Sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine in Warsaw (Poland)
Department of Dermatology, Warsaw Medical School, ul. Koszykowa 82a, 02-008 Warsaw, Poland.Contact Dermatitis (Impact Factor: 3.75). 12/2007; 57(5):347-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2007.01135.x
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many women and men now dye their hair. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a frequent and important component of permanent hair dye products; exposure to it may cause allergic contact sensitization, acute dermatitis, and severe facial oedema. To increase our understanding of PPD allergy, we reviewed published literature containing PPD patch test data from dermatitis patients and individuals in the general population. This was performed to estimate the median prevalence and the weighted average of PPD sensitization and thereby assess the burden of PPD-containing hair care products on health. Literature was examined using PubMed–MEDLINE, Biosis, and Science Citation Index. The median prevalence among dermatitis patients was 4.3% in Asia, 4% in Europe, and 6.2% in North America. A widespread increase in the prevalence of PPD sensitization was observed among Asian dermatitis patients. In Europe, a decrease in the 1970s was replaced by a plateau with steady, high prevalences ranging between 2% and 6%. The prevalence remained high in North America, although a decreasing tendency was observed. Contact allergy to PPD is an important health issue for both women and men. More stringent regulation and enforcement are required as public health measures to reduce the burden of disease that exposure to PPD has brought to populations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative hair dyes have repeatedly come to the attention of the dermatologic community owing to concerns about contact dermatitis. A review of the scientific literature provides insight into the prevalence of p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized individuals and on the prevalence of hair dye dermatitis in various types of patient and nonpatient populations mainly from Europe and from the United States and Asia. Most of the results are obtained through patch testing with PPD. PPD is one of the main oxidation colorants; however, patch-test prevalence of PPD is not equivalent to prevalence of hair dye allergy. An analysis shows no clear increase in the frequency of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in eczema patients and in the general population. All the parameters through which the frequency of hair dye dermatitis resulting from exposure to PPD is evaluated have been stable in Europe, with a few exceptions that are discussed in the review. There is a statistically significant decrease (p < .0001) in the prevalence of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in North America (1970 to 2002). Data from studies in Asia are difficult to interpret. Pooled prevalence rates of positive patch-test reactions to PPD were calculated for the three continents.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.