Visualization of Charge-Carrier Propagation in Water

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
Langmuir (Impact Factor: 4.46). 12/2007; 23(23):11890-5. DOI: 10.1021/la701742v
Source: PubMed


The electrical properties of water in the region between parallel electrodes were investigated using pH indicator dyes. Different pH values corresponded to different colors, which could be registered by a video camera. Imposition of electrical current was able to produce zones of constant pH around, and well beyond each electrode: extremely low pH around the positive electrode and extremely high pH around the negative electrode. The border between alkaline and acid zones was jagged and separated by only a narrow layer of water with neutral pH. When the water was replaced by various salt solutions, similar zones were observed. Again, passage of current produced large zones of extreme pH values near and beyond each electrode. Alkaline zones appeared to propagate from the negative to the positive electrode in narrow channels through the neutral solution. When the power supply was disconnected from the electrodes and replaced by a resistive load, a potential difference was registered, and current flowed through the resistor for some period of time. Hence, the acid and alkaline zones appear to carry opposite charges throughout their volume.

  • Source
    • "Charge separation in water has also been demonstrated in our laboratory. In a chamber filled with pure water, electrodes placed at either end of the chamber and driven at low voltage to pass current through the water, create ample charge buildup: the half of the water bath nearest the anode remains positive, while the half nearest the cathode remains negative, even well after the electrical driver has been disconnected [8]. Such stored water-based charge turns out to be largely recoverable [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We here examine the putative first step in the origin of life: the coalescence of dispersed molecules into a more condensed, organized state. Fresh evidence implies that the driving energy for this coalescence may come in a manner more direct than previously thought. The sun's radiant energy separates charge in water, and this free charge demonstrably induces condensation. This condensation mechanism puts water as a central protagonist in life rather than as an incidental participant, and thereby helps explain why life requires water.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In a high-voltage direct-current experiment, a watery connection formed between two beakers filled with deionized water, giving the impression of a ‘floating water bridge’. Having a few millimeters diameter and up to 2.5cm length, this watery connection reveals a number of interesting phenomena currently discussed in water science. Focusing on optical measurement techniques, the flow through the bridge was visualized and data were recorded such as flow velocity and directions, heat production, density fluctuations, pH values, drag force and mass transfer. To provide a better understanding of the basic phenomena involved the discussion references related literature.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Experiments in Fluids
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled into two beakers close to each other, a water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge (Fuchs et al 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 6112–4). This phenomenon is of special interest, since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science. The build-up mechanism, the chemical properties and the dynamics of this bridge as well as related additional phenomena are presented and discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Physics D Applied Physics
Show more