Article

Social anxiety and disinhibition: An analysis of curiosity and social rank appraisals, approach-avoidance conflicts, and disruptive risk-taking behavior

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Abstract

We examined how social anxiety is related to appraisals for various disinhibited behaviors and sought to identify potential subgroups of socially anxious people. College students completed trait measures and appraised disinhibited behaviors on their potential for threat, opportunity to satisfy curiosity, and ability to enhance social status. Three months later, participants were asked to report on their frequency of disinhibited behaviors since the initial assessment. People with greater social anxiety demonstrated frequent approach-avoidance conflicts - co-existing recognition of threats and rewards - about social interactions and disinhibited behaviors. Even when asked about the activity most likely to be avoided, participants with greater social anxiety evaluated these as having potential to satisfy curiosity and advance their social status. Three qualitatively different groups of people were identified based on social anxiety tendencies and approach-avoidance appraisal patterns. Groups differed on the degree of approach-avoidance conflicts, measures of psychological and social well-being, and frequency of social interactions and disinhibited behaviors. Moderately socially anxious people who were approach oriented reported the most difficulties. Results suggest that social anxiety is associated with tension between competing desires to avoid anxiety and explore. However, there appears to be important variability in the regulatory orientation, behavior, and well-being of socially anxious people. Conclusions about the nature of social anxiety may be compromised by not attending to existing differences in self-regulatory orientation and strategies.

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... A typical response recorded from the interviewees was that '… I observed the divers were intentionally going into the strange cave where was exactly not our planned site announced before…' and '…He pleaded with me that it was because of his curiosity and as we already there, why not to take a look…' This curious tendency can be treated as disinhibited behaviour and is significantly associated with socially anxious individuals. Kashdan et al. (2008) argued that social anxiety is positively related to threat and curiosity, and social status affects people's risk perception (such as approach-avoidance conflicts) [14]. In this regard, Kashdan et al. (2008) further warns that the combination of moderate social anxiety and high risk-taking propensity is toxic. ...
... A typical response recorded from the interviewees was that '… I observed the divers were intentionally going into the strange cave where was exactly not our planned site announced before…' and '…He pleaded with me that it was because of his curiosity and as we already there, why not to take a look…' This curious tendency can be treated as disinhibited behaviour and is significantly associated with socially anxious individuals. Kashdan et al. (2008) argued that social anxiety is positively related to threat and curiosity, and social status affects people's risk perception (such as approach-avoidance conflicts) [14]. In this regard, Kashdan et al. (2008) further warns that the combination of moderate social anxiety and high risk-taking propensity is toxic. ...
... Kashdan et al. (2008) argued that social anxiety is positively related to threat and curiosity, and social status affects people's risk perception (such as approach-avoidance conflicts) [14]. In this regard, Kashdan et al. (2008) further warns that the combination of moderate social anxiety and high risk-taking propensity is toxic. It can unravel the nexus between curiosity triggered by social anxiety and risk-taking behavior. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recreational SCUBA diving is one of leisure behaviours but diving-related injuries and accidents have steadily grown over the past decade. The risk-taking tendency of an individual SCUBA diver can be a key determinant in incurring incidents. Nevertheless, studies that identify the type of risk-taking behaviours associated with SCUBA divers’ incident are extremely rare and there is also no standard for participants to make reference. Therefore, the current study aims to fill this research gap by conducting a series of quasi-expert interviews. This study interviews 63 qualified instructors who witnessed real SCUBA incidents. A theoretical behavioural model with respect to SCUBA divers’ observable risk-taking behaviour was successfully formulated through grounded theory (codes, n = 212) and Cohen’s kappa coefficient (k = 0.938). Negative habituation, intentional violation of safety rules, frolic behaviour, underwater curiosity, thrill- and adventure-seeking behaviour and overreliance on SCUBA diving devices were identified as observable variables associated with SCUBA divers’ risk taking. In addition, this study found that men are prone to negative habituation and intentional violation of safety rules. By contrast, women showed high inclination for overreliance on SCUBA devices. In summary, this study founded a basis for identifying observable risk-taking behaviours, which is crucial for accident prediction.
... Moreover, SAB is central to divergent forms of psychopathology such as social anxiety, depression, and psychosis (Keltner & Kring, 1998). Although related, SAB and social anxiety are nevertheless distinct constructs (Kashdan et al., 2008). For example, both social anxiety and depression are characterised by SAB, but demonstrate markedly different clinical profiles (Ottenbreit & Dobson, 2004). ...
... For example, both social anxiety and depression are characterised by SAB, but demonstrate markedly different clinical profiles (Ottenbreit & Dobson, 2004). Within social anxiety, individuals also demonstrate heterogeneous patterns of social behaviour ranging from prototypical social avoidance to risky social approach (Kashdan et al., 2008). Thus, it is important to characterise factors that contribute to SAB independent of psychopathology. ...
... As a result, some individuals may consistently engage in SAB despite relatively equivalent motivations to approach and avoid social interactions. These findings may explain the seemingly paradoxical social behaviour of some individuals who consistently avoid social interactions despite reporting equal approach and avoidance motivation (Kashdan et al., 2008). When interpreted together, these results suggest that SABrelated modulation of automatic avoidance actions may skew social behaviour towards avoidance. ...
Article
Social avoidance behaviour (SAB) significantly interferes with social engagement and characterises various psychopathologies. Dual-process models propose that social behaviour is directed in part by automatic action tendencies to approach or avoid social stimuli. For example, happy facial expressions often elicit automatic approach actions, whereas angry facial expressions often elicit automatic avoidance actions. When motivation to approach and avoid co-occurs, automatic action tendencies may be uniquely modulated to direct social behaviour. Although research has examined how psychopathology modulates automatic action tendencies, no research has examined how SAB modulates automatic action tendencies. To address this issue, one hundred and three adults (65 females, 20.72 ± 5.06 years) completed a modified approach-avoidance task (AAT) with ambiguous facial stimuli that parametrically varied in social reward (e.g. 50%Happy), social threat (e.g. 50%Angry), or social reward-threat conflict (e.g. 50%Happy/50%Angry). SAB was not associated with automatic actions to any single parametric variation of social reward and/or social threat. Instead, SAB was associated with a quadratic (i.e. U-shaped) pattern in which automatic avoidance actions to social reward-threat conflict were faster relative to unambiguous social reward and social threat. Moreover, this association was independent of internalizing and social anxiety symptoms. These results provide insight into mechanisms underlying SAB, which offers clinical implications.
... The result of dysfunctional avoidance has been shown to generate considerable costs. For example, socially anxious participants report that they miss out on (social) opportunities (Stein & Stein, 2008), despite being aware of the incurred cost (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008). Individuals with specific phobias in particular are often functionally impaired because they avoid multiple situations of everyday life (Hofmann et al., 2008). ...
... η 2 p =.07. Thus, spider-fearful individuals made more dysfunctional decisions and incurred more cost because of their avoidance (Kashdan et al., 2008). This dysfunctionality is apparent in a flatter learning curve and slower response times. ...
... In the eBART, fearful individuals are simultaneously confronted with the increasing risk of fear-relevant, which is of emotional relevance, and the chance of rewarding stimuli, which corresponds more to risk-taking. Consequently, as also apparent in socially anxious individuals, participants have to weigh the costs and benefits of approaching or avoiding these stimuli (Kashdan et al., 2008). Thus, such an approach-avoidance situation might allocate more cognitive resources when being fearful and confronted with fear-relevant material. ...
Article
Previous research has documented that fearful individuals avoid fear-relevant cues even if they incur costs in doing so. Paradigms that were previously used to study avoidance in the lab, manipulated reward contingencies in favor of selecting either fear-relevant or neutral cues, e.g., spiders versus butterflies. We, thus, developed a paradigm where the chance of monetary gains was linked with increasing probability of a fear-relevant or a neutral outcome. To this end, we modified the well-established Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) to include fear-relevant outcomes. Individuals with and without fear of spiders (N = 35) were offered the chance to inflate balloons, with more pumps resulting in larger gains. However, if the balloon exploded, this resulted in a loss of money – and at the same time in the presentation of a picture, either a fear-relevant spider or a neutral butterfly (emotional Balloon Analogue Risk Task; eBART). We operationalized risk aversion as the number of pumps and dysfunctionality of decision strategy as the amount of money that participants earned. In addition, decisional conflict was measured by response times for each decision. The data indicate, that spider-fearful individuals were generally more risk-averse and much more so in trials with fear-relevant stimuli as part of the negative outcome. Overall, this resulted in smaller amount of money that spider-fearful individuals earned compared to spider non-fearful individuals. Interestingly, spider-fearful compared to spider non-fearful individuals generally responded more hesitantly on all trials, and more so when they feared to encounter a spider. This research introduces a new paradigm and provides ecologically valid evidence for costly avoidance behavior in spider-fearful individuals. The eBART may be a promising new research tool to examine risk avoidance with emotionally relevant stimuli.
... Past research has shown that most of the psychiatric disorders including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may have some impulsivity characteristics, which make treatment and progress of the disorders poorer than those, which do not have impulsivity characteristics (13)(14)(15). Some studies in the literature also have shown that some subgroups of patients with SAD can display impulsive behaviors instead of the avoidance behaviors that we often expect to observe in patients with SAD (16)(17)(18). Kashdan et al. examined the behavior patterns and socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of 1,832 individuals in their study and, found that 79% of the SAD samples exhibited typical behavioral patterns such as behavioral inhibition and submission, whereas 21% of displayed more anger and impulsivity characteristics than individuals with typical behaviors (16). ...
... Some studies in the literature also have shown that some subgroups of patients with SAD can display impulsive behaviors instead of the avoidance behaviors that we often expect to observe in patients with SAD (16)(17)(18). Kashdan et al. examined the behavior patterns and socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of 1,832 individuals in their study and, found that 79% of the SAD samples exhibited typical behavioral patterns such as behavioral inhibition and submission, whereas 21% of displayed more anger and impulsivity characteristics than individuals with typical behaviors (16). ...
... Examining impulsivity and anxiety sensitivity characteristics of patients with SAD can lead the way to administer treatment better for clinicians. Several studies in the literature proposed that different levels of impulsivity and anxiety sensitivity also might have affected the severity of SAD (6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(16)(17)(18). Interestingly the results of some of the studies related SAD and impulsivity suggest that impulsivity may have an indirect effect in relation to the severity of disorder symptoms, as well as other individual predisposing factors such as personality traits or anxiety sensitivity (16)(17)(18). ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of impulsivity and anxiety sensitivity in patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and to investigate relationships between these characteristics and the severity of SAD. Method: The sample consisted of outpatients (n=42) who had been diagnosed with only SAD based on the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, in addition to healthy individuals (n=51) serving as the control group. Data collection tools were the sociodemographic form, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11), the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-3), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Results: The mean total score of the BIS-11 in the SAD group was found to be significantly higher than the mean total BIS-11 score in the control group (p <0.001). Compared to the mean total ASI-3 score, the SAD group's mean score was significantly higher than the control groups mean scores (p <0.001). The analysis of variance revealed that the cognitive and social dimensions and total ASI-3 scores were positively correlated with total LSAS scores (r=0.434, r=0.427, and r=0.351, respectively). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between the attention impulsivity subscore and the LSAS avoidance subscore (r=- 0.353). Discussion: Patients with SAD have more impulsivity and anxiety sensitivity characteristics than healthy individuals. Moreover, anxiety sensitivity and attention impulsivity characteristics of patients with SAD are associated with symptom severity.
... A typical response recorded from the interviewees was that '… I observed the divers were intentionally going into the strange cave where was exactly not our planned site announced before…' and '…He pleaded with me that it was because of his curiosity and as we already there, why not to take a look…' This curious tendency can be treated as disinhibited behaviour and is significantly associated with socially anxious individuals. Kashdan et al. (2008) argued that social anxiety is positively related to threat and curiosity, and social status affects people's risk perception (such as approach-avoidance conflicts) [14]. In this regard, Kashdan et al. (2008) further warns that the combination of moderate social anxiety and high risk-taking propensity is toxic. ...
... A typical response recorded from the interviewees was that '… I observed the divers were intentionally going into the strange cave where was exactly not our planned site announced before…' and '…He pleaded with me that it was because of his curiosity and as we already there, why not to take a look…' This curious tendency can be treated as disinhibited behaviour and is significantly associated with socially anxious individuals. Kashdan et al. (2008) argued that social anxiety is positively related to threat and curiosity, and social status affects people's risk perception (such as approach-avoidance conflicts) [14]. In this regard, Kashdan et al. (2008) further warns that the combination of moderate social anxiety and high risk-taking propensity is toxic. ...
... Kashdan et al. (2008) argued that social anxiety is positively related to threat and curiosity, and social status affects people's risk perception (such as approach-avoidance conflicts) [14]. In this regard, Kashdan et al. (2008) further warns that the combination of moderate social anxiety and high risk-taking propensity is toxic. It can unravel the nexus between curiosity triggered by social anxiety and risk-taking behavior. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Recreational SCUBA diving is one of leisure behaviours but diving-related injuries and accidents have steadily grown over the past decade. The risk-taking tendency of an individual SCUBA diver can be a key determinant in incurring incidents. Nevertheless, studies that identify the type of risk-taking behaviours associated with SCUBA divers' incident are extremely rare and there is also no standard for participants to make reference. Therefore, the current study aims to fill this research gap by conducting a series of quasi-expert interviews. This study interviews 63 qualified instructors who witnessed real SCUBA incidents. A theoretical behavioural model with respect to SCUBA di-vers' observable risk-taking behaviour was successfully formulated through grounded theory (codes, n = 212) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k = 0.938). Negative habituation, intentional violation of safety rules, frolic behaviour, underwater curiosity, thrill-and adventure-seeking behaviour and overreliance on SCUBA diving devices were identified as observable variables associated with SCUBA divers' risk taking. In addition, this study found that men are prone to negative habituation and intentional violation of safety rules. By contrast, women showed high inclination for overreliance on SCUBA devices. In summary, this study founded a basis for identifying observable risk-taking behaviours, which is crucial for accident prediction.
... While expressing chain-like continuity of social anxiety with shame, Michael and Birchwood [16] explained that cognitive factors of shame may be modified by treatments used for social anxiety. The results of the studies show that social anxiety has severe negative impacts on mental, personal, and social health of patients and thus, they demand more medical service and are likely to become dependent on the social service [17]. The present study was conducted considering temperamental and environmental etiologies and emphasizing the quantitative approach toward social phobia. ...
... In this correlational study, the statistical population involved all the female and male undergraduate students (more than 5735 students) studying in the departments of Humanities, Medicine, Agricultural Sciences, Art, Basic Sciences, and Technical Engineering in Shahed University of Tehran, in the academic year 2009-2010. The correlational studies on social anxiety and the populations similar to that of this study indicated various samples that regarding related studies including Kashdan et al. [17], John et al. [18], and Dalrimple et al. [19], 581 students of the population of this study were invited to complete the questionnaires using cluster sampling method and considering the fallout rate. In each department, three schools were randomly selected and three classes were randomly selected from the departments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: (15914 Views) Social anxiety is one of the most debilitating anxiety disorders that can negatively affect all aspects of a person's life. Yet, despite the fact that its prevalence rates are relatively high, factors associated it are still poorly understood. The study aimed at determining the prediction model of social anxiety through investigating variables like: depression, shame, behavioral Inhibition, shyness,and anger aspredictors of social anxiety. The study applied a correlative method and a Sample of 581 participants (235 males and 346 females) selected through Cluster Sampling from among Shahed University students. Data were collected through Social Fobia Inventory, Revised Check and Buss Shyness Scale, The third Scale of Adult Self-Conscious Affection, Carver and White Behavioral Activation/Inhibition System Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2. Data were then analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Simultaneous Multiple Regression Analysis in SPSS-16 software. All variables were significantly correlated with social anxiety. Simultaneous multiple regression analysis suggested that with the exception of anger which cannot predict social anxiety, other studied variables (depression, shame, behavioral inhibition, and shyness) can predict social anxiety. Although part of the obtained results are in line with other research findings, the rest should be encountered carefully and more cross-cultural and inter-cultural research can help scrutinize the findings. Keywords: Anger, Anxiety, Behavioral, Depress Shame, Shyness
... The ways people regulate their emotions to navigate challenging social situations have an important influence on physical and mental health over time (e.g., Chervonsky & Hunt, 2018;Gross & John, 2003;Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008;Schlatter & Cameron, 2010). Most research revealing the long-term outcomes associated with emotion regulation uses questionnaires to assess the degree to which individuals habitually engage in specific emotion regulation strategies when emotions arise. ...
... ES is one of the most prevalent emotion regulation strategies used when people experience negative emotions within social interactions (English, Lee, John, & Gross, 2017;Gross & John, 2003;Rimé, 2009), which maximizes the likelihood of observing ES as it naturally occurs within emotionally relevant social contexts. Moreover, research has consistently demonstrated that greater scores on habitual ES measures are associated with poorer psychological, interpersonal, and health outcomes, including greater anxiety, depressed mood, and symptoms of psychopathology (Aldao, Nolen-Hoeksema, & Schweizer, 2010;Chervonsky & Hunt, 2018;Gross & John, 2003;Kashdan et al., 2008), lower relationship quality, satisfaction, and perceived support (English & John, 2013;Velotti et al., 2016), and poorer adjustment to cancer experiences, faster cancer progression, and poorer selfreported health (Classen, Koopman, Angell, & Spiegel, 1996;Gross, 1989;Schlatter & Cameron, 2010;Tamagawa et al., 2013). ...
Article
Greater habitual emotional suppression (ES)-assessed by the suppression subscale of the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ-ES; Gross & John, 2003) and the Courtauld emotion control scale (CECS; Watson & Greer, 1983)-is associated with a range of negative outcomes, which are assumed to arise because habitual ES measures capture the tendency to use ES in response to emotions. The current studies directly test whether habitual ES measures actually capture the response-focused use of ES when emotions arise within social interactions. We conduct these validation tests by integrating measures of habitual ES with naturalistic assessments of negative emotions and the situational use of ES during emotionally relevant interactions with romantic partners (Study 1, N = 200; Study 3, N = 170) and social interactions with close others in daily life (Study 2, N = 430). Greater ERQ-ES and CECS scores predicted greater average levels of situational ES, but only greater scores on the ERQ-ES consistently predicted greater situational ES in response to negative emotions, including greater situational ES for people who experienced more negative emotions than others and when people experienced greater negative emotions than their own average. These results support that the ERQ-ES captures a response-focused pattern of situational ES that is sensitive to varying negative emotions within specific interactions. The CECS may capture a more pervasive, consistent use of ES across situations. Our novel tests offer an important framework for how to validate emotion regulation assessments to advance both theory and methodology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Moreover, some studies found lower anticipatory fear responses to the CS+ after performing US-avoidance than not performing US-avoidance (e.g., Lovibond et al., 2008;Pittig, 2019). These findings aligned with the prediction of a propositional model of avoidance (Expectancy model; Lovibond, 2006), which suggests that one would learn the outcome of performing or not performing US-avoidance, and then mentally compare between the two expected outcomes to PREPRINT the competing reward; Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008). In this regard, safety behavior is oftentimes not a dichotomous behavior, but can be seen as a balance of keeping threat at a subjectively acceptable level while limiting its costs (cf. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Safety behaviour in anxiety disorders is often maladaptive given it prevents patients to disconfirm unrealistic threat beliefs (protection from extinction). These behaviours range from mild to excessive, however, are commonly examined as binary responses. The current study aimed to validate a dimensional measure of safety behaviour. After acquiring differential conditioned fear to a warning cue (CS+) and a safety cue (CS-), participants acquired dimensional safety behaviour that had a negative linear relationship with the admission of an aversive outcome (0-100% omission). Next, a Reward group received a fixed (Experiment 1) or an individually calibrated monetary incentive (Experiment 2) for non-avoidance while a Control group received no incentive. Overall, the paradigm replicated well-established effects. Intensity of safety behaviour strongly aligned with threat expectancy. The Reward group showed less frequent safety behaviour which initiated extinction learning to CS+. Surprisingly, no group differences in protection from extinction were observed. Post-hoc analyses revealed that overall group differences were biased by some high avoiders in the Reward group who constantly engaged in safety behaviour. Novel findings revealed that despite similar conditioned fear to CS-, the Control group showed stronger safety behaviour to it. This suggests that other processes besides fear are involved in low-cost avoidance.
... Moreover, individual differences in personality and information processing, including impulsivity (Keough, Badawi, Nitka, O'Connor, & Stewart, 2016), decision-making styles, and reward expectancies (Kashdan et al., 2006), appear to moderate the association between risk-taking and SA, further supporting the role of effortful control in regulating SA-related behaviors. Importantly, however, most previous studies on this topic have relied on self-report measures of risk-taking and impulsivity (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2006;Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008). There remains a need to integrate experimental, biobehavioral, and self-report measures within the same study to better understand specific mechanisms of distorted decision-making in SA, particularly in contexts of anticipated risks and rewards. ...
Article
Background and objectives: Although approaches combining behavioral genetics and neuroeconomics have advanced models of addiction, no study has synthesized these methods to elucidate mechanisms of competing risk-approachand risk-avoidance in social anxiety (SA). Grounded in dual-mode models of serotonergic systems and self-regulation, this study investigated associations between SA, serotonin transporter 5-HTT (LPR; rs25531) and receptor 5-HT1A genes, and risk-taking on behavioral and self-report measures. Design and methods: Young adults (N = 309) completed a neuroeconomic task measuring gambling attractiveness (δ), reward probability discrimination (γ), and risk attitudes (α). Risk genotypes included 5-HTT (LPR; rs25531) low-expression variants (SS/SLG/LGLG), and 5-HT1A (rs6295) GG. Results: Path analysis revealed that SA related to increased gambling attractiveness, but only for 5-HT1A risk groups. Although the 5-HTT (LPR; rs25531) risk genotypes and self-reported SA predicted lower social risk-taking, high-SA individuals who exhibited more accurate reward probability discrimination (γ) reported taking increased social risks. Conclusion: In line with dual-mode models, results suggest that SA predicts behavioral risk-approach at the basic decision-making level, along with self-reported social risk-avoidance, modulated by serotonergic genotypes. High-SA individuals with more accurate assessments of reward probabilities may engage in greater social risk-taking, perhaps reflecting an adaptive tendency to approach feared situations.
... It may be that these individuals hold more negative assumptions about others ' intentions, leading them to be suspicious and therefore anxious and even hostile in social situations (e.g., DeWall et al. 2010;Linett et al. 2019;Moscovitch et al. 2007). Individuals with SAD also tend to display greater anger and anger suppression, particularly in response to rejection (e.g., Kashdan et al. 2008;Versalla et al. 2016). Erwin et al. (2003) found that the tendency to suppress anger at pretreatment, led to greater posttreatment social anxiety and FNE. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is an effective intervention for SAD, however, many individuals with SAD remain symptomatic at the end of CBT. Therefore, it is important to understand variables that influence patients’ responses to treatment. The present study investigated temporal changes in SAD symptoms as related to fear of negative evaluation (FNE) in a clinical sample of individuals with SAD who completed CBT. Participants with SAD (N = 175) completed self-report measures of SAD symptoms and FNE weekly across 12 weeks of group CBT. We used latent difference score dynamic modelling to explore the relationship between SAD symptom scores and FNE during CBT. Reductions in FNE were associated with subsequent reductions in SAD symptoms for individuals who showed a rapid response to treatment. The coupling of FNE and subsequent reductions in SAD symptoms was not seen in individuals not showing a rapid response. This study provides further support for the phenomenon of rapid response in CBT for SAD and suggests that mechanisms of change may be different for rapid responders as compared to non-rapid responders. The results of the current study may have implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying treatment response during CBT for SAD and for whom particular mechanisms are relevant.
... Since uninhibited behavior, coupled with social anxiety is likely to compromise 25 the psychological, social and physical well-being of the individual, it is essential to 1 recognize potential protective factors (Kashdan et al., 2008). Empathy may function as 2 a protective factor in the association of social anxiety and online disinhibition, since 3 online behavior is unsupervised and therefore regulated according to each person's 4 perceptions and characteristics (Mura, 2011). ...
Article
Online disinhibition is a common phenomenon with negative implications among adolescents, but its correlates have been scarcely investigated from an integrative perspective. This study aimed to examine the relationship of two socially maladaptive personal characteristics, namely psychopathic traits and social anxiety, with online disinhibition. Furthermore, the effect of empathy (affective and cognitive) was examined through moderation analysis. The investigation was based on a context dependent theoretical framework, according to which, the structural characteristics of cyberspace increase or decrease the expression of certain personal tendencies, thus differentiating an individual’s behavior. Overall, 1,097 Greek Junior High School students from Northern Greece voluntarily completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire. After construct validity was tested, a two-step latent moderated structural equation modeling was conducted. Results showed that online disinhibition correlated negatively with all variables except affective empathy. Cognitive empathy moderated only the effect of impulsive-irresponsible traits and social anxiety on online disinhibition. Overall, findings show that students with maladaptive personality characteristics have high propensity for online disinhibition. These results can contribute significantly in understanding the phenomenon, as well as in the design of prevention programs aiming at developing the cognitive empathy of impulsive and socially anxious adolescents. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Z8RJ2f~UW8ZPs
... However, despite the similar ultimate purpose that these inhibited and impulsive tendencies may have, there are contrasting underlying cognitions between the subgroups that lead to the different behaviours recognized, such as a group more versus less likely to abuse substances to cope with symptoms. In support of this cognitive differentiation, Kashdan and colleagues attempted to separate 280 socially anxious individuals based on their appraisals regarding the potential threats versus reward opportunities associated with engaging in several risky behaviours, including substance use [76]. Among their social anxiety sample, they were able to delineate two subgroups: an avoidance-oriented group characterized by the highest threat appraisals and a lack of recognition for rewards associated with risky behaviours including substance use, and an approach-oriented group characterized by high curiosity and recognition for rewards for engaging in such risky behaviours. ...
Article
Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs) frequently co-occur, and individuals with this comorbidity demonstrate exacerbated impairment and poorer treatment outcomes compared to individuals with only one of the disorders. This paper reviews the potential mechanisms underlying this comorbidity, with a particular focus on the influence of impulsivity. There is an atypical subset of individuals with anxiety disorders that display elevated impulsivity, and it is suggested that these individuals account for the clinically relevant group of anxiety disorder patients that have a concurrent SUD. Patients with anxiety disorders that show increased impulsivity, particularly within the negative urgency (NU) sub-domain, appear to have a predisposition to engage in risky behaviours to cope with their anxiety symptoms, which includes substance use. Given the promise of impulsivity and NU as endophenotypes of this anxiety-SUD comorbidity, it is recommended that future research investigate gene variants that modulate impulsivity and NU to establish biomarkers predicting an increased risk of a concurrent SUD among anxiety disorder patients. This subtype and endophenotypic investigation may ultimately establish treatment targets that can lead to greater personalization of treatments for the subgroup of anxiety disorder patients that have comorbid SUDs.
... More specifically, the model suggests that triggered situational interest and participative, affective and cognitive engagement can lead to enhanced curiosity. On the other hand, social anxiety has been shown to suppress curiosity-driven behaviors (Kashdan et al. 2008). ...
Article
In the information age, where all answers are just a click away, curiosity, the intrinsic drive to learn, becomes of paramount importance. How easy is it to prime for curiosity and what are its effects? What simple interventions can be used to enable curiosity-driven behaviors? We have conducted a large-scale study to address these questions, using a novel curiosity-based application (app) on university applicants. Using the same app, we addressed the issue of curiosity assessment, which in recent years has mainly been performed via self-reporting questionnaires. The curiosity assessment tool was developed in order to assess curiosity via an objective, quantitative and digital way. The tool measured several behavioral aspects during a free and task-less interaction with the tablet app. From the recorded activity logs we calculated quantitative behavioral measures related to their exploration patterns. We show that a single word can prime the participants and induce better learning of their self-explored knowledge. We also show that by simply enabling more time to explore, without the ability to stop at will, induces more exploration and more learning. Finally, we show that our behavioral measures, obtained with the digital quantitative assessment tool, are significant predictors of the participants’ self-reported curiosity and Psychometric Entrance Test scores. These results suggest that simple priming for curiosity and enabling enough time to explore improve self-paced learning, and that a relatively simple and short interaction with a digital app can greatly improve state-of-the-art curiosity assessment.
... In this case, cognitive and motivational tendencies associated with low Openness, and the positivity of interpersonal motivations and behaviors related to high Agreeableness, reviewed above, stand in contradiction and may lead to within-person functional inconsistency that results in patterns related to SA. This finding accords with previous studies (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008) demonstrating social anxiety severity as associated with experiencing greater approach-avoidance conflicts. Future studies on social anxiety can draw from the work to carry a step further and strengthen knowledge of mechanisms by which interactions among these traits influence social anxiety. ...
Article
Previous attempts to identify personality traits that enhance inclination to social anxiety (SA) have been limited by a tendency to focus on selected traits in isolation, rather than examining their interactions. Additional research is needed to better understand whether and how these dimensions are linked to SA. In a prospective study, it was examined how interactions between the Big Five personality factors predict SA symptoms. A total of 135 individuals, aged 18–50 years, were recruited. Personality traits were measured at baseline, and SA symptoms were assessed one month later. Results showed that low emotional stability was an independent predictor of higher levels of SA. Additionally, two significant interactions emerged: the interactions between extraversion and openness, and between openness and agreeableness predicted SA symptoms. At high openness, higher extraversion was associated with significantly lower levels of SA, suggesting that the interaction provides incrementally greater protection against SA. Thus, extraverts are likely to be protected against social anxiety symptoms, but more so the more open they are. Moreover, at high levels of agreeableness, low openness has been shown to be uniquely predictive for higher levels of SA symptoms, indicating that the combined effect of openness with agreeableness may be more important to SA than either trait in isolation. These findings highlight the importance of testing interaction effects of personality traits on psychopathology.
... Beck, Stanley and Zebb (1996) recommended three sets of 5-item subscales of the Fear Questionnaire (FQ) to tap into agoraphobia, blood/injury phobia, and social phobia. Since the social phobia subscale has shown a comorbidity with social anxiety in the past (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008;Oei, Moylan, & Evans, 1991), we only used agoraphobia and blood/injury phobia subscales (0=would not avoid it to 8=always avoid it). A sample item for agoraphobia is "traveling alone by bus or coach," and a sample item for blood/injury is "going to the dentist." ...
Article
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Two threat-induced emotions and their respective ability to sway cybersecurity preferences were investigated after a cyberattack on financial institutions. Our theoretical aim was to advance the functionalist claim and differentiate between fear and anxiety by their action tendencies. The emotions were expected to have unique motivation power and thus show mutually exclusive ties to the three types of safety behaviors emerged in our study. Avoidance would be uniquely embraced by fearful participants, whereas surveillance and vigilance would uniquely appeal to anxious participants. Study 1 (N = 199) used a cross-sectional design and found full support for the hypothesis regarding anxiety but only partial support for the hypothesis regarding fear. Study 2 (N = 304), an experiment of fearful, anxious, and relaxed groups, did not yield significant results but did offer methodological recommendations. The quasi-experiments in Study 3 (N = 120) and Study 4 (N = 156) supported the hypotheses on fear and anxiety. Our results in the novel domain of cyber threat brought new evidence to bear on the mixed literature on fear and anxiety. A discussion is offered on the methodological challenges of differentiating two closely related emotions as well as implications for the emerging debate of cybersecurity solutions.
... We offer three explanations for this finding. First, although the prototypical person with SAD is characterized by avoidance and inhibited behavior, emerging research suggests that not all people with SAD engage in avoidance to manage their anxiety (Kachin, Newman, & Pincus, 2001;Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008;Kashdan & Hofmann, 2008). At least a subset of individuals with SAD, with some estimates as high as approximately 1 in 5, engage in approach-oriented behavior (Kashdan, McKnight, Richey, & Hofmann, 2009). ...
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People with anxiety disorders tend to make decisions on the basis of avoiding threat rather than obtaining rewards. Despite a robust literature examining approach-avoidance motivation, less is known about goal pursuit. The present study examined the content, motives, consequences, and daily correlates of strivings among adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Participants generated six strivings along with the motives and consequences of their pursuit. Compared with controls, people with social anxiety disorder were less strongly driven by autonomous motives and reported greater difficulty pursuing strivings. Coders analyzed strivings for the presence of 10 themes: achievement, affiliation, avoidance, emotion regulation, generativity, interpersonal, intimacy, power, self-presentation, and self-sufficiency. People with social anxiety disorder constructed more emotion regulation strivings than did controls, but they did not differ across other themes. This research illustrates how studying personality at different levels of analysis (traits, strivings) can yield novel information for understanding anxiety disorders.
... As a clinical example, avoidance in panic disorders is not solely driven by the severity of panic, but substantially influenced by other factors such as social demands, history of mastery, or alternative gains (see Craske & Barlow, 1988). For example, socially anxious individuals sometimes approach social situations despite high levels of distress due to a competing motivation such as the wish to make new friends (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008). In this regard, fear may be expressed on physiological or cognitive levels, but not end in avoidance behavior. ...
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Rewards for approaching a feared stimulus may compete with fear reduction inherent to avoidance and thereby alter fear and avoidance learning. However, the impact of such competing rewards on fear and avoidance acquisition has not been investigated. During acquisition, participants chose between one option (CS + option) associated with a neutral stimulus followed by an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) and another option (CS option) associated with another neutral stimulus followed by no US (N = 223 randomized into three groups). In a subsequent test, no more USs occurred. In one group, competing rewards were established by linking the CS + option to high rewards and the CS option to low rewards during acquisition and test (Reward Group). In a second group, rewards were present during acquisition, but discontinued during test (Initial-Reward Group). In a third group, rewards were completely absent (No-Reward Group). Without competing rewards, significant avoidance was acquired and persisted in the absence of the US. Competing rewards attenuated avoidance acquisition already after the first experience of the aversive US. Avoidance remained attenuated even when rewards were discontinued during test. Rewards did, however, not change the level of fear responses to the CS+ (US expectancy, skin conductance). Finally, rewards did not change the level of fear reduction during test, which was, however, experienced earlier. Summarized, rewards for approaching aversive events do not buffer fear acquisition, but can prevent avoidance. This damping of avoidance may initiate fear extinction.
... Emotion regulation involves the processes for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions (Thompson, 1994). As shown in numerous studies, deficits in emotion regulation are associated with psychopathology and various mental health problems, such as major depressive disorder (Nolen-Hoeksema, Wisco, & Lyubomirsky, 2008;Rottenberg, Gross, & Gotlib, 2005), bipolar disorder (Johnson, 2005), generalized anxiety disorder (Mennin & Fresco, 2009), social anxiety disorder (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008), borderline personality disorder (Lynch, Trost, Salsman, & Linehan, 2007), eating disorders (Bydlowski et al., 2005), substancerelated disorders (Fox, Axelrod, Paliwal, Sleeper, & Sinha, 2007), oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder (Schoorl, van Rijn, de Wied, van Goozen, & Swaab, 2016), and a variety of risk behaviors such as nonsuicidal self-injury (Bjureberg et al., 2016). Consequently, some form of emotion regulation training is integrated into various therapeutic approaches such as emotion-focused therapy (Greenberg, 2004), acceptance and mindfulness-based therapy (Roemer, Orsillo, & Salters-Pedneault, 2008), dialectical behavioral therapy (Linehan, 1993), emotion-regulation therapy (Mennin & Fresco, 2009), emotion-regulation group therapy (Gratz & Gunderson, 2006), and emotion-regulation individual therapy . ...
Article
The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is an established self-reported measure of emotion regulation difficulties. Recently, a brief 16-item version of this scale—the DERS-16—was developed. The goal of the present study was to extend the research on the DERS-16 by evaluating the reliability and validity of the Persian version in a university sample (N = 201). Results demonstrate that the Persian DERS-16 demonstrated excellent internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. Furthermore, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the proposed factor structure. Thus, the Persian DERS-16 may offer a valid method for the assessment of overall emotion regulation difficulties as well as for the different facets of the construct.
... In fact, recent work has reported that some individuals with social anxiety symptomology are also characterized by high impulsivitysuch as risk taking (Nicholls, Staiger, Williams, Richardson, & Kambouropoulos, 2014). For example, Kashdan and colleagues first reported on an impulsive social anxiety subtype characterized by high risk-taking behaviors and increased alcohol misuse (Kashdan & Hofmann, 2008;Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008). An approach-avoidance framework may help provide some insight into why social anxiety may be related to impulsive tendencies. ...
Article
Individuals may drink or use cannabis to cope with social anxiety, and drinking or using cannabis prior to social situations (e.g., pregaming) may be a way to limit the experience of anxiety when entering social settings. However, theoretical and empirical work has reported mixed associations between social anxiety and substance use, specifically alcohol and cannabis. Little work has looked at how other variables, such as impulsivity (a central component to high risk drinking such as pregaming), may shed light onto these mixed findings. College students who reported past year pregaming (n = 363) completed self-report surveys. Supporting prior work, we found that social anxiety was associated with fewer pregaming days, even among those high in sensation seeking. However, those reporting higher social anxiety also reported higher cannabis use during pregaming, specifically among those who reported high sensation seeking and high positive urgency. Results suggest specific facets of impulsivity may affect the association between social anxiety and cannabis use during high risk drinking events.
... Indeed, there is some naturalistic evidence for such a 179 mechanism. Some individuals with high levels of social anxiety demonstrate high levels of risk--taking 180 behaviour on questionnaire measures (Kashdan et al., 2006, Kashdan et al., 2008, Kashdan and 181 McKnight, 2010. This may, in turn, explain some of the discrepancies across prior studies. ...
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Stress can precipitate the onset of mood and anxiety disorders. This may occur, at least in part, via a modulatory effect of stress on decision-making. Some individuals are, however, more resilient to the effects of stress than others. The mechanisms underlying such vulnerability differences are nevertheless unknown. In this study we attempted to begin quantifying individual differences in vulnerability by exploring the effect of experimentally induced stress on decision-making. Threat of unpredictable shock was used to induce stress in healthy volunteers (N=47) using a within-subjects, within-session design, and its impact on a financial decision-making task (the Iowa Gambling Task) was assessed alongside anxious and depressive symptomatology. As expected, participants learned to select advantageous decks and avoid disadvantageous decks. Importantly, we found that stress provoked a pattern of harm-avoidant behaviour (decreased selection of disadvantageous decks) in individuals with low levels of trait anxiety. By contrast, individuals with high trait anxiety demonstrated the opposite pattern: stress-induced risk-seeking (increased selection of disadvantageous decks). These contrasting influences of stress depending on mood and anxiety symptoms might provide insight into vulnerability to common mental illness. In particular, we speculate that those who adopt a more harm-avoidant strategy may be better able to regulate their exposure to further environmental stress, reducing their susceptibility to mood and anxiety disorders. The threat of shock paradigm we employed might therefore hold promise as a ‘stress-test’ for determining individual vulnerability to mood and anxiety disorders.
... These challenges are particularly important for understanding anxious youths who will exhibit heightened risk taking (e.g., substance use, unprotected sex, impulsive decisions), which is often theorized to serve as a strategy for regulating affective distress (108)(109)(110)(111)(112)(113)(114). Whether the tendency toward heightened risk taking is specific to some anxiety disorders versus others and whether it is modulated by age and/or contextual factors also remains unclear. ...
Article
Avoidant behavior is a defining feature of pediatric anxiety disorders. Although prior research has examined it from the perspective of early information processing events, there has been relatively less consideration of the processes by which anxious youth make avoidant decisions and how these choices are reinforced over time. Studies of risk taking are valuable in this regard as they consider how individuals identify the pros and cons of their choices, how they weight potential gains and losses and estimate their respective probabilities, and how they tolerate the uncertainty intrinsic to any decision. In this review, we place risk taking within existing models of information processing in pediatric anxiety disorders and highlight the particular value of this construct for informing models of developmental psychopathology and individual differences in outcome over time. We review existing behavioral and neurobiological studies of risk taking in anxious youth and conclude by identifying directions for future research.
... Accordingly, some ones have concluded that social phobia can lead to infected persons' life quality reduction (9). In addition, some hostile and disorder impulses are seen in the patients suffering from social phobia in interpersonal relations and sexual pleasure reductions, orgasm frequency reduction, unhealthy sexual function and disorder in decision-making (10). The importance of social phobia in adolescence period compared with other disorders is this that adolescents with this disorder will experience more serious damages in educational performance, social skills and also with their peers and family life (11). ...
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Introduction: Social phobia is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in adolescence years. This disorder owns negative effects on overall health and performance of this group of society people. The aim of this study is determination the prevalence of social phobia disorder among high school students in Abhar city. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional/descriptive study, numbers of 5526 high school students during academic year of 2011-2012 in both of two genders were selected. Participants were studied by using Liebowitz questionnaire through anonymity principle. In addition, the information related to their demographic features was also collected. SPSS software (version 17) was used for statistical analyses. Absolute and relative frequency distribution was applied to describe data and chi-square test was used to determine and compare the ratio of social phobia disorder according to field variables. Results: Total prevalence of social phobia disorder was 17.2% in the population. The study showed that female gender (P=0.000), age (P=0.001), single marital status (P=0.001), low population of family (P=0.003), parents' elementary and middle education (P =0.001), mother's house maker being (P=0.012), father's free job (P=0.002), urbanism (P=0.000) and family's average income (P=0.000) have relation with higher prevalence of disorder. Conclusion: The prevalence of social phobia disorder is high among high school students in Abhar city. Findings can help the decision-makers of health and hygiene in implementing a kind of comprehensive strategy in population regarding interference of mental health promotion arena and preventing from infecting into social phobia disorder.
... However, there is enough information on this topic in cattle and some poultry species that we can still compare results. A similar study analyzing the approach-avoidance behaviors in humans also used a cluster analysis to categorize people into three qualitatively different groups based on their behaviors [57]. This method of cluster analysis can reveal statistically reliable and distinct groups; this is why we decided that using a cluster analysis on this present study was the best way to categorize the birds into three distinct groups based on pecking frequency. ...
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Heat stress (HS), immune challenges (IC) and pecking behavior are some of the many stressors poultry can experience in commercial settings that may affect bird welfare and meat quality after harvest. The first objective was to determine if HS or IC turkeys displayed greater negative effects on meat quality, and the second objective was to determine if the frequency of non-aggressive pecking behaviors among the birds was related to meat quality. Ninety-two, commercial male, beak-trimmed turkeys were used with a total of 15 rooms and 4–7 birds per room. Each treatment was applied for 1 week prior to harvest: the Control (CON) group had no stressors added, the HS group ambient temperature was approximately 29 °C for 120 min, and the IC group involved inoculating birds with a live vaccine for hemorrhagic enteritis virus. Birds were recorded and scored to quantify pecking behavior. Once harvested, carcasses were evaluated for feather retention force, pH, color, proximate analysis, fatty acid composition, shear force, and drip loss. Stress treatment resulted in HS breasts having the lowest protein content, and IC breasts having the lowest CIE L* values and the greatest shear force values. Pecking behavior had no impact on any meat quality attributes.
... 11 University students are more likely to experience social anxiety than other age groups, 12 and university students with social anxiety avoid interpersonal contact due to fear of negative evaluation despite the desire for social interaction. 13,14 In SNS, threatening stimuli that cause anxiety, such as visual and verbal reactions of others, are very limited. 15 Therefore, people with social anxiety can show themselves more easily on SNS. ...
Article
Objective: This study examined the mediating effects of experiential avoidance and interpersonal problems on the relationship between social anxiety and social networking service (SNS) addiction proneness. Methods: An online survey was conducted on 400 university students in their 20s across Republic of Korea. The scales used in the study were the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Korean Acceptance-Action Questionnaire-II (K-AAQ-II), Short form of the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC), and SNS addiction proneness scale for university students. For data analysis, structural equation modeling was conducted, and phantom variables were used to verify the significance of individual indirect effects of the multiple mediation model. Results: Social anxiety had no direct effect on SNS addiction proneness. Experiential avoidance and interpersonal problems completely mediate the relationship between social anxiety and SNS addiction proneness sequentially. Conclusion: Our result suggests that experiential avoidance leads to interpersonal problems and SNS addiction proneness. In other words, it is important to alleviate experiential avoidance in treating or preventing interpersonal problems and SNS addiction proneness among university students with social anxiety.
... Les TSA peuvent être définis comme un trouble neuro-développemental, dont les premiers symptômes apparaissent lors de la petite enfance. Les TSA sont majoritairement caractérisés par des déficits dans le domaine socio-communicatif ( Les individus atteints de troubles de l'anxiété sociale ont tendance à sur-mentaliser en attribuant aux autres des croyances négatives les concernant (Hook & Valentiner, 2002 ;Moscovitch, 2009 ;Washburn et al., 2016), mais peuvent présenter, dans le même temps, un important besoin d'affiliation ou l'envie de nouer de nouvelles relations (Anderson et al., 2011 ;Kashdan et al., 2008 ;Rudrauf, Sergeant-Perthuis et al., 2020). Les individus atteints de troubles de l'anxiété sociale se trouve donc dans un conflit du type approche-évitement par rapport aux autres, craignant leur rejet, tout en se souciant également d'eux (Clark & Wells, 1995, cités dans Rudrauf, Sergeant-Perthuis et al., 2020Kashdan, 2007). ...
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Cette recherche avait pour objectif de développer et valider une première version d'un « test de Turing » non verbal, en s'appuyant sur les critères et outils psychométriques de la psychologie clinique et développementale humaine : l'ASIMOV Test, afin d'évaluer le niveau perçu de développement affectif, cognitif et social d'agents artificiels autonomes du type robots Cozmo basés sur le Projective Consciousness Model (PCM ; Rudrauf et al., 2017) qui est un modèle mathématique de la conscience incarnée. Pour cela, les participant-es ont visionné, puis évalué à l'aide des 27 questions de l'ASIMOV Test et leurs échelles de Likert en 7 points, quatre situations, regroupant un total de neuf vidéos. Ces vidéos, mettant en scène deux agents en interaction et deux objets, avaient pour but de leur présenter plusieurs combinaisons de paramètres du PCM, ciblant des mécanismes psychologiques et des comportements caractéristiques pouvant être adaptatifs ou mal-adaptatifs. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que ces agents artificiels sont, en partie, évalués comme ayant un développement analogue et contigu à celui du jeune être humain et sa dynamique. Bien que comportant certaines limites, ces résultats offrent, tout de même, une assise à de futurs développements en proposant un cadre opérationnel intégrateur et unique dans le but de munir ces agents artificiels d'une conscience similaire à la nôtre.
... Laboratory experiments, daily sampling paradigms, behavioral observation, and longitudinal designs provide consistent evidence that emotional suppression poses a risk to psychological and physical health. Greater use of emotional suppression is concurrently associated with higher negative affect and lower positive affect (Brans et al., 2013;Impett et al., 2012;Low et al., 2017) and predicts longitudinal increases in anxiety and depressive symptoms Gross & John, 2003;Kashdan et al., 2008;Wenzlaff & Luxton, 2003). Greater use of emotional suppression increases physiological threat responses (Gross & Levenson, 1993, 1997Peters et al., 2014;Peters & Jamieson, 2016) and is linked to higher levels of inflammation (Appleton et al., 2013), greater risk of cardiovascular disease (Graves et al., 1994), and faster progression of disease (Tamagawa et al., 2013). ...
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The current research tests the links between emotion regulation and psychological and physical health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1, parents (N = 365) who had reported on their psychological and physical health prior to the pandemic completed the same health assessments along with their use of emotion regulation strategies when confined in the home with their school-aged children during a nationwide lockdown. In Study 2, individuals (N = 1,607) from a nationally representative panel study completed similar measures of psychological and physical health and use of emotion regulation strategies one-year prior to the lockdown and then again during the lockdown. Accounting for prepandemic psychological health, greater rumination and emotional suppression were independently associated with poorer psychological health (greater depressive symptoms and psychological distress, lower emotional and personal well-being), even when controlling for the emotional challenges of the pandemic (emotion control difficulties, perceived support; Studies 1 and 2) and a range of demographic covariates (Study 2). Greater rumination was also associated with greater fatigue in both studies, but greater rumination and emotional suppression were only independently associated with poorer perceptions of physical health in Study 2. The results for cognitive reappraisal were mixed; positive associations with personal well-being and general health only emerged in Study 2. The results provide evidence that key models in affective science help explain differences in psychological and physical health within the throes of a real-world demanding context and thus offer targets to help facilitate health and resilience during the pandemic (and other crises). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... In this case, cognitive and motivational tendencies associated with low Openness, and the positivity of interpersonal motivations and behaviors related to high Agreeableness, reviewed above, stand in contradiction and may lead to within-person functional inconsistency that results in patterns related to SA. This finding accords with previous studies (Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008) demonstrating social anxiety severity as associated with experiencing greater approach-avoidance conflicts. Future studies on social anxiety can draw from the work to carry a step further and strengthen knowledge of mechanisms by which interactions among these traits influence social anxiety. ...
... Third, a subset of people with SAD deviate from the avoidance-oriented prototype and more frequently use approach-oriented strategies to manage anxiety (Kashdan & McKnight, 2010). People with this atypical profile demonstrate more difficulty managing emotions and adapting to situational demands (Kashdan et al., 2008), suggesting that a broader assessment of regulatory strategies may better capture the breadth of regulatory dysfunction in SAD. To address these gaps, we used experience-sampling methodology to examine how adults diagnosed with SAD and a psychologically healthy control group differed in emotion regulation flexibility across daily anxiety-provoking situations. ...
Article
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Background Emotion regulation flexibility is a person's tendency to shift their use of emotion regulation strategies in response to contextual demands. A lack of flexibility is thought to underlie affective disorders, yet conceptualizations of “flexibility” vary widely, and few studies have empirically assessed flexibility. In this study, we outline methods for measuring emotion regulation flexibility and then examine evidence for inflexibility in people with a common affective disorder: social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods Participants were community adults diagnosed with SAD and a psychologically healthycontrol group who completed a 14-day experience-sampling study. Participants recorded their most anxiety-provoking event each day, how they evaluated contextual demands (i.e., perceived controllability, emotional intensity) of these events, and their use of seven emotion regulation strategies to manage anxiety. Hypotheses and analyses were preregistered with the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/s7kqj/). Results Participants with SAD demonstrated some evidence of inflexibility. They used three disengagement strategies (rumination, thought suppression, expressive suppression) more often than controls and did so independently of contextual demands (specifically, perceived controllability). Nonetheless, participants with SAD largely demonstrated similar regulatory patterns as controls, most notably in their use of engagement strategies (acceptance, cognitive, reappraisal, problem-solving). Limitations We measured two of many possible contextual demands, did not compare to a mixed clinical group or other affective disorders (e.g., depression), and did not assess temporal sequences of strategy use. Conclusions People with SAD demonstrate some inflexibility in their use of disengagement regulation strategies.
... Thus, BI and social anxiety share a commonality of approach-avoidance conflict during social interactions. Approach-avoidance conflict has also been suggested to contribute to the development of social anxiety disorder (SAD; Aupperle & Paulus, 2010;Gilbert, 2001;Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008;Neal & Edelmann, 2003;Turner, Beidel, & Townsley, 1990). Specifically, SAD is characterized as excessive anxiety elicited by unfamiliar social situations (American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Stein & Stein, 2008), particularly in situations in which social evaluation might take place (Leary, 1983;Schlenker & Leary, 1982). ...
Article
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Motivation has played an integral role in understanding personality development. Two motivational systems, one associated with seeking reward (approach motivation) and one associated with avoidance of threat (avoidance motivation), have been theorized to represent individual differences in behavioral responses to the environment. However, contextual factors, particularly those with a high degree of novelty, ambiguity, and unpredictability, may simultaneously activate both systems, thereby causing approach–avoidance conflict. The resulting behavior, commonly called inhibition, is characterized by an inability to engage in motivated, goal-directed behavior and is theorized to reflect a core component of anxiety. A form of inhibition observed in childhood, behavioral inhibition (BI), is a relatively stable temperamental profile characterized by negative affect in response to unfamiliar and unpredictable contexts and is a risk factor for anxiety. Our review draws from findings in clinical and cognitive neuroscience to argue that BI reflects an increased sensitivity of both approach and avoidance motivational systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of approach–avoidance conflict within the context of unfamiliar or unpredictable stimuli and environments. Such motivational conflict activates neural systems associated with conflict monitoring, which leads to increases in arousal (e.g., sympathetic nervous system activity) and onlooking behavior, two commonly observed characteristics of childhood BI.
... In turn, avoidance behavior is an important factor in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders Craske et al., 2009) and the reason for a maladaptive decision-making strategy. For example, high socially anxious individuals report they avoid social opportunities (Antony and Stein, 2008) even if they are aware of the incurred costs of their decision (Kashdan et al., 2008). Few laboratory paradigms have replicated this finding, and fewer still that were aimed at modeling this approach-avoidance conflict. ...
Article
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Stress and anxiety can both influence risk-taking in decision-making. While stress typically increases risk-taking, anxiety often leads to risk-averse choices. Few studies have examined both stress and anxiety in a single paradigm to assess risk-averse choices. We therefore set out to examine emotional decision-making under stress in socially anxious participants. In our study, individuals (N = 87) high or low in social anxiety completed an expanded variation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). While inflating a balloon to a larger degree is rewarded, a possible explosion leads to (a) a loss of money and (b) it is followed by an emotional picture (i.e., a calm vs. an angry face). To induce stress before this task, participants were told that they would have to deliver a speech. We operationalized risk-taking by the number of pumps during inflation and its functionality by the amount of monetary gain. In addition, response times were recorded as an index of decisional conflict. Without the stressor, high socially anxious compared to low socially anxious participants did not differ in any of the dependent variables. However, under stress, the low socially anxious group took more risk and earned more money, while high socially anxious individuals remained more cautious and did not change their risk-taking under social stress. Overall, high socially anxious individuals made their decisions more hesitantly compared to low socially anxious individuals. Unexpectedly, there were no main effects or interactions with the valence of the emotional faces. This data shows that stress affects socially anxious individuals differently: in low socially anxious individuals stress fosters risk-taking, whereas high socially anxious individuals did not alter their behavior and remained risk-averse. The novel eBART is a promising research tool to examine the specific factors that influence decision-making.
... For example, an individual with social anxiety may rather converse to a lesser extent in a group discussion. While this safety behavior is believed to prevent the perceived threatening outcome (e.g., appear unintelligent in the conversation) to a certain extent, the individual could still contribute to the group discussion to some extent (obtaining the competing reward; Kashdan, Elhai, & Breen, 2008). In this regard, safety behavior is oftentimes not a dichotomous behavior, but can be seen as a balance of keeping threat at a subjectively acceptable level while limiting its costs (cf. ...
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Safety behavior prevents the occurrence of threat, thus it is typically considered adaptive. However, safety behavior in anxiety-related disorders is often costly, and persists even the situation does not entail realistic threat. Individuals can engage in safety behavior to varying extents, however, these behaviors are typically measured dichotomously (i.e., to execute or not). To better understand the nuances of safety behavior, this study developed a dimensional measure of safety behavior that had a negative linear relationship with the admission of an aversive outcome. In two experiments, a Reward group receiving fixed or individually calibrated incentives competing with safety behavior showed reduced safety behavior than a Control group receiving no incentives. This allowed extinction learning to a previously learnt warning signal in the Reward group (i.e., updating the belief that this stimulus no longer signals threat). Despite the Reward group exhibited extinction learning, both groups showed a similar increase in fear to the warning signal once safety behavior was no longer available. This null group difference was due to some participants in the Reward group not incentivized enough to disengage from safety behavior. Dimensional assessment revealed a dissociation between low fear but substantial safety behavior to a safety signal in the Control group. This suggests that low-cost safety behavior does not accurately reflect the fear-driven processes, but also other non-fear-driven processes, such as cost (i.e., engage in safety behavior merely because it bears little to no cost). Pinpointing both processes is important for furthering the understanding of safety behavior.
Article
Background Negative self-views, especially in the domain of power (i.e. social-rank), characterize social anxiety (SA). Neuroimaging studies on self-evaluations in SA have mainly focused on subcortical threat processing systems. Yet, self-evaluation may concurrently invoke diverse affective processing, as motivational systems related to desired self-views may also be activated. To investigate the conflictual nature that may accompany self-evaluation of certain social domains in SA, we examined brain activity related to both threat and reward processing. Methods Participants ( N = 74) differing in self-reported SA-severity underwent fMRI while completing a self-evaluation task, wherein they judged the self-descriptiveness of high- v. low-intensity traits in the domains of power and affiliation (i.e. social connectedness). Participants also completed two auxiliary fMRI tasks designated to evoke reward- and threat-related activations in the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala, respectively. We hypothesized that self-evaluations in SA, particularly in the domain of power, involve aberrant brain activity related to both threat and reward processing. Results SA-severity was more negatively associated with power than with affiliation self-evaluations. During self-evaluative judgment of high-power (e.g. dominant), SA-severity associated with increased activity in the VS and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, SA-severity correlated with higher similarity between brain activity patterns activated by high-power traits and patterns activated by incentive salience (i.e. reward anticipation) in the VS during the reward task. Conclusions Our findings indicate that self-evaluation of high-power in SA involves excessive striatal reward-related activation, and pinpoint the downregulation of VS-VMPFC activity within such self-evaluative context as a potential neural outcome for therapeutic interventions.
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Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the prediction of social anxiety symptoms (fear, avoidance, psychological arousal) on the basis of early maladaptive schemas. The sample consisted of 200 Ilam university students who selected by multistage random sampling. Participants completed the young’s schema questionnaire- Short Form (YSQ-SF) and Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). Results indicated that there is significant relationship between early maladaptive schema and fear, avoidance and psychological arousal. Social isolation/ alienation schema predict three symptoms significantly. Furthermore, part of each symptom variance was significantly predicted by specific schemas. Although part of obtained results with other researchers findings are attuned, but in the case of the results should be treated with caution and a greater cross-cultural and inter-cultural research can help to scrutinize the findings. Keywords: Early maladaptive schemas Social anxiety Fear Avoidance Physiological arousal
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Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of meta-cognitivebeliefs with social anxiety symptoms in non-clinical population. The sample consisted of 300 (166 females and 134 males) Ilam University students who selected by cluster sampling method. The participants completed the Meta-Cognations Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30) and Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). The results showed that meta-cognitive beliefs were positively correlated with social anxiety symptoms (P<0.05). Also, the results of regression analysis of MCQ-30 subscales showed that uncontrollability danger and cognitive self– consciousness are predictors of avoidance, negative beliefs about uncontrollability of thought and danger are predictors of fear, negative beliefs about uncontrollability of thought and danger and positive beliefs about worry and cognitive security are predictors of physiological arousal. These were the significant predictors of social anxiety symptoms (P≤0.05). Results of this study support the meta- cognitive Wells and Matthew's model of social anxiety and indicates that meta-cognitive beliefs have an important role in social anxiety symptoms. Therefore, the modification of meta- cognitive beliefs with regard to the importance of their role in avoidance, fear and physiological arousal, can be a preventative factor in intensification and continuity of social anxiety symptoms. Keywords: meta meta-cognitive beliefs ,cognitive beliefs, avoidance, fear, physiological arousal
Article
Previous research examining the relationship between social anxiety (SA) and approach and avoidance motivations has been rather limited, and the results – contradictory. We sought to investigate the motivational profiles in SA while differentiating between approach and avoidance motivations in the social-rank and affiliation domains. Based on cognitive, evolutionary, and interpersonal models of SA, we expected that SA will be positively associated with affiliation and social-rank avoidance motivations, and negatively associated with affiliation and social-rank approach motivations. To examine these hypotheses, we conducted three studies. In Study 1 (N = 212), SA was uniquely associated with higher avoidance and lower approach motivations in the domain social-rank. In Study 2 (N = 648), SA was uniquely associated with lower approach motivations in both interpersonal domains. In Study 3 (N = 366), SA was associated with higher avoidance and lower approach motivations in both interpersonal domains. The findings in all three studies were significant above and beyond depression severity and age. These results highlight the importance of motivational profiles for the understanding of SA, which may be useful for the construction of personalized treatments for this condition.
Article
Social anxiety is linked to more covert forms of aggressive behavior, particularly reactive and relational aggression in early adolescent and young adult samples. Adolescents with social anxiety and those who engage in reactive relational aggression are also more likely to have difficulties regulating emotions (e.g., anger) and show maladaptive cognitive coping styles (e.g., rumination). The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression in adolescents (14-17 years), combining the form and function of aggression, and to examine trait anger and anger rumination as underlying factors that may explain the relationship between social anxiety and reactive relational aggression. The current study hypothesized that adolescents with social anxiety would engage in reactive relational aggression through the use of anger rumination, and this relationship would only be present in adolescents with higher levels of trait anger. High school adolescents in grades 9 to 12 (N=105; Mage = 15.43; 61% female) were recruited through their local school and community to complete a 30-minute, battery of questionnaires examining social anxiety, trait anger, anger rumination, and reactive relational aggression. Adolescents completed questionnaires anonymously via an online survey platform, Qualtrics, and were subsequently compensated for their time. Results supported study hypotheses. Simple regression analyses found that social anxiety was positively related to trait anger, anger rumination and reactive relational aggression. Trait anger and anger rumination were also positively correlated with reactive relational aggression. A conditional process analysis was conducted to test the major study hypothesis. Adolescents with social anxiety were more likely to engage in reactive relational aggression if they ruminated about experiences that created anger, and this relationship was present in adolescents with higher levels of trait anger. Gender differences were also explored. Higher rates of social anxiety and anger rumination were found in females. No other gender differences were found. Overall, socially anxious adolescents showed a greater tendency to engage in reactive relational aggression adding to the current literature. Difficulties regulating negative emotions, like anger, and ineffective cognitive coping strategies, such as anger rumination, were precipitating factors that likely maintained socially anxious and aggressive behaviors.
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Models of social anxiety (SA) place the self as an organizing and causal center involved in the maintenance of this condition. An integrative conceptual framework for the understanding of the self is used to review the literature on the self in SA. Two main distinctions are emphasized: the self‐as‐a‐subject (I‐self) versus self‐as‐an‐object (Me‐self), and the evolutionary based systems of social‐rank and affiliation. We argue that (a) although much progress has been made in understanding the association between SA and Me‐self, the association between SA and I‐self remains largely unexplored (with the important exception of anxiety‐related processes in social situations); and (b) experiences and representations of the self in SA center on social‐rank. We suggest that in SA, social‐rank themes constitute the linchpins of identity, defined as the content and structure of the Me‐self. We speculate that processes related to low social‐rank contribute to the focus on representational (Me), rather than experiential (I), self‐aspects. Finally, we delineate the ways in which such an understanding may direct and refine the construction of novel, individually‐tailored, therapeutic approaches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Abstract: (9268 Views) Background and Aim: Gray’s reinforcement sensitivity theory presents three general motivational, behavioral and emotional systems. These systems include: a behavioral-inhibition system (BIS), a behavioral-activation system (BAS), and a fight-flight system, which is a reflection of different functional aspects of the nervous system. This study examines the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and social anxiety with regard to gender. Materials and Methods: In this study, 230 high school students (Girls115, boys115) aged 15-17 years old who were studying in 2010-2011 academic year were selected randomly through multistage random sampling. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire (GWPQ) and Carver and White’s BAS/BIS scale were used. Data were analyzed using analysis of regression (stepwise) and independent t-test. Results: Results showed active avoidance, passive avoidance, fight and extinction subscales of GWPQ. Gender can explain 25.9% of social anxiety variation. Also, drive and fun seeking subscales of Carver & White’s BAS/BIS scale accompanied with gender can explain 25.8% of social anxiety variation. Also, results showed that females mean of social anxiety was significantly higher than males. ‍Conclusion: Findings indicated brain-behavioral systems contribute to explain the social anxiety variation. Although, the gender could explain some amount of social anxiety variance, but more studies should be conducted to help careful findings in this field. Keywords: Behavioral Activation, Behavioral Inhibition, Fight-Flight, Social Anxiety
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Impulsive aggressive (IA, or impulsive aggression) behavior describes an aggregate set of maladaptive, aggressive behaviors occurring across multiple neuropsychiatric disorders. IA is reactive, eruptive, sudden, and unplanned; it provides information about the severity, but not the nature, of its associated primary disorder. IA in children and adolescents is of serious clinical concern for patients, families, and physicians, given the detrimental impact pediatric IA can have on development. Currently, the ability to properly identify, monitor, and treat IA behavior across clinical populations is hindered by two major roadblocks: (1) the lack of an assessment tool designed for and sensitive to the set of behaviors comprising IA, and (2) the absence of a treatment indicated for IA symptomatology. In this review, we discuss the clinical gaps in the approach to monitoring and treating IA behavior, and highlight emerging solutions that may improve clinical outcomes in patients with IA.
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The assessment of internalizing symptoms among incarcerated juveniles is limited. Untreated internalizing symptoms can lead to both problems within the facility as well as a higher likelihood of recidivism. However, more research is needed to understand how specific types of symptoms experienced (i.e., depressive vs. anxiety symptoms) are associated with treatment motivation (i.e., problem recognition and treatment readiness) to inform treatment approaches. Alexithymia (i.e., difficulties communicating emotions) is prevalent in incarcerated juveniles and may contribute to the links between internalizing symptoms and treatment motivation. Accordingly, this study evaluated associations between internalizing symptoms and treatment motivation, including the influence of alexithymia, among detained youth. The study used data from 111 detained juveniles who responded to surveys assessing levels of internalizing symptoms, alexithymia, and treatment motivation. Path models suggested that higher levels of depression, higher levels of anxiety, and higher levels of alexithymia were linked to higher levels of problem recognition when internalizing symptoms were assessed both simultaneously and separately. While higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms were linked to higher levels of treatment readiness when assessed in separate models, no variable was uniquely associated with treatment readiness when internalizing symptoms were assessed simultaneously. Further, alexithymia did not moderate any of the associations examined. Findings suggest that anxiety and depressive symptoms are both more strongly linked to problem recognition than treatment readiness. Implications for facility staff and clinicians are discussed.
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Background: Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, are heterogeneous with respect to approaching or avoiding risky behaviors, including substance use. Additionally, the relation between social anxiety and cannabis use frequency has been inconsistent in the literature. Objective: The present study aimed to clarify the relation between social interaction anxiety and cannabis use by examining the effects of personality traits known to differentially predict substance use, including sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, urgency, behavioral approach, and behavioral inhibition. Methods: We explored heterogeneity in social interaction anxiety using finite mixture modeling to discern profiles differing in mean scores on measures of social interaction anxiety and personality. We then examined how profiles differed in their likelihood of cannabis use. Results: The profile with low social interaction anxiety and high scores on personality measures was the most likely to use cannabis at all time periods. Two profiles with high social interaction anxiety scores were discerned. Between these two profiles, the profile with the highest levels of social interaction anxiety and most measured personality traits was more likely to use cannabis across all measured time periods. The profile with the high social interaction anxiety and low scores on personality measures was the least likely to use cannabis. Conclusions: Results of the present study identified personality traits most associated with increased risk of cannabis use for people high and low in social interaction anxiety, including facets of emotion regulation, urgency, and sensation seeking.
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Social anxiety is characterized by heightened fear and anxiety associated with social situations, resulting in the use of avoidance behaviors. Contemporary models suggest that some individuals with social anxiety may choose to completely avoid social situations, while others may seek social connections and interactions and utilize avoidance behaviors such as substance use as a means of distress tolerance, while engaging in these situations. Our aim is to test a theoretical model whereby extraversion could help to explain the heterogenous nature of social anxiety in relation to these behaviors. Lower levels of extraversion have been commonly associated with withdrawal behaviors and higher levels of extraversion have been associated with behaviors commonly enacted in social situations. Understanding factors which predict the use of one behavior over another is imperative to the conceptualization and successful treatment of patients with social anxiety. A sample of 195 college students completed self-report measures and a 10-day experience sampling diary with five diary signals each day. Participants were asked to rate their current negative emotions and behaviors during each diary signal. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested the association between social anxiety symptoms and negative affect predicting engagement in substance use or social avoidance and tested whether extraversion moderated this association. Negative affect was included as a covariate given the established associations between elevations in negative affect predicting both behaviors. Results indicated that higher levels of social anxiety symptoms and negative affectivity increased the probability of social avoidance and substance use, and extraversion was a significant predictor for only substance use. Moderation analysis indicated that extraversion moderated the relationship between social anxiety and substance use, suggesting a stronger positive relationship between substance use and social anxiety for individuals higher in extraversion. However, extraversion was not a significant moderator between social anxiety and social avoidance. Overall, the findings suggest that extraversion could be a key factor predicting the use of substances amongst individuals with social anxiety and may need further consideration in treatment.
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A growing body of research has acknowledged the heterogeneity of subclinical social anxiety, identifying a subgroup of individuals who exhibit high levels of impulsivity. In a sample of Swedish early adolescents ( N = 2,509, M age = 13.64; 52.8% girls), we conducted latent transition analyses (LTA) to identify four classes of subclinical social anxiety-impulsivity across three time points. We identified a Low Social Anxiety-Low Impulsivity class, as well as a High Anxiety-High Impulsivity class for girls and boys, which had high levels of Time-4 internalizing problems. The latter class was less stable but larger for boys. There was also a more typical High Anxiety-Low Impulsivity class for both genders. Nevertheless, Low Anxiety-High Impulsivity girls and boys fared the worst in terms of both internalizing and externalizing problems later on. To our knowledge, this is the first study to adopt an LTA framework to investigate trajectories of early adolescent social anxiety-impulsivity over time.
Article
Objective: Guided by a functional account of awe, we aimed to test the hypothesis that people who often feel awe are also more curious (Studies 1 and 2), and that this relationship in turn related to academic outcomes (Study 3). Method: In Study 1 (n = 1,005), we used a self-report approach to test the relationship between dispositional awe and curiosity. In Study 2 (n = 100), we used a peer-report approach to test if participants' dispositional awe related to how curious they were rated by their friends. In Study 3, in a sample of 447 high school adolescents we tested if dispositional awe predicted academic outcomes via curiosity. Results: We found that dispositional awe was positively related to people's self-rated curiosity (Study 1) and how curious they were rated by their friends (Study 2). In Study 3, we found that dispositional awe was related to academic outcomes via curiosity. Conclusions: We conclude that among the seven positive emotion dispositions tested, awe was related to unique variance in curiosity, and this link in turn predicted academic outcomes. This work further characterizes awe as an epistemic emotion and suggests that activities that inspire awe may improve academic outcomes.
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Social anxiety disorder is prevalent and negatively impacts adolescents and young adults. People with social interaction anxiety, a presentation category of social anxiety disorder pertaining to social relationships, tend to be more withdrawn, avoidant, and sexually dissatisfied. Some individuals with social interaction anxiety are more likely to engage in health-risk sexual behavior (HRSB), likely associated with individual differences. The present study used finite mixture modeling to discern profiles comprised of social interaction anxiety and individual differences previously associated with HRSB, replicating and extending previous findings (Rahm-Knigge et al. 2018). We also examined differences in sexual satisfaction among profiles. We replicated identifying two profiles high in social interaction anxiety that substantively differed in response to positive and negative emotions, emotion-regulation strategies, risk seeking, and non-acceptance of emotions. The profile high in social interaction anxiety and these individual differences was likelier to engage in HRSB than the other high social anxiety profile. Both high social interaction anxiety profiles were similarly low in sexual satisfaction. Despite differences in individual differences and engagement in HRSB, profiles high in social interaction anxiety reported similarly lower sexual satisfaction than the profiles low in social interaction anxiety.
Chapter
Operante bzw. instrumentelle Prinzipien sind essenzieller Bestandteil von Lernprozessen und ihre Kenntnis die Basis einer jeden Verhaltenstherapie. Das Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die relevanten lerntheoretischen Wirkprinzipien und ihre zielgerichtete Anwendung in der Verhaltensmodifikation. Dazu gehören das Kontingenzmanagement, Differenzierungs- und Diskriminationslernen sowie die Stimuluskontrolle. In der Durchführung operanter Verfahren werden spezifische Strategien für den Aufbau gewünschter bzw. Abbau unerwünschter Verhaltensweisen genutzt. Diese werden anhand von Anwendungsbeispielen aus dem klinischen Alltag dargestellt. Die Umsetzung komplexer Verstärkerpläne bei Verhaltensstörungen (z. B. Token Economy), in der Suchttherapie (z. B. Cue Exposure) oder in der Angstbehandlung ist dabei ebenso Gegenstand des Kapitels, wie die Nutzung operanter Prinzipien beim Bio- bzw. Neurofeedback. Indikation und Forschungsstand zur Wirksamkeit operanter Verfahren werden zusammengefasst.
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Anxiety disorders are prevalent in the population and costly for society, while current treatment is not effective in all individuals. A central symptom of anxiety is avoidance behaviour, with excessive avoidance being predictive of poor clinical outcomes. Appetitive motivation could play a role in decreasing avoidance behaviour by increasing the positive valuation of the feared object. The current study used an approach-avoidance conflict paradigm to measure costly avoidance behaviour in a healthy group of 22 participants. During counterconditioning training one stimulus was followed by eating a tasty snack (CS+), while another was never followed by an outcome (CS-). Results indicated that the CC-training was effective in reducing negative valuation and decreasing avoidance behaviour for the CS+. This study showed the importance of appetitive motivation for avoidance behaviour, suggesting that treatment may benefit from focussing on increasing appetitive motivation to overcome avoidance.
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Bumper stickers reading "Friends can be good medicine!" were distributed by the California Department of Mental Health in 1981 as part of a statewide health promotion initiative (California Department of Mental Health, 1981). The objectives of the initiative were to increase awareness of the health-promoting influence of supportive relationships and to encourage personal involvement providing support to others. Although the ultimate success of this project is unknown, its implementation reflects the degree to which a link between social support and health has become part of our belief system. Correlations between social support and health outcomes have been found in a range of contexts and using a variety of methods (for recent reviews, see Broadhead et al. Although links between social support and health are consistently found, our understanding of the nature of this relation remains limited. A problem in past research was that social support was conceptualized unidimensionally, although it was operationalized in many different ways (e.g., marital status, community involvement, availability of confidants). More recent efforts have analyzed social support into component functions. Theorists differ somewhat with respect to the specific functions served by social support, but most conceptualizations include emotional sustenance, self-esteem building, provision of information and feedback, and tangible assistance (e.g.. Once support is defined in terms of its functions, it is possible to generate hypotheses concerning the psychological processes through which social support has its effects. Although clear theoretical formulations of the helping functions served by relationships arc crucial in the generation of hypotheses, these predictions cannot be empirically tested without appropriate assessment instruments. As described in House and Kahn's (1985) recent review, a number of social support measures have been developed. The measures differ widely in their implicit models of social support, some assessing number of supporters, others tapping frequency of supportive acts, and still others measuring degree of satisfaction with support. A number of problems have plagued these measurement efforts. At the theoretical level, the authors of social support measures have rarely articulated the assumptions underlying their instruments. For example, if a measure assesses the number of supportive individuals, the assumption is that better outcomes are associated with the quantity of support sources. If a measure taps satisfaction with support, the assumption is that better outcomes are associated with the perception that support is adequate for one's needs, regardless of tile number of supporters. Although these differences are rarely articulated, different research questions are posed and answered as a function of the manner in which social support is assessed. Inconsistencies in the literature nay be related to differences in the aspects of social support that are assessed in different studies (see Cohen & Wills, 1985).
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Several literatures converge on the idea that approach and positive affect related to goal pursuit are managed by one self-regulatory system and that avoidance (or withdrawal) and negative affect related to threats are managed by a second self-regulatory system. After briefly reviewing these literatures, the authors consider the relation of these themes to the broader domain of personality. In particular, they map individual differences in the responsivity of the approach system onto the personality dimension of extraversion and map individual differences in the responsivity of the withdrawal system onto the dimension of neuroticism. This mapping requires a slight refocusing of current conceptions of extraversion and neuroticism. However, such a refocusing brings a gain as well as a cost: In particular, it would embed these dimensions more explicitly in a process-oriented conceptualization of action control.
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The psychometric adequacy of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of social interaction anxiety, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS; R. P. Mattick & J. C. Clark, 1989), a measure of anxiety while being observed by others, was evaluated in anxious patients and normal controls. Social phobia patients scored higher on both scales and were more likely to be identified as having social phobia than other anxious patients (except for agoraphobic patients on the SPS) or controls. Clinician-rated severity of social phobia was moderately related to SIAS and SPS scores. Additional diagnoses of mood or panic disorder did not affect SIAS or SPS scores among social phobia patients, but an additional diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder was associated with SIAS scores. Number of reported feared social interaction situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SIAS, whereas number of reported feared performance situations was more highly correlated with scores on the SPS. These scales appear to be useful in screening, designing individualized treatments, and evaluating the outcomes of treatments for social phobia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Different interpretations of an apparent temporal pattern to the experience of regret were addressed through joint research. T. Gilovich and V. H. Medvec (1995a) argued that people regret actions more in the short term and inactions more in the long run because the sting of regrettable action diminishes relatively quickly, whereas the pain of regrettable inaction lingers longer. D. Kahneman (1995) disagreed, arguing that people's long-term regrets of inaction are largely wistful and therefore not terribly troublesome. Three studies that examined the emotional profile of action and inaction regrets established considerable common ground. Action regrets were found to elicit primarily "hot" emotions (e.g., anger), and inaction regrets were found to elicit both feelings of wistfulness (e.g., nostalgia) and despair (e.g., misery). Thus, some inaction regrets are indeed wistful (as Kahneman argued), whereas others are troublesome (as Gilovich and Medvec maintained). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies examined individual and environmental forces that affect engagement in prosocial behavior. Self-determination theory was used to derive a model in which autonomy orientation and autonomy support predicted satisfaction of three core psychological needs, which in turn led to engagement in prosocial activities. In Study 1, college students reported their engagement in various prosocial activities, and completed measures of autonomy orientation, parental autonomy support, and general need satisfaction. In Study 2, volunteer workers completed measures of autonomy orientation, work autonomy support and need satisfaction at work. The number of volunteered hours indicated the amount of prosocial engagement. Results across the studies showed that autonomy orientation was strongly related to engagement in prosocial behavior, while autonomy support was modestly related. Need satisfaction partially mediated the effect of autonomy orientation, and fully mediated the effect of autonomy support. Interestingly, autonomy support predicted lower volunteer turnover. Implications for how prosocial behavior can be motivated are discussed.
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The first of a two-phase project is reported that examined the prospective effects of stress and social support on the physical and mental health of the elderly. A sample of 50 elderly subjects was assessed at two points in time over a 6-month period. Results indicated that social support was a significant predictor of physical health status, whereas mental health was related to the Stress X Social Support interaction term. These latter results were consistent with the buffering hypothesis, in that high levels of social support served to reduce the negative impact of stress on mental health. Individuals who were in better mental health at the initial assessment experienced fewer stressful events and higher levels of social support over the subsequent 6-month period. The implications of these findings for research and theory regarding the relation between stress and social support are discussed.
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The present study proposed and tested a motivational model of alcohol use in which people are hypothesized to use alcohol to regulate both positive and negative emotions. Two central premises underpin this model: (a) that enhancement and coping motives for alcohol use are proximal determinants of alcohol use and abuse through which the influence of expectancies, emotions, and other individual differences are mediated and (b) that enhancement and coping motives represent phenomenologically distinct behaviors having both unique antecedents and consequences. This model was tested in 2 random samples (1 of adults, 1 of adolescents) using a combination of moderated regression and path analysis corrected for measurement error. Results revealed strong support for the hypothesized model in both samples and indicate the importance of distinguishing psychological motives for alcohol use.
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During the past few decades, the health status of adolescents in this country has been declining. Major causes of morbidity and mortality during the second decade of life are behavioral and psychosocial rather than purely biomedical. Hence, the salient issues for adolescent health relate predominately to violence and injuries (intentional and unintentional), substance use, and the consequences of unprotected sexual activity: unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Despite increased attention, violence continues to cause major health problems for adolescents. Several large-scale surveys of adolescents underscore the extent of violence and its impact on adolescents' emotional health. In a telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 16 years, one fourth of respondents reported having experienced an assault or abuse (victimization) in the previous year.1 Victimization included assault by nonfamily or a family member, kidnapping, sexual
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Psychologists have always been intrigued in interest, and modern research on interest can be found in nearly every area of the field: researchers studying emotions, cognition, development, education, aesthetics, personality, motivation, and vocations have developed intriguing ideas about what interest is and how it works. This book presents an integrated picture of how interest has been studied in all of the wide-ranging areas of psychology. Using modern theories of cognition and emotion as an integrative framework, it examines the nature of interest, what makes things interesting, the role of interest in personality, and the development of people's idiosyncratic interests, hobbies, and avocations. The examination reveals deep similarities between seemingly different fields of psychology and illustrates the profound importance of interest, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation for understanding why people do what they do. A comprehensive work devoted to interest, this book reviews the history of psychological thought on interest, presents classic and modern research, and suggests fruitful directions for future work.
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In this theoretical paper, it is argued that social anxiety arises from the activation of an evolved mechanism for dealing with intra-species (conspecific) threat, a mechanism which has played a vital role in the evolution of social groups. A model is developed showing how this “agonic” mode of defense, working through the psychological systems of appraisal and coping, leads the socially anxious to perceive others as hostile dominants, to fear negative evaluation from them and to respond, at one level of the disorder, by appeasement and submissive behavior, and at a more severe level of the disorder, by more primitive actions such as escape or avoidance. A further theme put forward is that the socially anxious person appears unable to recruit another evolved mechanism for social relating called the “hedonic” mode, in which social groups are structured in terms of cooperation, equality, and mutual support. Some therapeutic implications of these concepts are explored.
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It is argued that P-values and the tests based upon them give unsatisfactory results, especially in large samples. It is shown that, in regression, when there are many candidate independent variables, standard variable selection procedures can give very misleading results. Also, by selecting a single model, they ignore model uncertainty and so underestimate the uncertainty about quantities of interest. The Bayesian approach to hypothesis testing, model selection, and accounting for model uncertainty is presented. Implementing this is straightforward through the use of the simple and accurate BIC approximation, and it can be done using the output from standard software. Specific results are presented for most of the types of model commonly used in sociology. It is shown that this approach overcomes the difficulties with P-values and standard model selection procedures based on them. It also allows easy comparison of nonnested models, and permits the quantification of the evidence for a null hypothesis of interest, such as a convergence theory or a hypothesis about societal norms.
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Where does value come from? I propose a new answer to this classic question. People experience regulatory fit when the manner of their engagement in an activity sustains their goal orientation or interests regarding that activity. When there is fit, people engage more strongly in what they are doing and “feel right” about it. Fit influences the strength of value experiences—how good or how bad one feels about something—independently of the pleasure and pain experiences that are associated with outcomes. It uniquely contributes to people's experience of the value of things. Fit is shown to influence judgments and decision making, attitude and behavior change, and task performance.
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Two studies examined the impact on emotion and motivation of framing the same goal in terms of either a positive outcome focus or a negative outcome focus. In Study 1, contingencies associated with either reaching the goal (positive outcome focus) or failing to reach the goal (negative outcome focus) were emphasized. In Study 2, performance feedback was given as subjects worked on a task such that the goal was framed in terms of either a positive or a negative outcome focus. Framing with a positive outcome focus changed dejection-related emotions (e.g., dissatisfaction) more than agitation-related emotions (e.g., nervousness), whereas the reverse was true for framing with a negative outcome focus. In addition, persistence was greater in the positive-outcome-focus condition (both studies), as was performance (Study 2). Implications for self-discrepancy theory and for goal theories of motivation are discussed.
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This article outlines some basic ideas of an evolutionary approach to psychopathology. It focuses on human competition to be seen as attractive in order to elicit the investment of resources from others (e.g., approval, support, and care). It is argued that social anxiety may be a form of competitive anxiety, triggered in contexts where individuals see themselves as relatively low in the status hierarchy of desirable attributes and/or at risk of losing status (and control over social resources such as approval, help, and support) by being seen as having undesirable attributes. To improve (or defend) their position and garner the investments of others (e.g., win approval, support, friendships or status, or defend their status) requires a competitive venture; however, in attempting to compete, social phobics automatically recruit various evolved modules and mentalities for behaving in competitive arenas when one is low in the hierarchy (e.g., social comparison, placating dominant others and various submissive defenses such as concealment, high self-monitoring, and eye-gaze avoidance). These previously adaptive subordinate defenses interfere with status acquisition based on demonstrating attractive attributes to others.
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Neurobiological research with animals strongly suggests that the brain systems which mediate emotion overlap with those that mediate cognition to such a degree that it is difficult, if not impossible, to maintain any clear distinction between them. Possible reasons for this overlap are discussed; and a model of brain systems that simultaneously subserve emotion and cognition is presented. The model postulates the existence of three fundamental systems of this kind in the mammalian brain: a behavioural approach system, a fight/flight system, and a behavioural inhibition system. The neuropsychology of each of these systems is briefly presented.
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Social phobia has become a focus of increased research since its inclusion in DSM-III. However, assessment of social phobia has remained an underdeveloped area, especially self-report assessment. Clinical researchers have relied on measures that were developed on college populations, and these measures may not provide sufficient coverage of the range of situations feared by social phobic individuals. There is a need for additional instruments that consider differences in the types of situations (social interaction vs. situations involving observation by others) that may be feared by social phobics and between subgroups of social phobic patients. This study provides validational data on two instruments developed by Mattick and Clarke (1989): the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), a measure of anxiety in social interactional situations, and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), a measure of anxiety in situations involving observation by others. These data support the use of the SIAS and SPS in the assessment of individuals with social phobia.
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The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
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Past studies in U.S. work organizations have supported a model derived from self-determination theory in which autonomy-supportive work climates predict satisfaction of the intrinsic needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness, which in turn predict task motivation and psychological adjustment on the job. To test this model cross-culturally, the authors studied employees of state-owned companies in Bulgaria, a country that has traditionally had a central-planning economy, a totalitarian political system, and collectivist values. A sample from a privately owned American corporation was used for comparison purposes. Results using structural equation modeling suggested that the model fit the data from each country, that the constructs were equivalent across countries, and that some paths of the structural model fit equivalently for the two countries but that county moderated the other paths.
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The Pleasant Events Schedule is a behavioral self-report inventory of potentially reinforcing events. The test–retest method, involving 181 Ss of various ages and social classes, demonstrated good to excellent stability for the 8 most used scales of the schedule across periods of 1, 2, and 3 mo. Concurrent validity was assessed by comparison with peer and observer ratings. Predictive validity of the test's frequency ratings was studied in relation to subsequent self-monitoring data, while predictive validity of test enjoyability ratings was determined by comparison with subsequent choice behavior. Construct validity was inferred from the results of other research. Adequate validity of all types was found. Scale intercorrelations are also reported, and the question of response bias is addressed. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Client ambivalence is a key stumbling block to therapeutic efforts toward constructive change. Motivational interviewing—a nonauthoritative approach to helping people to free up their own motivations and resources—is a powerful technique for overcoming ambivalence and helping clients to get "unstuck." The first full presentation of this powerful technique for practitioners, this volume is written by the psychologists who introduced and have been developing motivational interviewing since the early 1980s. In Part I, the authors review the conceptual and research background from which motivational interviewing was derived. The concept of ambivalence, or dilemma of change, is examined and the critical conditions necessary for change are delineated. Other features include concise summaries of research on successful strategies for motivating change and on the impact of brief but well-executed interventions for addictive behaviors. Part II constitutes a practical introduction to the what, why, and how of motivational interviewing. . . . Chapters define the guiding principles of motivational interviewing and examine specific strategies for building motivation and strengthening commitment for change. Rounding out the volume, Part III brings together contributions from international experts describing their work with motivational interviewing in a broad range of populations from general medical patients, couples, and young people, to heroin addicts, alcoholics, sex offenders, and people at risk for HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] infection. Their programs span the spectrum from community prevention to the treatment of chronic dependence. All professionals whose work involves therapeutic engagement with such individuals—psychologists, addictions counselors, social workers, probations officers, physicians, and nurses—will find both enlightenment and proven strategies for effecting therapeutic change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The ability of the self to alter its own responses, including thoughts, emotions, impulsive behaviors, and performances, is powerfully adaptive, and failures of selfcontrol contribute to most personal and social problems. A program of laboratory studies suggests that self-control depends on a limited resource, akin to energy or strength. Acts of self-control and, more generally, of choice and volition deplete this resource, thereby impairing the self's ability to function. These effects appear after seemingly minor exertions because the self tries to conserve its remaining resources after any depletion. Rest and positive affect help restore the self's resources.
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One explanation for risk-taking behavior despite warnings about the dangers is that anticipated positive consequences outweigh possible negative outcomes. In a five-part investigation, a new questionnaire was developed to assess outcome expectancies for the potential consequences of involvement in a variety of risky activities. Conceptual and methodological limitations of previously available questionnaires were addressed and content, construct, and criterion validity were demonstrated. The new questionnaire measures respondents' beliefs about the consequences of 30 risky activities, as well as their expected and actual involvement in those activities. Consistent with a large body of alcohol expectancy research, beliefs about potential benefits were found to be more reliably associated with risk-taking than were beliefs about potential negative consequences. Implications for cognitive approaches to harm reduction are discussed.
Article
We examined the hypothesis that under specific conditions, socially anxious individuals may be risk-prone as opposed to risk-averse in domains such as heavy drinking, illicit drug use, unsafe sexual practices, and aggression. A college-aged sample, predominantly women, completed a series of questionnaires on social anxiety and risk-taking behavioral intentions. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive outcome expectancies moderated relationships between social anxiety and sexual risk-taking and aggression. Socially anxious individuals expecting desirable outcomes reported the greatest risk-taking behavioral intentions. Socially anxious individuals expecting less desirable outcomes reported the least risk-taking intentions. Social anxiety interaction effects were not accounted for by other anxiety and depressive symptoms. Data suggested that social anxiety was also positively related to illicit drug use. Although preliminary, these significant findings suggest that a subset of socially anxious individuals may engage in risky activities that likely serve the purpose of regulating emotions.
Article
The present study examined social anxiety, anger, and depression among 234 persons with social anxiety disorder and 36 nonanxious controls. In addition to greater social anxiety, persons with social anxiety disorder exhibited more severe depression, greater anger, and poorer anger expression skills than did nonanxious control participants. Analyses investigating attrition and response to cognitive-behavioral group treatment (CBGT) among a subset of 68 persons treated for social anxiety disorder indicated that patients who experienced anger frequently, perceived unfair treatment, and were quick-tempered were less likely to complete a 12-session course of CBGT. Among treatment completers, significant reductions in the frequent experience of anger to perceived negative evaluation and in anger suppression were noted. However, those who suppressed anger responded less favorably to CBGT. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed.
Article
Research studies focusing on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples were reviewed for the years 1961 through June, 1986. A meta-analysis of the BDI's internal consistency estimates yielded a mean coefficient alpha of 0.86 for psychiatric patients and 0.81 for nonpsychiatric subjects. The concurrent validitus of the BDI with respect to clinical ratings and the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were also high. The mean correlations of the BDI samples with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0. 72 and 0.73, respectively, for psychiatric patients. With nonpsychiatric subjects, the mean correlations of the BDI with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0.60 and 0.74, respectively. Recent evidence indicates that the BDI discriminates subtypes of depression and differentiates depression from anxiety.
Article
The goal of the present study was to determine whether the investigation of interpersonal problems in social phobia would lead to qualitatively different subgroups, subgroups that would provide additional nonoverlapping information to the Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) classification. 30 generalized socially phobic (college students, aged 18-29 yrs old), 30 nongeneralized socially phobic, and 30 nondisordered control participants were selected based on dual structured interviews. All participants completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales (IIP-C). Results showed that when social phobia subtypes were classified using the DSM-IV definition, the IIP-C reflected subgroup differences in global severity of interpersonal problems, with the generalized social phobia group evidencing the greatest difficulty. However, the subgroups could not be discriminated on core or central interpersonal problems. In contrast, when an interpersonal analysis of subtype classification was employed, 2 groups were formed, each with discriminating core unifying features suggesting qualitatively different problematic reactions to interpersonal situations. The potential clinical relevance of an assessment of interpersonal dysfunction to the treatment of social phobia is discussed.
Book
This chapter describes a refinement and extension of the self-presentational theory of social anxiety, which explains social anxiety in terms of people's concerns with the impressions that other people are forming of them. Theoretical developments involving the need for belonging and acceptance demonstrate precisely why people worry so much about what other people think of them, identify the conditions under which such concerns do and do not cause people to feel socially anxious, and link social anxiety to the processes by which people assess the degree to which they are relationally valued by others. The revised self-presentational theory also explains the behaviors that accompany social anxiety and offers implications for clinical treatment of socially anxious clients.
Article
This article elaborates a view of anxiety as deriving from a basic human need to belong to social groups. Anxiety is seen as a pervasive and possibly innately prepare form of distress that arises in response to actual or threatened exclusion from important social groups. The reasons groups exclude individuals (incompetence, deviance or immorality, and unattractiveness) therefore should all be linked to anxiety, and events that implicate the self as incompetent, guilty, or unattractive should create anxiety. This "exclusion theory" of anxiety can be considered a broader revision of separation anxiety theory and is distinguished from theories that base anxiety on fear of death, fear of castration, and perception of uncertainty. Current evidence from multiple sources is reviewed to show the explanatory power and utility of exclusion theory, and implications of this theory are developed in relation to culturally changing standards of sexual behaviour, the motivations underlying the Oedipus complex, and the formation and functions of the self.