), p<0.01). In patients with multivessel and/or left main disease, CABG, particularly OPCAB, is associated with better survival outcomes than PCI using bare-metal stents. Survival outcomes are similar between ONCAB and OPCAB.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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    • "The SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) trial has shown that postoperative stroke is the Achilles' heel of coronary artery bypass (CAB) surgery when compared with percutaneous coronary intervention[1]. Indeed, a meta-analysis showed that procedure-related stroke risk was higher in patients undergoing CAB surgery than in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (1.2% vs 0.6%, p = 0.002)[2]. This suggests that more research and different treatment approaches are needed to prevent neurological complications after coronary artery bypass surgery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative stroke is the Achilles' heel of coronary artery bypass surgery compared with percutaneous coronary intervention. In this meta-analysis, we sought to determine the efficacy of the Heartstring proximal anastomotic device to reduce the risk of postoperative stroke after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Studies on the Heartstring device were identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus up to November 2010. The results were expressed as pooled proportions (%) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by the I(2) test and a random effects model was used. Eighteen articles were pertinent with this issue and we were able to retrieve data on the Heartstring anastomotic device in OPCAB from eight studies. Three studies were prospective and routine epi-aortic ultrasound was used in three studies. A total of 819 patients were enrolled in these eight studies and six of them suffered stroke postoperatively. Cumulative analysis showed a pooled rate of immediate postoperative stroke after OPCAB with the use of Heartstring of 1.9% (95% CI 0.8-4.5, I(2)=23%). Sensitivity analysis including the only three studies evaluating patients with diseased ascending aorta as detected at epi-aortic ultrasound showed that a pooled rate of stroke was 3.2% (95% CI 0.8-11.9, I(2)=0%). Six studies reported on immediate postoperative mortality and the pooled mortality rate was 1.9% (95% CI 0.1-3.4). The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the risk of stroke after OPCAB may not be markedly reduced by the use of Heartstring device. On the other hand, a rather low rate of stroke was observed among patients with diseased ascending aorta indicating its potential value in these patients. Most of studies included in this meta-analysis were of poor methodological quality, and properly conducted prospective studies are needed to get more conclusive results on the safety and efficacy of Heartstring anastomosis device.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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