Adolescent to emerging adulthood smoking trajectories: When do smoking trajectories diverge, and do they predict early adulthood nicotine dependence?

University of Southern California, Alhambra, CA, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 12/2007; 9(11):1147-54. DOI: 10.1080/14622200701648359
Source: PubMed


This study evaluated the adolescent tobacco-use trajectories that predict nicotine dependence in early adulthood and when these trajectories start to diverge. As part of a follow-up to a large prevention trial, the present study evaluated 1,017 individuals from early adolescence (age 12) to early adulthood (age 28). Participants were recruited from eight middle schools in Kansas City, Missouri. Students were entering 6th grade or 7th grade at baseline. Smoking was evaluated at baseline, 6 months, at annual follow-ups through high school, and every 18 months thereafter until age 28. The study goals were to determine (a) whether distinct weekly tobacco-use trajectories could be identified between early adolescence and emerging adulthood (ages 12-24); (b) when during development these trajectories diverged; and (c) which trajectories could predict nicotine dependence in early adulthood (ages 26-28). A four-trajectory mixed model (abstainers, low users, late stable users, and early stable users) demonstrated the best fit to the data. Membership in increasingly high-use trajectories placed participants at greater relative risk for becoming nicotine dependent than did membership in lower-use trajectories. General linear models showed greater weekly cigarette consumption for early stable users as early as the first wave of data collection (age 12) and significant differences among all other trajectories by age 15. The findings support the implementation of smoking prevention programs early in middle or junior high school and suggest that adolescents who are already smoking at least two cigarettes per week by age 12 may benefit from additional addiction prevention efforts.

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Available from: Nathaniel R Riggs
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    • "One study found that non-college attending individuals use more substances during the emerging adulthood period than do their college-student peers (White, Labouvie, & Papadaratsakis, 2005). Those who engage in substance use earlier tend to be at a higher risk for poorer outcomes later in life than those who do not (Riggs, Chou, Li, & Pentz, 2007;Tucker, Ellickson, Orlando, Martino, & Klein, 2005). The first validation study of the IDEA (Reifman, Arnett, & Colwell, 2007) examined how emerging adulthood scores by sub-scale differed by age group. "
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    • "Given that emerging adulthood is a vulnerable period for smoking initiation (Chen & Jacques-Tiura, 2014) and transition to heavier smoking (Riggs, Chou, Li, & Pentz, 2007), it is important to understand patterns of less heavy smoking, including social smoking, in this population that may be less susceptible to public health or cessation messages. Nondaily smoking is an increasingly common pattern among emerging adults who may be initiating smoking (Schane, Glantz, & Ling, 2009), and has been known to persist throughout young adulthood for some smokers (Riggs et al., 2007). Social smokers tend not to smoke alone (Gilpin, White, & Pierce, 2005;Levinson et al., 2007;Moran, Wechsler, & Rigotti, 2004;White, Bray, Fleming, & Catalano, 2009), and restrict their use to social situations such as parties, bars, or nightclubs (Kenford et al., 2005;Levinson et al., 2007;Moran et al., 2004). "
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    • "Whether increasing depression is associated with increasing cigarette use is not known. Taken together, the current literature addressing the relations between smoking and depressive symptoms is lacking longitudinal studies that begin prior to typical onset of smoking (i.e., ages 12–15; Riggs et al. 2007), designs that include simultaneous measures of both cigarette use and depressive symptoms, and modeling how change in both trajectories impact one another across time. This type of design is necessary to test directionality and reciprocality in these relations. "
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