Imprint cytology of vacuum-assisted breast biopsy specimens: A rapid diagnostic tool in non-palpable solid lesions
Department of Cytology, Hippokratio Hospital, Athens, Greece. Cytopathology
(Impact Factor: 1.48).
11/2007; 19(5):311-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2303.2007.00513.x
Imprint cytology provides a rapid preliminary diagnosis shortly after the completion of breast biopsy. This study aims to assess the validity of imprint cytology for the pre-operative diagnosis of non-palpable mammographic solid lesions excised by vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB).
Seventy-two women with non-palpable Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 3 and 4 mammographic solid lesions without microcalcifications underwent VABB on the stereotactic Fischer's table with 11-G Mammotome vacuum probes. Imprint samples were examined (Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May-Grünwald-Giemsa). The cores were dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine pathological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated.
The sensitivity of the cytological imprints for cancer was 90%. The specificity of the method for cancer diagnosis was 100%. Two precursor lesions were present in the material: one case of atypical ductal hyperplasia, which was successfully detected, and one case of lobular neoplasia, which escaped detection. The cytological imprints were inadequate in four out of 72 cases (5.6%), but none of them were included within the malignant subgroup.
Imprint cytology seems to be an important adjunctive tool in the management of patients with non-palpable mammographic solid lesions. Its very satisfactory sensitivity and optimal specificity could establish its use in general clinical practice.
Available from: Theo Wobbes
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ABSTRACT: Non-operative pathology diagnoses constitute an essential part of the work-up of breast lesions. With fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB) both having unique advantages, there is an increasing acceptance of CNB. This paper aims to outline the scientific basis of this trend. Additionally, we provide an update on novel techniques that derive cytological specimens from CNB (i.e., touch imprint (TI) and core wash (CW) cytology) in an attempt to get the best of both worlds.
In addition to using the authors' experience, we performed a search of the Medline database combining the search terms "breast cancer diagnosis", "core needle biopsy", "fine needle aspiration", "touch imprint cytology", "core wash cytology" and "complications". We defined a conclusive non-operative diagnosis as "malignant" in lesions that were malignant on follow-up and "benign" in lesions that were benign on follow-up.
CNB was more often conclusive than FNA in benign and malignant lesions in 4 prospective studies. Although the more rapid diagnoses by FNA result in less patient anxiety during diagnostic work-up, CNB allows for fairly reliable estimation of invasion, histological type, grade, and receptor expression. CW and TI cytology seem promising techniques with conclusiveness rates that are roughly comparable to that of FNA.
All new suspicious breast lesions require careful non-operative investigation by CNB. However, additional cytological assessment by FNA can still be useful as a same-day diagnosis decreases patient anxiety and facilitates surgical treatment planning. TI and CW cytology techniques are promising same-day diagnosis modalities.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of imprint cytology (IC) of breast core biopsy under ultrasound guidance and to assess the value of a rapid on-site preliminary diagnosis of breast lesions. A total of 437 breast core needle biopsies under ultrasound guidance with touch imprint cytology, histology, and final diagnosis were reviewed. These cases were collected from archived files at our institution. Of 437 core biopsies, IC classified 241 (55%) as benign; 22 (5%) as probably benign; 28 (6%) as probably malignant; 107 (25%) as malignant; and 39 (9%) as inadequate for IC diagnosis. Histological classifications for the 437 cases were: 285 (65%) benign; 132 (30%) malignant; 16 (4%) atypical hyperplasia; and 4 (1%) inadequate specimen. The overall sensitivity and specificity indices of IC were 95% and 96%, respectively, for benign and probably benign lesions vs malignant and probably malignant breast lesions. The overall positive and negative predictive values were 91% and 97%, respectively. The overall accuracy was 95% (379 of 398 cases, excluding specimens inadequate for IC diagnosis). IC of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy provides a rapid and reliable preliminary diagnosis for breast lesions; it also serves as a means to verify the adequacy of biopsy specimens and to optimize the biopsy procedure. Use of IC may reduce anxiety in patients with benign lesions and expedite the diagnosis and assessment of treatment options in patients with breast cancer.
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