Molecular typing of Cryptosporidium parvum associated with a diarrhoea outbreak identifies two sources of exposure

Department of Parasitology (SWEPAR), National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 09/2008; 136(8):1147-52. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268807009673
Source: PubMed


An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with exposure to outdoor swimming-pool water affected an estimated 800-1000 individuals. PCR products were obtained from faecal specimens from 30 individuals who tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. RFLP and sequencing analyses showed that all individuals were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Among the infected individuals, five had just swum in an adjacent indoor pool during the same period, and had no identified contact with individuals linked to the outdoor pool. With the use of subgenotyping based on analysis of three mini- and microsatellite loci, MS1, TP14, and GP15, we could identify two sources of exposure. One subtype was associated with the outdoor pool and another with the indoor pool. These data demonstrate that the use of mini- and microsatellite loci as markers for molecular fingerprinting of C. parvum isolates are valuable in the epidemiological investigation of outbreaks.

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Available from: Jens G Mattsson
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    • "All of these studies included gp60. In addition to this marker, Hunter et al. (2008) and Mattsson et al. (2008) selected ML2 and TP14 as their second loci, respectively, both of which emerge in "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of high resolution molecular tools to study Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis intra-species variation is becoming common practice, but there is currently no consensus in the methods used. The most commonly applied tool is partial gp60 gene sequence analysis. However, multi-locus schemes are acknowledged to improve resolution over analysis of a single locus, which neglects potential re-assortment of genes during the sexual phase of the Cryptosporidium life-cycle. Multi-locus markers have been investigated in isolates from a variety of sampling frames, in varying combinations and using different assays and methods of analysis. To identify the most informative markers as candidates for the development of a standardised multi-locus fragment size-based typing (MLFT) scheme to integrate with epidemiological analyses, we examined the published literature. A total of 31 MLFT studies were found, employing 55 markers of which 45 were applied to both C. parvum and C. hominis. Of the studies, 11 had sufficient raw data, from three or more markers, and a sampling frame containing at least 50 samples, for meaningful in-depth analysis using assessment criteria based on the sampling frame, study size, number of markers investigated in each study, marker characteristics (>2 nucleotide repeats) and the combinations of markers generating all possible multi-locus genotypes. Markers investigated differed between C. hominis and C. parvum. When each scheme was analysed for the fewest markers required to identify 95% of all MLFTs, some redundancy was identified in all schemes; an average redundancy of 40% for C. hominis and 27% for C. parvum. Ranking markers, based on the most productive combinations, identified two different sets of potentially most informative candidate markers, one for each species. These will be subjected to technical evaluation including typability (percentage of samples generating a complete multi-locus type) and discriminatory power by direct fragment size analysis and analysed for correlation with epidemiological data in suitable sampling frames. The establishment of a group of users and agreed subtyping scheme for improved epidemiological and public health investigations of C. parvum and C. hominis will facilitate further developments and consideration of technological advances in a harmonised manner.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Experimental Parasitology

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