Detection of mycoplasma in goat milk by flow cytometry

Unidad de Epidemiología y Medicina Preventiva, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Arucas, Spain.
Cytometry Part A (Impact Factor: 2.93). 12/2007; 71(12):1034-8. DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.20476
Source: PubMed


The detection of mycoplasma in milk can be performed by either culture techniques or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Although PCR can reduce the average diagnostic time to 5 h in comparison with the several days for the isolation of the agent, there is still a need to develop methods, which could give earlier results. For this purpose, we tested the ability of flow cytometry (FC) to detect mycoplasmas in milk samples. Milk samples inoculated with four different mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma putrefaciens, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. Capricolum, or Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides large-colony type, known to cause contagious agalactia in goats, were stained with the DNA stain SYBR Green I and analyzed by FC. Three goat milk samples, from which mycoplasmas have been isolated in broth medium were also analyzed. All mycoplasmas were easily distinguished from debris of milk samples, but it was not possible to distinguish between the different mycoplasma species. In our conditions, the detection limit of the technique was of the order of 10(3)-10(4) cells ml(-1). Furthermore, mycoplasmas were also distinguished from Staphylococcus aureus. FC together with SYBR Green I was able to distinguish between mycoplasma cells and debris present in milk samples and gave results in 20-30 min. This is an important first step in developing a robust, routine flow cytometric method for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk samples.

Download full-text


Available from: Hazel Marie Davey
  • Source
    • "By culturing M. agassizii organisms at a permissive 30°C and a lethal 60°C, we were able to show that only viable mycoplasma are stained with 5-CFDA. In addition, this method allowed for the enumeration of fewer than 100 viable microbes ml )1 , which compares to the detection limit reported for various mycoplasma species in goat milk (Assunção et al. 2007). The ability to detect and enumerate viable M. agassizii in broth cultures by 5-CFDA-AM staining allows experiments with these organisms in the laboratory that were previously not possible using conventional culture methods. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma agassizii can cause upper respiratory tract disease in the threatened desert tortoise of the Southwestern United States. Two technical challenges have impeded critical microbiological studies of this microorganism: (i) its small size limits the use of light microscopy for cell counting and (ii) its extremely slow growth in broth and agar cultures impedes colony counting. Our aim was to develop a rapid and sensitive flow cytometric method using a vital fluorescent dye to enumerate viable M. agassizii cells. Here, we demonstrate that the nonfluorescent molecule 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) diacetate acetoxymethyl ester penetrates M. agassizii cell membranes and it is converted in the cytoplasm to the fluorescent molecule 5-CF by the action of intracellular esterases. Labelled mycoplasma cells can be easily detected by flow cytometry, and cultures with as few as 100 viable mycoplasma cells ml(-1) can be labelled and counted in less than 1 h. Experiments using temperature-induced cell death demonstrated that only viable M. agassizii cells are labelled with this procedure. A rapid and sensitive flow cytometric technique has been developed for enumerating viable M. agassizii cells. This technique should facilitate basic immunological, biochemical and pharmacological studies of this important pathogen which may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic methods.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Letters in Applied Microbiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vegetative cells of the spore-former Bacillus cereus were exposed to a number of treatments commonly used in commercial food preparation or during equipment cleaning and decontamination. Treated suspensions were then analyzed for reductions (CFU per milliliter) by plate counting and changes in levels of ATP and ADP released from cells with a bioluminescence-based assay. With the use of flow cytometry (FCM), the physiological status of individual cells before and after exposure to treatments was determined by staining of control and treated cells with three pairs of physiological dyes (SYTO 9/propidium iodide, carboxyfluorescein diacetate/Hoechst 33342, and C12-resazurin/SYTOX Green). Good agreement was found between plate counting and FCM. In general, treatments giving rise to the highest count reductions also had the greatest effects on cell membrane permeability (measured with the use of propidium iodide or SYTOX Green), esterase activity (measured with carboxyfluorescein diacetate), or redox activity (C12-resazurin). FCM data demonstrated the extent of heterogeneity of vegetative cell responses to treatments in, for example, the treatment with 5% H2O2, which caused a 6-log reduction in which approximately 95% of the population was composed of membrane-damaged cells (as reflected by their permeability to SYTOX Green), whereas in treatment with 0.09% (wt/vol) potassium sorbate, which caused only a 1-log reduction, not more than 40% of cells were membrane damaged. The approaches described in this work can be applied to gain a greater understanding of bacterial responses to food control measures, generate more accurate inactivation models, or screen novel prospective food control measures.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Journal of food protection
  • Source

    Full-text · Chapter · Jun 2012
Show more