Roth, A, Drummond, DC, Conrad, F, Hayes, ME, Kirpotin, DB, Benz, CC et al.. Anti-CD166 single chain antibody-mediated intracellular delivery of liposomal drugs to prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 6: 2737-2746
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
(Impact Factor: 5.68).
11/2007; 6(10):2737-46. DOI: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0140
Targeted delivery of small-molecule drugs has the potential to enhance selective killing of tumor cells. We have identified previously an internalizing single chain [single chain variable fragment (scFv)] antibody that targets prostate cancer cells and identified the target antigen as CD166. We report here the development of immunoliposomes using this anti-CD166 scFv (H3). We studied the effects of a panel of intracellularly delivered, anti-CD166 immunoliposomal small-molecule drugs on prostate cancer cells. Immunoliposomal formulations of topotecan, vinorelbine, and doxorubicin each showed efficient and targeted uptake by three prostate cancer cell lines (Du-145, PC3, and LNCaP). H3-immunoliposomal topotecan was the most effective in cytotoxicity assays on all three tumor cell lines, showing improved cytotoxic activity compared with nontargeted liposomal topotecan. Other drugs such as liposomal doxorubicin were highly effective against LNCaP but not PC3 or Du-145 cells, despite efficient intracellular delivery. Post-internalization events thus modulate the overall efficacy of intracellularly delivered liposomal drugs, contributing in some cases to the lower than expected activity in a cell line-dependent manner. Further studies on intracellular tracking of endocytosed liposomal drugs will help identify and overcome the barriers limiting the potency of liposomal drugs.
Available from: Graham Pockley
- "Gold-nanoparticles coated with pro-apoptotic peptides can damage mitochondria  and gold-peptide nano-assemblies targeting mitochondria have been shown to have more pronounced cancer cell killing properties . Alternatively, ionidamine liposomes can be used to enhance the treatment of drug-resistant cancers by acting on mitochondrial signaling pathways , or by delivering the redox cycler doxorubicin, as a source of ROS production, to cancer cell mitochondria . Retinoblastoma protein directly induces apoptosis at the mitochondria . "
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ABSTRACT: We have previously used a unique mouse monoclonal antibody cmHsp70.1 to demonstrate the selective presence of a membrane-bound form of Hsp70 (memHsp70) on a variety of leukemia cells and on single cell suspensions derived from solid tumors of different entities, but not on non-transformed cells or cells from corresponding ’healthy‘ tissue. This antibody can be used to image tumors in vivo and target them for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Tumor-specific expression of memHsp70 therefore has the potential to be exploited for theranostic purposes. Given the advantages of peptides as imaging and targeting agents, this study assessed whether a 14-mer tumor penetrating peptide (TPP; TKDNNLLGRFELSG), the sequence of which is derived from the oligomerization domain of Hsp70 which is expressed on the cell surface of tumor cells, can also be used for targeting membrane Hsp70 positive (memHsp70+) tumor cells, in vitro.
Available from: Richard Schwab
- "with 24 showing decreased and 19 showing increased expression in CD133+ cells relative to CD133− cells (Figure 3). Interestingly, 31 (25%) of the 124 highly expressed isoforms correspond to 18 genes currently under active investigation as drug targets for numerous cancers (specifically ABCG2 , ADAM10 , ALCAM , , BSG , CD151 , CD44 , CD47 , , CD9 –, CEACAM5 , , CEACAM6 , CXCR4 , EPCAM , ERBB2 , ICAM1 , IGF1R , NRP1 , NT5E , TRPM7 . Of note, the ABCG2 isoform (16X higher expression in the CD133+ subpopulation) and the CXCR4 isoform (4X higher expression in the CD133+ subpopulation) have previously been identified as biomarkers of lung cancer tumor initiating cells spared by cisplatin treatment . "
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ABSTRACT: The only therapeutic options that exist for squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC) are standard radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are hypothesized to account for therapeutic resistance, suggesting that CSCs must be specifically targeted. Here, we analyze the transcriptome of CSC and non-CSC subpopulations by RNA-seq to identify new potential therapeutic strategies for SCC.
We sorted a SCC into CD133- and CD133+ subpopulations and then examined both by copy number analysis (CNA) and whole genome and transcriptome sequencing. We analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) transcriptome data of 221 SCCs to determine the generality of our observations.
Both subpopulations highly expressed numerous mRNA isoforms whose protein products are active drug targets for other cancers; 31 (25%) correspond to 18 genes under active investigation as mAb targets and an additional 4 (3%) are of therapeutic interest. Moreover, we found evidence that both subpopulations were proliferatively driven by very high levels of c-Myc and the TRAIL long isoform (TRAILL) and that normal apoptotic responses to high expression of these genes was prevented through high levels of Mcl-1L and Bcl-xL and c-FlipL-isoforms for which drugs are now in clinical development. SCC RNA-seq data (n = 221) from TCGA supported our findings. Our analysis is inconsistent with the CSC concept that most cells in a cancer have lost their proliferative potential. Furthermore, our study suggests how to target both the CSC and non-CSC subpopulations with one treatment strategy.
Our study is relevant to SCC in particular for it presents numerous potential options to standard therapy that target the entire tumor. In so doing, it demonstrates how transcriptome sequencing provides insights into the molecular underpinnings of cancer propagating cells that, importantly, can be leveraged to identify new potential therapeutic options for cancers beyond what is possible with DNA sequencing.
Available from: Jon O Nagy
- "More recently, increased ALCAM expression has been linked to a variety of cancers including pancreatic, breast, prostate, and colorectal carcinomas and melanoma   . Furthermore, others have found that immunoliposomes coated with a recombinant anti-ALCAM monoclonal antibody were taken up by prostate cancer cell lines expressing this antigen . "
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ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in children, adolescents, and adults. Despite extensive surgery and adjuvant aggressive high-dose systemic chemotherapy with potentially severe bystander side effects, cure is attainable in about 70% of patients with localized disease and only 20%-30% of those patients with metastatic disease. Targeted therapies clearly are warranted in improving our treatment of this adolescent killer. However, a lack of osteosarcoma-associated/specific markers has hindered development of targeted therapeutics. We describe a novel osteosarcoma-associated cell surface antigen, ALCAM. We, then, create an engineered anti-ALCAM-hybrid polymerized liposomal nanoparticle immunoconjugate (α-AL-HPLN) to specifically target osteosarcoma cells and deliver a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, doxorubicin. We have demonstrated that α-AL-HPLNs have significantly enhanced cytotoxicity over untargeted HPLNs and over a conventional liposomal doxorubicin formulation. In this way, α-AL-HPLNs are a promising new strategy to specifically deliver cytotoxic agents in osteosarcoma.
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