Management of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 12/2007; 120(5):1162-82. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-2362
Source: PubMed


Pediatricians have an important role not only in early recognition and evaluation of autism spectrum disorders but also in chronic management of these disorders. The primary goals of treatment are to maximize the child's ultimate functional independence and quality of life by minimizing the core autism spectrum disorder features, facilitating development and learning, promoting socialization, reducing maladaptive behaviors, and educating and supporting families. To assist pediatricians in educating families and guiding them toward empirically supported interventions for their children, this report reviews the educational strategies and associated therapies that are the primary treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Optimization of health care is likely to have a positive effect on habilitative progress, functional outcome, and quality of life; therefore, important issues, such as management of associated medical problems, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic intervention for challenging behaviors or coexisting mental health conditions, and use of complementary and alternative medical treatments, are also addressed.

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    • "Despite the growing evidence of the mental and behavioural benefits of physical activity for individuals with typical development, there is still limited research into the benefits for individuals, particularly children and youth, with ASD. The maladaptive behaviours associated with ASD can sometimes be attributed to stress, anxiety and other comorbid psychiatric disorders (Myers and Johnson, 2007;Simonoff et al., 2008). Since mental health can be improved through physical activity in individuals with typical development (Penedo and Dahn, 2005), there is the potential that exercise interventions could help to improve the mental health, and behavioural functioning, in individuals with ASD. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review was to systematically search and critically analyse the literature pertaining to behavioural outcomes of exercise interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder aged ⩽16 years. This systematic review employed a comprehensive peer-reviewed search strategy, two-stage screening process and rigorous critical appraisal, which resulted in the inclusion of 13 studies. Results demonstrated that exercise interventions consisting individually of jogging, horseback riding, martial arts, swimming or yoga/dance can result in improvements to numerous behavioural outcomes including stereotypic behaviours, social-emotional functioning, cognition and attention. Horseback riding and martial arts interventions may produce the greatest results with moderate to large effect sizes, respectively. Future research with well-controlled designs, standardized assessments, larger sample sizes and longitudinal follow-ups is necessary, in addition to a greater focus on early childhood (aged 0–5 years) and adolescence (aged 12–16 years), to better understand the extent of the behavioural benefits that exercise may provide these populations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Autism
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    • "Many medications are used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails[6],[15]. These medications include psychoactive drugs or anticonvulsants, with the most common drug classes being antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics[16]but such medications may have adverse effects[11]and no known medication relieves autism's core symptoms of social and communication impairments[17]. Animal studies have reversed or reduced some symptoms related to autism by replacing or modulating gene function[18],[19]suggesting the possibility of targeting therapies to specific rare mutations known to cause autism[20],[21]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) relies upon observation of behavior and environment, identifying the antecedents and environmental influences which foster desirable behaviors (Myers and Johnson 2007). A more specific approach, such as the Play and Language for Autistic Youngsters (PLAY) Project, focuses on developing social behaviors between parent and child using play as the primary motivation while integrating layers of back and forth communication (Solomon et al 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are challenged by issues related to communication, social interaction and behavioral regulation. In many cases, the inability to properly filter and process sensory information drives these diminished capabilities, being overwhelmed by the environment around them and preventing the ability to engage and learn. This paper describes the development of two prototypes, StretchCOLOR and StretchPLAY, as a part of the Social Sensory Surfaces research project, focusing on the design of multi-sensory environments for children with ASD. The research aims to develop environments which help to provide a behaviorally-regulated experience for children with ASD by catering to their specific strengths and interests. Textiles are utilized as both structure and elastic tactile interface, providing a visually and physically engaging environment. The structure is defined as a textile hybrid system, a tent-like structural system integrating tensile surfaces with flexible composite rods. The textile is tailored for both structural capacity and responsiveness to touch by using advanced CNC knitting technology. When tensioned, the textile is activated as a tangible interface where sensing of touch and pressure triggers visual and auditory feedback, while providing a positive physical feedback in the elasticity and resistance of the textile. This project involves intense collaboration in academia and practice between the fields of architecture, computer science, information science, music and civil engineering, along with practitioners in the field of ASD-based therapies. The paper will describe research in material fabrication and interaction design, as well as provide initial results from the use of the prototypes within the setting of local therapy centers working with children with ASD.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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