Heart Failure Society of America and Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology. The Role of Endomyocardial Biopsy in the Management of Cardiovascular Disease. A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology

Mayo Clinic.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 12/2007; 116(19):2216-33. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.186093
Source: PubMed

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    • "It should be emphasized that the biopsy procedure was performed at patients with chronic and clinically stable heart failure treated optimally for at least 6 months without complete recovery. It is relatively late according to current clinical practice guidelines [26] and partly explains the low percentage of active myocarditis. The increased concentrations of NPT are found in dilated cardiomyopathy group with strong immune activation—HLA expression in endomyocardium in comparison to controls, but the difference with the group of weak immune activation was not significant. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationships among serum neopterin (NPT), β2-microglobulin (β2-M) levels, clinical status, and endomyocardial biopsy results of dilated cardiomyopathy patients (DCM). Methods: Serum NPT and β-2 M were determined in 172 nonischaemic DCM patients who underwent right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy and 30 healthy subjects (ELISA test). The cryostat biopsy specimens were assessed using histology, immunohistology, and immunochemistry methods (HLA ABC, HLA DR expression, CD3 + lymphocytes, and macrophages counts). Results: The strong increase of HLA ABC or HLA DR expression was detected in 27.2% patients-group A-being low in 72.8% patients-group B. Neopterin level was increased in patients in group A compared to healthy controls 8.11 (4.50-12.57) versus 4.99 (2.66-8.28) nmol/L (P < 0.05). β-2 microglobulin level was higher in DCM groups A (2.60 (1.71-3.58)) and B (2.52 (1.51-3.72)) than in the control group 1.75 (1.28-1.96) mg/L, P < 0.001. Neopterin correlated positively with the number of macrophages in biopsy specimens (P < 0.05) acute phase proteins: C-reactive proteins (P < 0.05); fibrinogen (P < 0.01); and NYHA functional class (P < 0.05) and negatively with left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Neopterin but not β-2 microglobulin concentration reflected immune response in biopsy specimens. Neopterin correlated with acute phase proteins and stage of heart failure and may indicate a general immune and inflammatory activation in heart failure.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "Before EMB, each patient underwent coronary angiography to exclude coronary artery disease. Right ventricular EMB was obtained using a flexible bioptome via the right femoral vein [39]. At least 3 EMBs were subjected to histological evaluation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac fibrosis disrupts the normal myocardial structure and has a direct impact on heart function and survival. Despite already available digital methods, the pathologist’s visual score is still widely considered as ground truth and used as a primary method in histomorphometric evaluations. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital image analysis tools and the pathologist’s visual scoring for evaluating fibrosis in human myocardial biopsies, based on reference data obtained by point counting performed on the same images. Endomyocardial biopsy material from 38 patients diagnosed with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy was used. The extent of total cardiac fibrosis was assessed by image analysis on Masson’s trichrome-stained tissue specimens using automated Colocalization and Genie software, by Stereology grid count and manually by Pathologist’s visual score. A total of 116 slides were analyzed. The mean results obtained by the Colocalization software (13.72 ± 12.24%) were closest to the reference value of stereology (RVS), while the Genie software and Pathologist score gave a slight underestimation. RVS values correlated strongly with values obtained using the Colocalization and Genie (r > 0.9, p < 0.001) software as well as the pathologist visual score. Differences in fibrosis quantification by Colocalization and RVS were statistically insignificant. However, significant bias was found in the results obtained by using Genie versus RVS and pathologist score versus RVS with mean difference values of: -1.61% and 2.24%. Bland-Altman plots showed a bidirectional bias dependent on the magnitude of the measurement: Colocalization software overestimated the area fraction of fibrosis in the lower end, and underestimated in the higher end of the RVS values. Meanwhile, Genie software as well as the pathologist score showed more uniform results throughout the values, with a slight underestimation in the mid-range for both. Both applied digital image analysis methods revealed almost perfect correlation with the criterion standard obtained by stereology grid count and, in terms of accuracy, outperformed the pathologist’s visual score. Genie algorithm proved to be the method of choice with the only drawback of a slight underestimation bias, which is considered acceptable for both clinical and research evaluations. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    • "In line with local and international scientific statements and guidelines, endomyocardial biopsy is not routine clinical practice in both hospitals, as it is of low diagnostic yield and sensitivity for most cases of myocarditis with inherent procedural risks [21-27]; as such, direct histopathologic correlation to the imaging findings is not available. As most of the patients (93%) had a preceding viral or inflammatory illness, after exclusion of obstructive coronary disease and alternate diagnoses (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Acute myocarditis can be diagnosed on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using multiple techniques, including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging, which requires contrast administration. Native T1-mapping is significantly more sensitive than LGE and conventional T2-weighted (T2W) imaging in detecting myocarditis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate how to display the non-ischemic patterns of injury and to quantify myocardial involvement in acute myocarditis without the need for contrast agents, using topographic T1-maps and incremental T1 thresholds. Methods We studied 60 patients with suspected acute myocarditis (median 3 days from presentation) and 50 controls using CMR (1.5 T), including: (1) dark-blood T2W imaging; >(2) native T1-mapping (ShMOLLI); (3) LGE. Analysis included: (1) global myocardial T2 signal intensity (SI) ratio compared to skeletal muscle; (2) myocardial T1 times; (3) areas of injury by T2W, T1-mapping and LGE. Results Compared to controls, patients had more edema (global myocardial T2 SI ratio 1.71 ± 0.27 vs.1.56 ± 0.15), higher mean myocardial T1 (1011 ± 64 ms vs. 946 ± 23 ms) and more areas of injury as detected by T2W (median 5% vs. 0%), T1 (median 32% vs. 0.7%) and LGE (median 11% vs. 0%); all p < 0.001. A threshold of T1 > 990 ms (sensitivity 90%, specificity 88%) detected significantly larger areas of involvement than T2W and LGE imaging in patients, and additional areas of injury when T2W and LGE were negative. T1-mapping significantly improved the diagnostic confidence in an additional 30% of cases when at least one of the conventional methods (T2W, LGE) failed to identify any areas of abnormality. Using incremental thresholds, T1-mapping can display the non-ischemic patterns of injury typical of myocarditis. Conclusion Native T1-mapping can display the typical non-ischemic patterns in acute myocarditis, similar to LGE imaging but without the need for contrast agents. In addition, T1-mapping offers significant incremental diagnostic value, detecting additional areas of myocardial involvement beyond T2W and LGE imaging and identified extra cases when these conventional methods failed to identify abnormalities. In the future, it may be possible to perform gadolinium-free CMR using cine and T1-mapping for tissue characterization and may be particularly useful for patients in whom gadolinium contrast is contraindicated.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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