Article

Academic Achievement Over 8 Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age

Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 05/2008; 36(3):399-410. DOI: 10.1007/s10802-007-9186-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD in wave 1 had lower reading, spelling, and mathematics scores over time than both comparison children and children who met modified criteria for the other subtypes of ADHD. In some analyses, children who met modified criteria for the combined type had somewhat lower mathematics scores than comparison children. The robust academic deficits relative to intelligence in the inattentive group in this age range suggest either that inattention results in academic underachievement or that some children in the inattentive group have learning disabilities that cause secondary symptoms of inattention. Unexpectedly, wave 1 internalizing (anxiety and depression) symptoms independently predicted deficits in academic achievement controlling ADHD, intelligence, and other predictors.

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    • "Students with other comorbid diagnoses were allowed to participate in the study. Enrollment was limited to students with Inattentive and Combined Type because of the questionable validity of the Hyperactive-Impulsive type after elementary school (Willcutt et al., 2012) and because this was a school-based study and ADHD symptoms of inattention largely drive impairment in academic functioning (e.g.,Galé ra et al., 2009;Massetti et al., 2008). Data collected from the evaluation of each student was comprehensively assessed by two doctoral level psychologists to determine study eligibility and any relevant comorbid diagnoses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often experience deficits in academic achievement. Written expression abilities in this population have not been extensively studied but existing prevalence estimates suggest that rates of comorbid writing underachievement may be substantially higher than rates of comorbid reading and mathematics underachievement. The current study examined written expression abilities in a school-based sample of 326 middle school age students with ADHD. The prevalence of written expression impairment, the associations between written expression and academic outcomes, and specific patterns of written expression were investigated. Students with ADHD in this sample experienced written expression impairment (17.2–22.4%) at a similar rate to reading impairment (17.0–24.3%) and at a slightly lower rate than mathematics impairment (24.7–36.3%). Students’ written expression abilities were significantly associated with school grades and parent ratings of academic functioning, above and beyond the influence of intelligence. Analyses of patterns suggest that students with ADHD exhibit greater deficits in written expression tasks requiring organization and attention to detail, especially in the context of a complex task. �
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Research in Developmental Disabilities
    • "Thus, possible differences in impairment trajectories across symptom presentation groups were not examined. Given that children with the Inattentive presentation of ADHD have been found to have lower reading, math, and spelling scores over time relative to other ADHD presentation groups (Massetti et al. 2008), this is an important direction for future studies of ADHD impairment trajectories. Third, the analytic sample included in this study was more White and affluent and less likely to have an ADHD diagnosis in early elementary school relative to the full sample of ECLS-K participants withADHD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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    • "Multiple studies have shown a significant association between ADHD and academic underachievement[37,38]. For example, compared to typically developing peers, children and adolescents with ADHD have been consistently found to score lower on academic tests of reading and math and score lower on standard achievement tests[13,39]. However, most studies investigating academic achievement in this population tend to focus single domains of academic achievement and far fewer studies have examined broader domains including spelling , writing, grammar and punctuation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a significant impact on child and adolescent development, especially in relation to school functioning and academic outcomes. Despite the transition to high school being a potentially critical period for children with ADHD, most research in this period has focused on academic outcomes. This study aims to extend previous research by describing academic, school engagement, behaviour and social-emotional outcomes for young people with ADHD in the first and third years of high school and to identify risk and protective factors predictive of differing outcomes across these four domains. Methods and design The Moving Up study is a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of children with ADHD as they transition and adjust to high school (age 12–15 years). Data are collected through direct assessment and child, parent and teacher surveys. The primary outcome is academic achievement, obtained by linking to standardised test results. Secondary outcomes include measures of behaviour, ADHD symptoms, school engagement (attitudes and attendance), and social and emotional functioning, including depressive symptoms. The mean performance of the study cohort on each outcome measure will be compared to the population mean for same aged children, using t-tests. Risk and protective factors to be examined using multiple regression include a child, family and school factors know to impact academic and school functioning. Discussion The Moving up study is the first Australian study prospectively designed to measure a broad range of student outcomes for children with ADHD during the high school transition period. Examining both current (cross sectional) and earlier childhood (longitudinal) factors gives us the potential to learn more about risk and protective factors associated with school functioning in young people with ADHD. The richness and depth of this information could lead to more targeted and effective interventions that may alter academic and wellbeing trajectories for young people at risk of poor outcomes. The study is approved by The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee (33206). Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Pediatrics
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