August 2007, Vol. 97, No. 8 SAMJ
the University of Cape Town and Associate Professor Theo Vos of
the University of Queensland, Australia, are thanked for external
review of the manuscript. Ms Leverne Gething is acknowledged for
editing the manuscript.
1. Haslam DW, James WPT. Obesity. Lancet 2005; 366: 1197-1209.
2. World Health Organization. Quantifying selected major risks to health. In:
World Health Report
2002. Geneva: WHO, 2002: 47-97.
3. World Health Organization.
Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. World
Health Organization Tech Rep Ser; No 894. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
4. Breslow L. Public health aspects of weight control.
Am J Public Health 1952; 42: 116-120.
(Reprinted in: Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 10-12.)
5. Rodgers A, Lawes CMM, Gaziano T, Vos T. The growing burden of risk from high blood
pressure, cholesterol, and bodyweight. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al., eds.
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd ed. New York: World Bank and Oxford
University Press, 2006.
6. Mendez MA, Monteiro CA, Popkin BM. Overweight exceeds underweight among women in
most developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 714-721.
7. United Nations Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision. World Population of the Year 2000: Medium Variant.
http://esa.un.org/unpp (last accessed 6 December 2006).
8. Department of Health, Medical Research Council, Measure DHS+.
South Africa Demographic
and Health Survey 1998. Full report. Pretoria: DOH, 2002.
9. Wolmarans P, Langenhoven ML, van Eck M, Swanepoel ASP. The contribution of different
food groups to the energy, fat and fibre intake of the Coronary Risk Factors Study (CORIS)
population. S Afr Med J 1989; 75: 167-171.
10. Langenhoven ML, Steyn K, van Eck M. The food and meal pattern in Cape Peninsula
coloured population. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 1988; 22: 107-116.
11. Steyn NP, Burger S, Monyeki KD, Alberts M, Nthangeni G. Variation in dietary intake of the
adult population of Dikgale. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 14: 140-145.
12. Bourne LT, Langenhoven ML, Steyn K, Jooste PL, Laubscher JA, van der Vyver E. Nutrient
intake in the urban African population of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa. The Brisk study.
Cent Afr J Med 1993; 39: 238-247.
13. Joubert JD, Norman R, Lambert EV, Groenewald P, Schneider M, Bull F, Bradshaw D, and the
South African Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. Estimating the burden of
disease attributable to physical inactivity in South Africa in 2000. S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 725-731
14. Douketis JD, Feightner JW, Attia J, Feldman WF, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive
Health Care. Periodic health examination, 1999 update: 1. Detection, prevention and treatment
of obesity. Can Med Assoc J 1999; 160: 513-525.
15. James WPT, Jackson-Leach R, Mhurchu CN,
et al. Overweight and obesity (high body mass
index). In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJL, eds. Comparative Quantification of
Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Vol.
1. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004: 497-596.
16. Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJL and the Comparative Risk
Assessment Collaborating Group. Selected major risk factor and global and regional burden
of disease. Lancet 2002; 360: 1347-1360.
17. Shetty PS, James WPT.
Body Mass Index: A Measure of Chronic Energy Deficiency in Adults. FAO
Food and Nutrition Paper 56. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, 1994.
18. Ezzati M, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD,
et al. Comparative quantification of mortality and
burden of disease attributable to selected risk factors. In: Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M,
Jamison DT, Murray CJL, eds. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2006: 241-268.
19. Asia-Pacific Cohort studies collaboration (APCSC). Determinants of cardiovascular disease in
the Asia Pacific region: Protocol for a collaborative overview of cohort studies. Cardiovascular
Disease Prevention 1999; 2: 281–289.
20. Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. Body mass index and risk of diabetes mellitus in
the Asia-Pacific region. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2006; 15: 127-133.
21. World Health Organization.
International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Conditions.
10th ed. Geneva: WHO, 1992.
22. Norman R, Bradshaw D, Schneider M, Pieterse D, Groenewald P.
Revised Burden of Disease
Estimates for the Comparative Risk Factor Assessment, South Africa 2000. Methodological Notes.
Cape Town: Medical Research Council, 2006. http://www.mrc.ac.za/bod/bod.htm (last
accessed 7 July 2006).
23. Lawes CMM, Vander Hoorn S, Law MR, Rodgers A. High cholesterol. In: Ezzati M, Lopez
AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJL, eds. Comparative Quantification of Health Risks, Global and Regional
Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. Vol. 1. Geneva: World Health
Organization, 2004: 391-496.
24. Palisade Corporation. @Risk software. Advanced risk analysis for spreadsheets. Version 4.5.
New York: Palisade Corporation, 2002.
25. Must A, Spadano J, Coakley EH, Field AE, Colditz G, Dietz WH. The disease burden
associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 1999; 282: 1523-1529.
26. Nannan N, Norman R, Hendricks M, Dhansay MA, Bradshaw D, and the South African
Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. Estimating the burden of childhood and
maternal undernutrition in South Africa in 2000. S Afr Med J 2007; 97: 733-739 (this issue).
27. Steyn NP, Labadarios D, Maunder E, Nel J, Lombard C, Directors of the NFCS. Secondary
anthropometric data analysis of the National Food Consumption Survey in South Africa: The
double burden. Nutrition 2005; 21: 4-13.
28. Lissau I, Overpeck MD, Ruan JW, Due P, Holstein BE, Hediger ML. Body mass index and
overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States. Arch Pediatr
Adolesc Med 2004; 158: 27-33.
29. Reddy SP, Panday S, Swart D,
et al. Umthenthe Uhlaba Usamila – The South African Youth Risk
Behaviour Survey 2002. Cape Town: Medical Research Council, 2003.
30. Austin SB, Melly SJ, Sanchez BN, Patel A, Buka S, Gortmaker L. Clustering of fast-food
restaurants around schools: A novel application of spatial statistics to the study of food
environments. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 1575-1581.
31. Harrison K, Marske AL. Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television
programs children watch most. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 1568-1574.
32. McGinnis JM, Gootman JA, Kraak VI, eds.
Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or
Opportunity? Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2006.
33. Stallings VA, Yaktine AL, Committee on Nutrition Standards for Foods in Schools.
Standards for Food in Schools: Steps toward Healthier Youth in America. Washington, DC: National
Academies Press, 2007.
34. World Health Organization.
European Charter on Counteracting Obesity. Copenhagen: WHO
Regional Office for Europe, 2006.
35. World Health Organisation.
Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Geneva: WHO,
36. Kumanyika S, Jeffery RW, Morabia A, Ritenbaugh C, Antipatis VJ, Public Health Approaches
to the Prevention of Obesity Working Group of the International Obesity Task Force. Obesity
prevention: The case for action. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 425-436.
37. Goedecke J, Jennings CL, Lambert EV. Obesity in South Africa. In: Steyn K, Fourie J, Temple
N, eds. Chronic Diseases of Lifestyle in South Africa: 1995-2005. MRC Technical Report. Cape
Town: Medical Research Council, 2006.
38. Shapiro M, Puoane T, Fourie JM, Rosling L, Tshaka NC, Oelefse A. ‘Big is beautiful’ – an
exploration with urban black community health workers in a South African township. South
African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005; 18(1): 6-15.
39. Mvo Z, Dick J, Steyn K. Perceptions of overweight African women about acceptable body size
of women and children. Curationis 1999; 22: 27-31.
40. Puoane PH, Bradley H, Hughes G. Community intervention for the emerging epidemic of
non-communicable diseases. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006; 19(2): 56-62.
41. Harvey EL, Glenny A-M, Kirk SFL, Summerbell CD. Improving health professionals’
management and the organisation of care for overweight and obese people. Cochrane Database
of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD000984. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000984.
42. Clegg AJ, Colquitt J, Sidhu MK, Royle E, Loverman E, Walker A. The clinical effectiveness
and cost-effectiveness of surgery for people with morbid obesity: A systematic review and
economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2002: 6: 1-152.
43. Schooler C, Farquhar JW, Fortmann SP, Flora JA. Synthesis of findings and issues from
community prevention trials. Ann Epidemiol 1997; 7 (Suppl 7): S54-68.
44. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US
adults, 1999 - 2000. JAMA 2002; 288: 1723-1727.
45. Björntorp P. Visceral obesity: A ‘Civilization Syndrome’.
Obes Res 1993; 1: 206-222.
46. Despres JP. Health consequences of visceral obesity.
Ann Med 2001; 33: 534-541.
47. Willett WC, Koplan JP, Nugent R, Dusenbury C, Puska P, Gaziano TA. Prevention of chronic
disease by means of diet and lifestyle changes. In: Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et
al., eds. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University
48. Lang T, Rayner G. Overcoming policy cacophony on obesity: An ecological public health
framework for policymakers. Obes Rev 2007; 8: Suppl 1, 165-181.