Activated vitamin D attenuates left ventricular abnormalities induced by dietary sodium in Dahl salt-sensitive animals

University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 11/2007; 104(43):16810-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0611202104
Source: PubMed


Observations in hemodialysis patients suggest a survival advantage associated with activated vitamin D therapy. Left ventricular (LV) structural and functional abnormalities are strongly linked with hemodialysis mortality. Here, we investigated whether paricalcitol (PC, 19-nor-1,25(OH)(2)D(2)), an activated vitamin D compound, attenuates the development of LV abnormalities in the Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rat and whether humans demonstrate comparable findings. Compared with DSS rats fed a high-salt (HS) diet (6% NaCl for 6 weeks), HS+PC was associated with lower heart and lung weights, reduced LV mass, posterior wall thickness and end diastolic pressures, and increased fractional shortening. Blood pressures did not significantly differ between the HS groups. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and cardiac mRNA expression of brain natriuretic peptide, atrial natriuretic factor, and renin were significantly reduced in the HS+PC animals. Microarray analyses revealed 45 specific HS genes modified by PC. In a retrospective pilot study of hemodialysis patients, PC-treated subjects demonstrated improved diastolic function and a reduction in LV septal and posterior wall thickness by echocardiography compared with untreated patients. In summary, PC attenuates the development of LV alterations in DSS rats, and these effects should be examined in human clinical trials.

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Available from: Juan Carlos Ayus
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    • "Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with abnormal cardiac relaxation, proliferation, and increased cardiac renin gene expression [32], [33]. Previously, we showed that vitamin D therapy prevents the progression to cardiac hypertrophy [34], and attenuates the development of heart failure in salt sensitive rat model [35]. In addition, 1α-OHase -/- mice developed hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and impaired cardiac systolic function, possibly due to the activation of the RAS [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim Altered vitamin D signaling is associated with cardiac dysfunction, but the pathogenic mechanism is not clearly understood. We examine the mechanism and the role of vitamin D signaling in the development of cardiac dysfunction. Methods and Results We analyzed 1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) knockout (1α-OHase−/−) mice, which lack 1α-OH enzymes that convert the inactive form to hormonally active form of vitamin D. 1α-OHase−/− mice showed modest cardiac hypertrophy at baseline. Induction of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) demonstrated exaggerated cardiac dysfunction in 1α-OHase−/− mice compared to their WT littermates with a significant increase in fibrosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of calcium (Ca2+) transient demonstrated profound Ca2+ handling abnormalities in 1α-OHase−/− mouse cardiomyocytes (CMs), and treatment with paricalcitol (PC), an activated vitamin D3 analog, significantly attenuated defective Ca2+ handling in 1α-OHase−/− CMs. We further delineated the effect of vitamin D deficiency condition to TAC by first correcting the vitamin D deficiency in 1α-OHase−/− mice, followed then by either a daily maintenance dose of vitamin D or vehicle (to achieve vitamin D deficiency) at the time of sham or TAC. In mice treated with vitamin D, there was a significant attenuation of TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, inflammatory markers, Ca2+ handling abnormalities and cardiac function compared to the vehicle treated animals. Conclusions Our results provide insight into the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction, which is associated with severely defective Ca2+ handling and defective vitamin D signaling in 1α-OHase−/− mice.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The mechanism of cardiovascular protection by vitamin D analogs has been proposed to be due to anti-inflammatory properties [9], modulation of calcification factors and interaction in the bone-vascular crosstalk [10,11], and modulation of cardiac structure and function [12-14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of cardiovascular disease is tremendously high in dialysis patients. Dialysis patients treated with vitamin D analogs show decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with untreated patients. We examined the influence of two common vitamin D analogs, alfacalcidol and paricalcitol, on important cardiovascular biomarkers in hemodialysis patients. Anti-inflammatory effects and the influence on regulators of vascular calcification as well as markers of heart failure were examined. In 57 chronic hemodialysis patients enrolled in a randomized crossover trial comparing paricalcitol and alfacalcidol, we examined the changes in osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, NT-proBNP, hs-Crp, IL-6 and TNF-α, during 16 weeks of treatment. NT-proBNP and osteoprotegerin increased comparably in the paricalcitol and alfacalcidol-treated groups. Fetuin-A increased significantly in the alfacalcidol-treated group compared with the paricalcitol-treated group (difference 32.84 μmol/l (95% C.I.; range 0.21–67.47)) during the first treatment period. No difference was found between the groups during the second treatment period, and IL-6, TNF-α and hs-Crp were unchanged in both treatment groups. Paricalcitol and alfacalcidol modulate regulators of vascular calcification. Alfacalcidol may increase the level of the calcification inhibitor fetuin-A. We did not find any anti-inflammatory effect or difference in changes of NT-proBNP. Trial registry NCT00469599 May 3 2007.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Nephrology
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    • "Low serum vitamin D also stimulates the RAAS, resulting in vasoconstriction and salt and water retention, which further promotes arterial stiffening [97]. In animal models, treatment with active vitamin D inhibits endothelin-induced myocyte hypertrophy [98], reduces LV mass, and improves LV function, in parallel with a decrease in plasma BNP and renin activity [99]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is strongly associated with mortality in these patients. However, the treatment of HF in this population is largely unclear. Study Design. We conducted a systematic integrative review of the literature to assess the current evidence of HF treatment in CKD patients, searching electronic databases in April 2014. Synthesis used narrative methods. Setting and Population. We focused on adults with a primary diagnosis of CKD and HF. Selection Criteria for Studies. We included studies of any design, quantitative or qualitative. Interventions. HF treatment was defined as any formal means taken to improve the symptoms of HF and/or the heart structure and function abnormalities. Outcomes. Measures of all kinds were considered of interest. Results. Of 1,439 results returned by database searches, 79 articles met inclusion criteria. A further 23 relevant articles were identified by hand searching. Conclusions. Control of fluid overload, the use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and optimization of dialysis appear to be the most important methods to treat HF in CKD and ESRD patients. Aldosterone antagonists and digitalis glycosides may additionally be considered; however, their use is associated with significant risks. The role of anemia correction, control of CKD-mineral and bone disorder, and cardiac resynchronization therapy are also discussed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BioMed Research International
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