Inactivation of Bacteriophages via Photosensitization of Fullerol Nanoparticles

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4003, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 10/2007; 41(18):6627-32. DOI: 10.1021/es0708215
Source: PubMed


The production of two reactive oxygen species through UV photosensitization of polyhydroxylated fullerene (fullerol) is shown to enhance viral inactivation rates. The production of both singlet oxygen and superoxide by fullerol in the presence of UV light is confirmed via two unique methods: electron paramagnetic resonance and reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium. These findings build on previous results both in the area of fullerene photosensitization and in the area of fullerene impact on microfauna. Results showed thatthe first-order MS2 bacteriophage inactivation rate nearly doubled due to the presence of singlet oxygen and increased by 125% due to singlet oxygen and superoxide as compared to UVA illumination alone. When fullerol and NADH are present in solution, dark inactivation of viruses occurs at nearly the same rate as that produced by UVA illumination without nanoparticles. These results suggest a potential for fullerenes to impact virus populations in both natural and engineered systems ranging from surface waters to disinfection technologies for water and wastewater treatment.

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Available from: Appala Raju Badireddy
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    • "Fullerenols (C 60 (OH) í µí±› ), polyhydroxyl water-soluble fullerenes, in form of polyanionic nanoparticles, have been examined in numerous in vitro and in vivo model systems [11] [12]. Special attention has been given to fullerenols with a large number of hydroxyl groups (í µí±› > 16), since they are nontoxic for the most of examined biological model systems, possess significant antioxidative properties [13], and produce radical oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen and superoxide, after UV photosensitization [14]. Experiments conducted on various aquatic organisms and yeasts have proven that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNP) stimulate growth and exhibit protective effects from heavy metal induced toxicity [15] [16]. "
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    • "Nanomaterials are excellent adsorbents, catalysts and sensors due to their large specific surface area and high reactivity. More recently, several natural and engineering nanomaterials have also been shown to have strong antimicrobial properties, including chitosan (Qi et al., 2004), silver nanoparticles (nAg) (Morones et al., 2005), photocatalytic TiO 2 (Cho et al., 2005 and Wei et al., 1994), fullerol (Badireddy et al., 2007), aqueous fullerene nanoparticles (nC60) (Lyon et al., 2006), and carbon nano tubes (CNT) (Kang et al., 2007). Unlike conventional chemical disinfectants, these antimicrobial nanomaterials are not strong oxidants and are relatively inert in water. "
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    • "Fullerols (1 μM) in combination with UV light have been shown to inactivate viruses (bacteriophages) to a far higher extent (100% increase) than UV light alone [44]. Fullerols have been less toxic than aggregated nonderivatized fullerenes (nC60) in a cytotoxicity study on human cell lines [28]. "
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