The Costs of Alcohol, Illegal Drugs, and Tobacco in Canada, 2002

ArticleinJournal of studies on alcohol and drugs 68(6):886-95 · December 2007with25 Reads
DOI: 10.15288/jsad.2007.68.886 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate costs attributable to substance use and misuse in Canada in 2002. Based on information about prevalence of exposure and risk relations for more than 80 disease categories, deaths, years of life lost, and hospitalizations attributable to substance use and misuse were estimated. In addition, substance-attributable fractions for criminal justice expenditures were derived. Indirect costs were estimated using a modified human capital approach. Costs of substance use and misuse totaled almost Can. $40 billion in 2002. The total cost per capita for substance use and misuse was about Can. $1,267: Can. $463 for alcohol, Can. $262 for illegal drugs, and Can. $541 for tobacco. Legal substances accounted for the vast majority of these costs (tobacco: almost 43% of total costs; alcohol: 37%). Indirect costs or productivity losses were the largest cost category (61%), followed by health care (22%) and law enforcement costs (14%). More than 40,000 people died in Canada in 2002 because of substance use and misuse: 37,209 deaths were attributable to tobacco, 4,258 were attributable to alcohol, and 1,695 were attributable to illegal drugs. A total of about 3.8 million hospital days were attributable to substance use and misuse, again mainly to tobacco. Substance use and misuse imposes a considerable economic toll on Canadian society and requires more preventive efforts.
    • "The main categories of consumed unrecorded alcohol (alcohol that is consumed but not captured through recorded sources) are (i) legal but unrecorded alcohol products; (ii) alcohol products which are recorded but not in the jurisdiction where they are consumed; (iii) surrogate alcohol (alcohol not officially intended for consumption); (iv) illegal homemade artisanal production; and (v) illegal production and smuggling on a commercial (industrial) scale (see Rehm et al., 2014). Data for the estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption can be obtained from a variety of sources, including from government monitoring data, surveys and expert judgments (Rehm et al., 2003aRehm et al., , 2007a). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is a significant risk factor for the burden of disease worldwide. Both the average per capita consumption and the patterns of consumption are important dimensions which need to be taken into account when estimating the impact of alcohol in a population. Based on WHO guidelines for monitoring alcohol consumption and related harm, this review provides an overview of global and regional trends in alcohol consumption and related problems, methodological issues surrounding estimates of consumption, patterns and harms related to alcohol and the WHO alcohol database.
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    • "Moreover, the estimated annual cost of corrections for youths and adults with FASD ($373.7 million) corresponds to more than half of the annual cost ($660.4 million) of correctional services for youths and adults sentenced for all offences committed under the influence of alcohol in Canada (Patra, Rehm, & Popova, 2011; Rehm et al., 2007). However, it must be understood that the cost of corrections is only one facet of the total direct cost of law enforcement associated with individuals with FASD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading identifiable cause of intellectual disability in the Western world and may result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Individuals with FASD have a higher risk of being involved in the legal system, either as offenders or as victims. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to estimate the direct cost for youths (12-17years old) and adults (18+ years old) with FASD to the Canadian correctional system in 2011/2012. The prevalence of FASD in the Canadian correctional system, obtained from the current epidemiological literature, was applied to the average number of youths and adults in the correctional system in 2011/2012. The average daily cost for corrections was then applied to the estimated number of youths and adults with FASD in custody. The cost of corrections among youths with FASD in Canada in 2011/2012 was calculated to be approximately $17.5M Canadian dollars (CND; $13.6M CND for males and $3.8M CND for females) and among adults with FASD was estimated to be about $356.2M CND ($140M CND for provincial and territorial custody and $216.2M CND for federal custody). The study findings emphasize the need to raise awareness regarding the prevalence of FASD in the correctional system. It is crucial to incorporate FASD screening and intervention strategies as early as possible in the criminal justice process. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "In addition, the economic costs of problem drinking are also high. In 2002, it was estimated that alcoholrelated health care cost Canadians $2.3 billion dollars [5] and there are also other substantial economic costs, mainly attributed to lost productivity and law enforce- ment [4]. Alcohol use is thus a key factor in population health in Canada. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Problem drinking causes great harm to the person and to society. Most problem drinkers will never seek treatment. The current trial will test the efficacy of two Internet interventions for problem drinking ¿ one minimal and the other extended ¿ as an alternate means of providing help to those in need.Methods/DesignA double blinded, four-wave panel design with random assignment to two experimental conditions will be used in this study. Participants will be recruited through a comprehensive recruitment strategy consisting of online and print advertisements asking for people who are `interested in helping us develop and evaluate Internet-based interventions for problem drinkers.¿ Potential participants will be screened to select problem drinkers who have home access to the Internet. Participants will be sent to a password-protected Internet site and, upon signing in, will be randomized to be provided access to the minimal or extended Internet-based intervention. Six-month, twelve-month, and two-year drinking outcomes will be compared between experimental conditions. The primary hypothesis is that participants in the extended Internet intervention condition will display significantly improved drinking outcomes at twelve months compared to participants in the minimal intervention.DiscussionThe findings of this trial will contribute to the growing literature on Internet interventions for problem drinkers. In addition, findings from this trial will contribute to the scarce literature available evaluating the long-term efficacy of brief interventions for alcohol problems.Trial registrationClinical Trials.gov #NCT01874509; First submitted June 17, 2013.
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