Comparison of Rates of Resolution of Diabetes Mellitus after Gastric Banding, Gastric Bypass, and Biliopancreatic Diversion

Department of Surgery, New York University Program for Surgical Weight Loss, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons (Impact Factor: 5.12). 11/2007; 205(5):631-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.05.033
Source: PubMed


Bariatric operation is the most effective treatment for diabetes mellitus in the morbidly obese. The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of resolution of diabetes mellitus after three common laparoscopic bariatric procedures: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch (BPD/DS).
All data were prospectively collected and entered into an electronic registry. Characteristics evaluated for this study included preoperative age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, race, gender, operative time, length of stay, percent excess weight loss, oral hypoglycemic requirements, and insulin requirements.
A total of 282 bariatric patients with diabetes mellitus were analyzed (218 LAGB, 53 RYGB, and 11 BPD/DS). Preoperative age (46 to 50 years), body mass index (46 to 50; calculated as kg/m(2)), race and gender breakdown, and baseline oral hypoglycemic (82% to 87%) and insulin requirements (18% to 28%) were comparable among the three groups (p = NS). Percent excess weight loss at 1, 2, and 3 years was: 43%, 50%, and 45% for LAGB; 66%, 68%, and 66% for RYGB; and 68%, 77%, and 82% for BPD/DS (p < 0.01 LAGB versus RYGB and LAGB versus BPD/DS at all time intervals). At 1 and 2 years, the proportion of patients requiring oral hypoglycemics postoperatively was 39% and 34% for LAGB; 22% and 13% for RYGB; and 11% and 13% for BPD/DS (p = NS). At 1 and 2 years, the proportion of patients requiring insulin postoperatively was 14% and 18% for LAGB; 7% and 13% for RYGB; and 11% and 13% for BPD/DS (p = NS).
Despite the disparity in percent excess weight loss between LAGB, RYGB, and BPD/DS, the rate of resolution of diabetes mellitus is equivalent.

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    • "In addition to converting LAGB to sleeve gastrectomy, other options include conversion to either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or BPD-DS. Comparative studies between the latter 2 operations have shown that the BPD-DS patients had better weight loss and co-morbidity resolution, but the complications with BPD-DS were greater until the learning curve was overcome [8] [9]. We exclusively perform primary BPD-DS with robotic assistance [10]; after overcoming our learning curve, we have started offering robotic-assisted BPD-DS to patients who require conversion from a failed LAGB operation. "

    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
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    • "Conflicting data are available regarding the optimal bariatric procedure for severely obese patients with diabetes [8 –10]. We previously reported on 282 bariatric patients who had undergone LAGB, RYGB, or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch at our institution and found no significant difference in the rate of diabetes remission, despite a significant difference in weight loss at 3 years [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence of the positive effects of gastric banding on patients with diabetes has continued to increase. The long-term follow-up of such patients, however, has been limited. The purpose of the present study was to provide the long-term outcomes of patients with diabetes undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding at our institution. From January 2002 through June 2004, 102 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. The study parameters included preoperative age, gender, race, body mass index, duration of diabetes before surgery, fasting glucose level, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and medications used. Preoperative data from all patients were collected prospectively and entered into an institutional review board-approved database. Beginning in 2008, efforts were made to collect the 5-year follow-up data. Of the 102 patients, 7 were excluded because they had not reached the 5-year follow-up point (2 patients had had the band removed early and 5 patients had died; 2 of cancer and 3 of unknown causes), leaving 95 patients for the present study. The mean preoperative age was 49.3 years (range 21.3-68.4). The mean preoperative body mass index was 46.3 kg/m(2) (range 35.1-71.9) and had decreased to 35.0 kg/m(2) (range 21.1-53.7) by 5 years of follow-up, yielding a mean percentage of excess weight loss of 48.3%. The mean duration of the diabetes diagnosis before surgery was 6.5 years. Of 94 patients, 83 (88.3%) were taking medications preoperatively, with 14.9% overall taking insulin. At 5 years postoperatively, 33 (46.5%) of 71 patients were taking medications, with 8.5% taking insulin. The mean fasting preoperative glucose level was 146.0 mg/dL. The glucose level had decreased to 118.5 mg/dL at 5 years postoperatively (P = .004). The mean HbA1c level was 7.53 preoperatively in 72 patients and was 6.58 at 5 years postoperatively in 64 patients (P <.001). Overall, diabetes had resolved (no medication requirement, with HbA1c <6 and/or glucose <100 mg/dL) in 23 (39.7%) of 58 patients and had improved (use of fewer medications and/or fasting glucose levels of 100-125 mg/dL) in 41 (71.9%) of 57 patients. The combined improvement/remission rate was 80% (64 of 80 patients). Our data have demonstrated that laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding results in a substantial sustained positive effect on diabetes in morbidly obese patients, with a significant reduction in HbA1c and an 80% overall rate of improvement/remission.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
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    • "The amount of weight loss is greater with malabsorptive than with restrictive bariatric procedures [14,15,25]. Only few studies have directly compared different techniques [21,26-28], and were usually of short duration, and without control patients, i.e. patients not undergoing surgery [except for ref. [21]]. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term effects of malabsorptive (biliary pancreatic diversion, BPD], and restrictive (laparoscopic gastric banding, LAGB) procedures on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters, and on metabolic syndrome, in morbidly obese patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is able to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function in morbid obesity. Aim of this study was to compare the long-term effects of malabsorptive (biliary pancreatic diversion, BPD), and restrictive (laparoscopic gastric banding, LAGB) procedures on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters, as well as on metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients. 170 patients studied between 1989 and 2001 were called back after a mean period of 65 months. 138 patients undergoing BPD (n=23) or LAGB (n=78), and control patients (refusing surgery and treated with diet, n=37) were analysed for body mass index (BMI), blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides, blood pressure, heart rate, and ECG indexes (QTc, Cornell voltage-duration product, and rate-pressure-product). After a mean 65 months period, surgery was more effective than diet on all items under evaluation; diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome disappeared more in surgery than in control patients, and new cases appeared only in controls. BPD was more effective than LAGB on BMI, on almost all cardiovascular parameters, and on cholesterol, not on triglyceride and blood glucose. Disappearance of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome was similar with BPD and with LAGB, and no new cases were observed. These data indicate that BPD, likely due to a greater BMI decrease, is more effective than LAGB in improving cardiovascular parameters, and similar to LAGB on metabolic parameters, in obese patients. The greater effect on cholesterol levels is probably due to the different mechanism of action.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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