Yu DH, Mace KA, Hansen SL et al.Effects of decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulation on hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha protein synthesis and function during cutaneous repair in diabetic mice. Wound Repair Regen 15:628-635

Surgical Research Laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital, Department of Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-1302, USA.
Wound Repair and Regeneration (Impact Factor: 2.75). 09/2007; 15(5):628-35. DOI: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2007.00274.x
Source: PubMed


Insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf-1), a critical mediator of tissue repair, is significantly decreased in diabetic wounds. Furthermore, decreased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (Hif-1alpha) and its target genes are also associated with impaired wound healing in diabetic mice. The aim of our study was to examine whether the reduced levels of Igf-1 are responsible for the reduction in Hif-1alpha protein synthesis and activity in diabetic wounds. We provide evidence that Igf-1 regulates Hif-1alpha protein synthesis and activity during wound repair. In addition, Igf-1 stimulated phosphytidylinositol 3-kinase activity in diabetic fibroblasts, which, in turn, increased activation of the translational regulatory protein, p70 S6 kinase. Moreover, improved healing of diabetic wounds by addition of recombinant IGF-1 protein was associated with an increase in Hif-1alpha protein synthesis and function in vivo.

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    • "Similarly, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations have also been shown to evoke disturbances in collagen biosynthesis, wound healing and IGF1 signaling (Siwik et al., 2001; Sienkiewicz et al., 2004; Schafer and Werner, 2008). There is evidence of increased ROS levels and decreased levels of expression and action of IGF1 in diabetic wounds (Bitar, 2000; Yu et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: An indolent non-healing wound and insulin and/or insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) resistance are cardinal features of diabetes, inflammation and hypercortisolemia. Little is known about why these phenomena occur in so many contexts. Do the various triggers that induce insulin and/or IGF1 resistance and retard wound healing act through a common mechanism? Cultured dermal fibroblasts from rats and full-thickness excisional wounds were used as models to test the premise that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a causal role in the development of IGF1 resistance and impaired wound healing under different but pathophysiologically relevant clinical settings, including diabetes, dexamethasone-induced hypercortisolemia and TNFα-induced inflammation. In normal fibroblasts, IGF1 initiated a strong degree of phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) (Tyr612) and Akt (Ser473), concomitantly with increased PI3K activity. This phenomenon seemed to be attenuated in fibroblasts that had phenotypic features of diabetes, inflammation or hypercortisolemia. Notably, these cells also exhibited an increase in the activity of the ROS-phospho-JNK (p-JNK)-p-IRS1 (Ser307) axis. The above-mentioned defects were reflected functionally by attenuation in IGF1-dependent stimulation of key fibroblast functions, including collagen synthesis and cell proliferation, migration and contraction. The effects of IGF1 on glucose disposal and cutaneous wound healing were also impaired in diabetic or hypercortisolemic rats. The ROS suppressors EUK-134 and α-lipoic acid, or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of JNK expression, restored IGF1 sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo, and also ameliorated the impairment in IGF1-mediated wound responses during diabetes, inflammation and hypercortisolemia. Our data advance the notion that ROS constitute a convergence nexus for the development of IGF1 resistance and impaired wound healing under different but pathophysiologically relevant clinical settings, with a proof of concept for the beneficial effect of ROS suppressors.
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    ABSTRACT: The unknown mechanisms of impaired tissue repair in diabetes mellitus are making this disease a serious clinical problem for the physicians worldwide. The lacuna in the knowledge of the etiology of diabetic wounds necessitates more focused research in order to develop new targeting tools with higher efficacy for their effective management. Gap-junction proteins, connexins, have shown some promising results in the process of diabetic wound healing. Till now the role of connexins has been implicated in peripheral neuropathy, deafness, skin disorders, cataract, germ cell development and treatment of cancer. Recent findings have revealed that gap junctions play a key role in normal as well as diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this review is to provide the information related to etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation of diabetic wounds and to analyze the role of connexin 43 (Cx43) in the diabetic wound healing process. The current control strategies and the future research challenges have also been discussed briefly in this review.
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    ABSTRACT: Islet dysfunction is a primary cause of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Events leading to islet failure are still poorly defined due to the complexity of the disease and scarcity of human T2DM islets. The aim of the present study was to identify cellular mechanisms involved in the T2DM pathophysiology by protein profiling islets obtained from T2DM individuals and age- and weight-matched controls using liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In T2DM islets, multiple differentially expressed proteins correlated with insulin secretion. When these T2DM islet proteins were analyzed for differential pathway activation, three of the five most activated pathways were pathways of cell arrest and apoptosis (p53, caspase, stress-activated), one represented immune-response (Fas), and the most activated pathway was connected with proliferation and regeneration (E2F). Among the inactivated pathways, three out of five were pathways of proliferation and regeneration (insulin, PRL, PDGF). The present study is the first to report differential activation of specific pathways during T2DM islet deterioration. The information about alterations in pathway signaling patterns may open new ways to develop strategies aimed at restoring islet cell function and survival.
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