A Hard Tick Relapsing Fever Group Spirochete in a Brazilian Rhipicephalus ( Boophilus ) microplus

Laboratório de Genética Molecular de Eucariontes e Simbiontes, Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.3). 02/2007; 7(4):717-21. DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2007.0144
Source: PubMed


Tick-borne diseases usually comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network connecting the vector, pathogen, and a group of host species. Symptoms associated with Lyme disease have been reported in Brazil, but no Borrelia sp. has been definitively related to these events. Here we have identified a B. lonestari/B. theileri-related spirochete DNA in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Brazil. Four hundred R. microplus and 80 Amblyomma cajennense ticks were screened, and only 1 horse-fed R. microplus was infected. A Borrelia sp. 16S rDNA sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the total tick DNA with 99% similarity to B. theileri and B. lonestari. Partial flaB sequence was also obtained, demonstrating 96% similarity to the B. lonestari flagellin gene, and the resultant putative amino acid sequence demonstrated 97% identity to B. lonestari flagellin. Moreover, partial glpQ sequence demonstrated 92% similarity to the B. lonestari gene, with a putative amino acid sequence 90% identical to the B. lonestari glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase. Phylogenetic analyses clearly include this Brazilian Borrelia sp., denoted "Borrelia," sp-BR in a group of spirochetes aligned with B. theileri and B. lonestari. Thus, hard tick relapsing fever group spirochetes represent a clade of widespread bacteria and herein we describe the first molecular identification of a Borrelia sp. in South America.

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    • "In Brazil, a RF Borrelia sp. closely related to B. lonestari and B. theileri was detected from a Rhipicephalus microplus feeding on a horse (Yparraguirre et al., 2007). Takano et al. (2012) reported a RF Borrelia sp. from the Amblyomma geoemydae collected in Okinawa prefecture, the most southern part of Japan, who's sequences clustered with B. lonestari and B. miyamotoi by phylogenetic analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: A relapsing fever Borrelia sp. similar to Borrelia lonestari (herein referred to as B. lonestari-like) was detected from wild sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) and Haemaphysalis ticks in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. The total prevalence of this Borrelia sp. in tested deer blood samples was 10.6% using conventional PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in deer fawns compared to adults (21.9% and 9.4%, respectively). Additionally, there was significant regional difference between our two sampling areas, Shiretoko and Shibetsu with 17% and 2.8% prevalence, respectively. Regional differences were also found in tick species collected from field and on deer. In the Shiretoko region, Haemaphysalis spp. were more abundant than Ixodes spp., while in Shibetsu, Ixodes spp. were more abundant. Using real-time PCR analysis, B. lonestari-like was detected from 2 out of 290 adult Haemaphysalis spp. ticks and 4 out of 76 pools of nymphs. This is the first report of a B. lonestari-like organism in Haemaphysalis spp. ticks, and the first phylogenetic analysis of this B. lonestari-like organism in Asia. Based on our results, Haemaphysalis spp. are the most likely candidates to act as a vector for B. lonestari-like; furthermore, regional variation of B. lonestari-like prevalence in sika deer may be dependent on the population distribution of these ticks.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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    • "Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods harboring several associated bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoans. Although some of the bacteria are classified as either symbionts , or human pathogens, the biological functions of most of these, only recently described prokaryotes, are still unknown (Niebylski et al., 1997; Noda et al., 1997; Marin and Schmidtman, 1998; Marquez et al., 1998; Yparraguirre et al., 2007; Stromdhal et al., 2008; Machado-Ferreira et al., 2009, 2011). In South America, Amblyomma cajennense is considered the most important tick species, representing the main vector of the Rhodobacteraceae Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Sexton et al., 1993; Lemos 2000; Galvão et al., 2003; Guedes et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Genetics and Molecular Biology
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    • "Hard ticks were pooled by animal and by collection date and site, thus we were unable to detect which individual genus was positive [Amblyomma or Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp.], however R. (boophilus) microplus is an established vector for B. theileri (Smith et al., 1978, 1985). Our results corroborate the similarity of B. theileri with B. lonestari vectored by Amblyomma americanum ticks (interestingly Amblyomma variegatum were also represented in our hard tick pools) (Rich et al., 2001; Yparraguirre et al., 2007). Thus, we were able to provide evidence of soft ticks present in Ethiopia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Two regions (Jimma and Dire Dawa) in Ethiopia were investigated for the presence of soft ticks. Although no Ornithodoros spp. ticks were collected during this survey, published records of their existence in Ethiopia were found. An overwhelming infestation of Argas persicus was revealed in a village located adjacent to Dire Dawa. These ticks primarily were feeding on poultry, but were also biting humans. Furthermore, hard ticks were collected from livestock and companion animals in these regions. Collected ticks were assessed for Borrelia by real-time PCR followed by conventional PCR and sequencing to identify species present. A. persicus ticks were found to carry B. anserina in 3 of 40 (7.5%) A. persicus tick pools, whilst hard tick pools yielded 2 of 16 (12.5%) positive for B. theileri. Collectively, these borrelial species and their tick vectors are likely to have an important economic impact of particular relevance to subsistence farmers in Ethiopia.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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