Methenamine hippurate for preventing urinary tract infections
Bladder and kidney infections (urinary tract infections - UTI) can cause vomiting, pain, dysuria, septicaemia, fever and tiredness, and occasionally kidney damage. Some people are at high risk of repeated UTIs, and they are also more likely to have serious complications (including people with kidney problems, or people who have catheters to release urine). Long-term use of antibiotics can lead to resistance, so methenamine salts (methenamine or hexamine hippurate) are often used. This review identified 13 studies (2032 participants). Methenamine hippurate may be effective in preventing UTI in patients without renal tract abnormalities particularly when used for short term prophylaxis. It does not appear to be effective for long term prophylaxis in patients who have neuropathic bladder. There were few adverse effects.Additional well controlled randomised controlled trials are necessary in particular to clarify effectiveness for longer term prophylaxis in those without neuropathic bladder.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are symptomatic infections of the urinary tract, mainly caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. One in two women suffers from a UTI at least once in her life. The young and sexually active are particulaly affected, but it is also seen in elderly, postmenopausal women. The likelihood of recurrence is high. Diagnosis is made with regard to typical complaints and the presence of leucocytes and nitrites in the urine. A culture is unnecessary in most cases. Uncomplicated UTI should be distinguished from complicated UTI, which has a risk of severe illness. The treatment of choice--short-term therapy with trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin--is successful in over 80% of the cases. Co-trimoxazol fluoroquinolones or cephalsporins are not considered first-choice drugs. There are indications that general practitioners' (GPs') management of UTI is not always optimal, specifically concerning diagnostic tests, the application of second-choice antibiotics, and the length of prescribed treatment courses. Many points relevant to GPs requirefurther research, such as epidemiology and resistance of urinary pathogens in the community and natural history of UTI, as well as optimal management in elderly or complicated patients and men.0Comments 47Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidences of approximately 15% and 10% in those aged 15–39 and 40–79 years, respectively. By definition, UTIs in males or pregnant females and those associated with risk factors known to increase the risk of infection or treatment failure (e.g. acquisition in a hospital setting, presence of an indwelling urinary catheter, urinary tract instrumentation/interventions, diabetes mellitus or immunosuppression) are not considered herein. The majority of uUTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (70–95%), with Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp. and Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounting for 1–2%, 1–2% and 5–10% of infections, respectively. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with uUTI are present (e.g. dysuria, frequency, back pain or costovertebral angle tenderness) and there is no vaginal discharge or irritation present, the likelihood of uUTI is >90–95%. Laboratory testing (i.e. urinary nitrites, leukocyte esterase, culture) is not necessary in this circumstance and empirical treatment can be initiated. The ever-increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance of the common uropathogens in uUTI has been and is a continuing focus of intensive study. Resistance to cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) has made the empirical use of this drug problematic in many geographical areas. If local uropathogen resistance rates to cotrimoxazole exceed 10–25%, empirical cotrimoxazole therapy should not be utilized (fluoroquinolones become the new first-line agents). In a few countries, uropathogen resistance rates to the fluoroquinolones now exceed 10–25%, rendering empirical use of fluoroquinolones problematic. With the exception of fosfomycin (a second-line therapy), single-dose therapy is not recommended because of suboptimal cure rates and high relapse rates. Cotrimoxazole and the fluoroquinolones can be administered in 3-day regimens. Nitrofurantoin, a second-line therapy, should be given for 7 days. β-Lactams are not recommended because of suboptimal clinical and bacteriological results compared with those of non-β-lactams. If a β-lactam is chosen, it should be given for 7 days. Management of uUTIs can frequently be triaged to non-physician healthcare personnel without adverse clinical consequences, resulting in substantial cost savings. It can be anticipated that the optimal approach to the management of uUTIs will change substantially in the future as a consequence of antimicrobial resistance.0Comments 51Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncomplicated Urinary tract infections are common in adult women across the entire age spectrum, with mean annual incidence of 15% and 10% in those aged 15-39 and 40-79 years, respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widejly misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) present a significant problem for women and a challenge for the doctors who care for them. The diagnosis of uncomplicated UTI can be achieved best by a thorough assessment of patient symptoms with or without the addition of a urine dipstick test. Treatment should be based on the most recent guidelines, taking into account resistance patterns in the local community. The patient who suffers from recurrent UTIs can be treated safely and effectively with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, post-coital therapy, or self-initiated treatment. This review article covers the latest trends in the management of recurrent UTI among women. Further research is needed regarding rapid diagnosis of UTI, accurate presumptive identification of patients with resistant pathogens, and development of new antimicrobials for drug-resistant UTI.0Comments 7Citations