ArticlePDF Available

Treatment of Lowland Frogs From the Spawn Stage with Homeopathically Prepared Thyroxin (10 -30 )

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The influence of a highly diluted agitated, i.e. homeopathically prepared thyroxin solution (10(-30), final concentration in the basin water 10(-35) parts by weight after the first application) on metamorphosis in lowland Rana temporaria from the spawn stage on was studied. The treatment with homeopathically prepared thyroxin solution (10(-30)) starts at the frogspawn stage. It represents a tool to learn more about the previously standardized amphibian model, where the thyroxin solution was applied from the two-legged stage on only. Lowland frogs were pretreated by immersing spawn in an aqueous molecular thyroxin dilution (10(-8) parts by weight). In later stages of development (2 to 4 legged), this has been found to speed up metamorphosis by around 15%. In accordance with the homeopathic idea of detoxication or cure, hyperstimulated animals (spawn or, in subsequence, larvae) were treated either with thyroxin that had been highly diluted and agitated in successive steps, i.e. homeopathically prepared (10(-30)), or analogously prepared blank solution (water). Development was monitored by documenting the number of animals that had entered the four-legged stage. It has been found that animals treated with the test solution metamorphosed more slowly than the control animals, i.e. the effect of the homeopathically prepared thyroxin was opposed to the usual effect of molecular thyroxin. The number of test animals that reached the 4-legged stage at defined points in time was slightly smaller in the group treated with homeopathically prepared thyroxin at some, but not at all points in time, compared to control. The results in this study sustain the previous multi researcher findings that highly diluted homeopathically prepared thyroxin is able to slow down metamorphosis of Rana temporaria.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Brief Research Report
TheScientificWorldJOURNAL, (2007) 7, xxx–xxx
TSW Holistic Health & Medicine
ISSN 1537-744X; DOI 10.1100/tsw.2007.220
*Corresponding author.
©2007 with author.
Published by TheScientificWorld: www.thescientificworld.com
1
Treatment of Lowland Frogs From the Spawn
Stage with Homeopathically Prepared Thyroxin
(10
-30
)
Helmut Graunke
1
, P. Christian Endler
1*
, Waltraud Scherer-Pongratz
1
, Michael Frass
1
and Harald Lothaller
2
1
Interuniversity College for Health and Development, Graz, Castle of Seggau, Austria;
2
University of Graz,
Austria
E-mail: college@inter-uni.net
Received June 1, 2007; Revised July 27, 2007; Accepted July 27, 2007; Published
The influence of a highly diluted agitated, i.e. homeopathically prepared thyroxin solution
(10
-30
, final concentration in the basin water 10
-35
parts by weight after the first
application) on metamorphosis in lowland Rana temporaria from the spawn stage on was
studied. The treatment with homeopathically prepared thyroxin solution (10
-30
) starts at
the frogspawn stage. It represents a tool to learn more about the previously standardized
amphibian model, where the thyroxin solution was applied from the two- legged stage on
only. Lowland frogs were pretreated by immersing spawn in an aqueous molecular
thyroxin dilution (10
-8
parts by weight). In later stages of development (2 to 4 legged), this
has been found to speed up metamorphosis by around 15%. In accordance with the
homeopathic idea of detoxication or cure, hyperstimulated animals (spawn or, in
subsequence, larvae) were treated either with thyroxin that had been highly diluted and
agitated in successive steps, i.e. homeopathically prepared (10
-30
), or analogously
prepared blank solution (water). Development was monitored by documenting the
number of animals that had entered the four-legged stage. It has been found that animals
treated with the test solution metamorphosed more slowly than the control animals, i.e.
the effect of the homeopathically prepared thyroxin was opposed to the usual effect of
molecular thyroxin. The number of test animals that reached the 4- legged stage at
defined points in time was slightly smaller in the group treated with homeopathically
prepared thyroxin at some, but not at all points in time, compared to control. The results
in this study sustain the previous multi researcher findings that highly diluted
homeopathically prepared thyroxin is able to slow down metamorphosis of Rana
temporaria
KEY WORDS: amphibian, hormone, thyroxin, homeopathic dilution, curative effect
Graunke et al: Treatment of Lowland Frogs TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (2007) 7, xxx-xxx
2
INTRODUCTION
Intoxication – detoxification experiments are an important tool in research on homeopathy[1,2]. Due to
the relation between an enhanced thyroxin level during metamorphosis[3] and homeopathically prepared
thyroxin, a model with amphibians seems to fit well into this category[4,5].
Highland Animals and Thyroxin 10
-30
In previous experiments[7,8,9], we used Rana temporaria larves from alpine highland populations,
assuming that the highland animals’ natural thyroxin level is comparatively high and that the increase in
environmental temperature causes an artificial acceleration of metamorphosis, when the animals are
brought from the highland biotopes to the laboratory. Animals were treated with homeopathically
prepared dilution of thyroxin 10
-30
(final concentration in the basin water 10
-35
) from the two-legged stage
on. In five independent laboratories in Austria and the Netherlands, it was found that the dilution
diminished the speed of metamorphosis (3-11%). Differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01 or <
0.05 at the measuring points in time). Frequencies of animals treated with homeopathically prepared
thyroxin reached the values of control animals with a delay of about ½-1 intervals between points in
time[7,8,9].
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1234567
Figure 1. The effect on highland Rana temporaria, added
from the two-legged stage on; pooled data from 1990 and
2000 [7-9]. Ordinate = cumulative frequency of 4- legged
tadpoles (N). Abscissa = points in time. Black squares =
frequencies of animals treated with homeopathically
prepared thyroxin; white squares = of animals treated with
analogously prepared water.
Lowland Animals and Thyroxin 10
-30
When Rana temporaria from lowland biotopes were used in the same experimental set-up, starting
treatment at the two- legged stage, no difference was found between the test and the control group (p >
0.05)[6].
Hyperstimulation
In further experiments we observed that hyperstimulation of lowland animals with molecular thyroxin
(final concentration in the basin water 10
-8
) was able to enhance animals’ responsiveness to
homeopathically prepared thyroxin[6]. However, this was applicable only to treatment with
Graunke et al: Treatment of Lowland Frogs TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (2007) 7, xxx-xxx
3
homeopathically prepared thyroxin 10
-8
, but was not applicable to treatment of lowland animals with
thyroxin 10
-30
. Nor did hyperstimulation enhance the observed effect of thyroxin 10
-30
in highland
animals[10].
In the following study, the influence of thyroxin 10
-30
on metamorphosis in hyperstimulated lowland
Rana temporaria was studied. Different to our previous studies, where treatment started at the two-legged
stage, in the study presented here, animals were treated from the spawn stage on.
METHODS
Researchers and Blinding
The experiments were carried out at the laboratory of the Interuniversity College and the study planned by
Graunke and Endler. Application of the homeopathically prepared thyroxin or solvent was done blind.
Animals, Staging, Water and Further Laboratory Conditions
Four days old Rana temporaria spawn were taken from an Austrian lowland pool. The larvae (tadpoles)
were treated and observed during seven weeks until both, the hind and forlegs, broke through the skin and
the animals had thus entered the four-legged stage.
20 eggs were allotted to each of a total of 75 white plastic basins according to a random procedure.
Basins contained 6 l of dwell water each. Indirect natural light was used. Room temperature was 21 +
1°C. The tadpoles were fed with blanched greens (lettuce) ad libitum. The experiment was carried out
between April and June 2006.
Preparation and Administration of Hyperstimulation and Test Solutions
Two groups of animals were exposed to the stock solution of tetra-iodo-thyronin sodium pentahydrate
(T
4
, Sigma, 10
-4
parts by weight in double distilled water, diluted in the basin water down to a final
concentration of 10
-8
) (immersion in thyroxin 10
-8
, hyperstimulation). This is a standard procedure in our
laboratory derived from studies with Rana temporaria from lowland biotopes, where it speeds up
metamorphosis by about 15%[6]. One group of the hyperstimulated highland amphibians was then treated
with the homeopathically prepared test dilution, while the other was treated with the analogously prepared
solvent:
thyroxin 10
-8
+ thyroxin 10
-30
(hyperstimulated test group)
thyroxin 10
-8
+ water 10
-30
(hyperstimulated control group)
The third group was treated with
water 10
-30
(inert control group).
For preparation of the test dilution thyroxin 10
-30
, the stock solution (10
-4
), was diluted with pure double
distilled water in 26 steps of 1:10, and agitated after each step of dilution according to a standardized
protocol. Analogously prepared solvent was used as a control (water 10
-30
).
Graunke et al: Treatment of Lowland Frogs TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (2007) 7, xxx-xxx
4
3 μl of molecular stock solution (10
-4
) was added per animal and 300 ml of basin water of the
hyperstimulated groups (final concentration of the hyperstimulation solution was 10
-8
after the first
application) at intervals of 2 weeks. 3 μl of probe dilution (test or control) was added per animal and 300
ml of basin water (final concentration of probe dilution was 10
-35
after the first application) at intervals of
48 hours.
Comparison and Evaluation of Data
After reaching the four-legged stage the cumulative frequency of animals treated with test or control was
aggregated for each day. Treatment was started on April 29
th
. On June 10
th
the first animals in a four-
legged stage were observed. According to the reasons described in study[14], chi-square tests were used
to compare groups at the points in time. Further statistical methods used in connection with the amphibian
model have been described in[6,9].
RESULTS
500 animals were treated with thyroxin 10
-8
plus thyroxin 10
-30
(hyperstimulated test group), 500 animals
with thyroxin 10
-8
plus water 10
-30
(hyperstimulated control group) and 500 animals with water 10
-30
(inert
control group).
As shown in figure 1, animals treated with the test solution (black squares) metamorphosed more
slowly than the control animals (white squares). The number of test animals that reached the four-legged
stage at defined points in time was smaller in the group treated with homeopathically prepared thyroxin at
most points in time. Differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01) at 3 points in time. Standard
deviation was about + 2.5 to + 3.0 (a high value for SD is typical for hyperstimulated groups[6]. Animals
treated with water 10
-30
only (not hyperstimulized inert control group, black lines) were the slowest group.
0
100
200
300
400
500
1357911
Figure 2. The effect of thyroxin 10
-30
, on lowland Rana
temporaria, added from the spawn stage on. For further
explanation, see legend to figure 1.
The data in figure 2 shows a difference of about 1-10%, i.e. frequencies of animals treated with
homeopathically prepared thyroxin reached the values of the control animals with a delay of about 0.1 – 1
day (e.g. June 15
th
) or did not reach the values of the control animals at the end of the experiment
respectively. P-values are given in table 1.
Graunke et al: Treatment of Lowland Frogs TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (2007) 7, xxx-xxx
5
TABLE 1
For explanation se text
hyp+WD30: hyp+WD30: hyp+TD30:
time (days) hyp+TD30 inert inert
1 0,48 0,48
2 0,62 0,62
3 0,77 0,37 0,54
4 0,57 0,00 0,02
5 0,26 <0,001 0,01
6 <0,001 <0,001 0,01
7 0,05 <0,001 0,07
8 0,46 0,06 0,24
9 0,64 0,06 0,17
10 0,56 0,25 0,57
11 <0,001 <0,001 0,61
12 <0,001 <0,001 0,93
DISCUSSION
In 1990, inspired by older literature on the influence of metal salts[11], we standardized an experimental
model based on the influence of highly diluted thyroxin (10
-30
) on inert Rana temporaria from highland
biotopes. Results from a study in 1990[7] were confirmed by ourselves and others in 2000[6,9]: speed of
metamorphosis was reduced by diluted thyroxin (10
-30
) in all five laboratories involved.
In order to gain a physiological explication for these results, and further to optimize them, we added
hyperstimulation with molecular thyroxin to our initial standard protocol.
Using such hyperstimulation, we were able to include animals from lowland biotopes into our study
line. This was interesting with regard to the limited availability of highland amphibian. However, lowland
animals, even when hyperstimulated, reacted to homeopathically prepared thyroxin only in 2/3 of
experiments and, furthermore, only to a low dilution of thyroxin (10
-13
). Thus, our hope to have found a
robust experimental set-up involving lowland animals was deceived[6]. On the other hand, we learned a
lot about the model, namely that if a difference between test group and control group is found in one
laboratory at all, this difference is considerably greater when hyperstimulated animals than when inert
animals are used[6]. This led to the possibility to explain our amphibian model as an intoxication-
detoxification model analogous to other models used in homeopathy research[4].
From our studies we conclude that there appears to be a relationship between the effect of
homeopathically prepared thyroxin and a naturally or artificially elevated thyroxin level in the animals
during metamorphosis. It is reasonable to suppose that highland larves of Rana temporaria have become
adapted to an environment which necessitates a comparatively high thyroxin level or high sensitivity to
thyroxin[12,13]. This would be a plausible explanation for their consistent response in experiments with
diluted thyroxin.
This assumption is backed by the observation that, in normal lowland animals, immersion in
thyroxin 10
-8
parts by weight leads to an increase of 4- legged animals of about 15% compared to
immersion in plain basin water, whereas in highland animals, thyroxin 10
-8
causes an increase of only
around 5%[14].
Graunke et al: Treatment of Lowland Frogs TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (2007) 7, xxx-xxx
6
Furthermore, the increase in environmental temperature causes an acceleration of metamorphosis
when animals are brought from the highland biotopes to the laboratory. This acceleration is likely to be
“cured” by homeopathically prepared thyroxin.
The present results permit the conclusion that administering homeopathically prepared thyroxin to
amphibian larves during their thyroxin-controlled metamorphosis is in a certain sense analogous to the
intoxication - detoxification concept used in other models of homeopathy research[4], although the
intoxication dose and its effect on responsiveness do not seem to correlate in a linear way.
Apart from its inherent interest for physiology and medicine research, the amphibian model seems to
be a helpful tool to investigate environmental influences on homeopathic drugs[14].
ANNOTATION
The Interuniversity College would be pleased to collaborate with other institutions in order to prepare
further independent repetitions of the experiment standardized in 1990 and repeated in 2000[7,9]. Such
collaborations should include initial training at the laboratory of the College plus an independent
experimental phase at the guest’s own laboratory. Reprints of published papers can be downloaded at
www.inter-uni.net/edition. The process of “trial and error”, but also of “trial and success” in amphibian
research has been described in the journalistic book “Homeopathy Research – An Expedition
Report”[15].
REFERENCES
1. Roth, C. (1991) Literature review and critical analysis on the topic of in- and detoxication experiments in
homoeopathy. Berlin J Res Hom. 1, 111-117.
2. Herkovits, J., Perez-Coll, C., and Zeni, W. (1993) Reduced toxic effect of Cd on bufo arenarum embryos by means of
very high diluted and stirred solutions of Cd. Communicationes Biologicas 7, 70-73.
3. Weil, M.R. (1986) Changes in plasma thyroxin levels during and after spontaneous metamorphosis in a natural
population of the green frog, Rana clamitans. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 62, 8-12.
4. Göldner, C. (2005) Review und Evaluierung von neueren, mit homöopathischen Zubereitungen durchgeführten
toxikologischen Experimenten. Dissertation, Graz University.
5. Guedes, J.R., Ferreira, C.M., and Guimaraes, H.M. et al. (2004) Homeopathically prepared solution of Rana
catesbeiana thyroid glands modifies its rate of metamorphosis. Homeopathy 93, 132-137.
6. Endler, P.C., Lüdtke, R., Heckmann, C., Zausner, C., Lassing, H., Scherer-Pongratz, W., Haidvogl, M., and Frass, M.
(2003) Pretreatment with thyroxin (10
-8
parts by weight) enhances a "curative" effect of homeopathically prepared
thyroxin (10
-13
) on lowland frogs. Res Compl Med. 10, 137-142.
7. Endler , P.C., Pongratz, W., Van Wijk, R., Kastberger, G., and Haidvogl, M. (1991) Effects of Highly Diluted
Succussed Thyroxin on Metamorphosis of Highland Frogs. Berlin J Res Hom. 1, 151-160.
8. Endler, P.C., Pongratz, W., Smith, C.W., and Schulte, J. (1995) Non-molecular information transfer from thyroxin to
frogs With regard to homeopathic toxicology. Vet Hum Tox. 37, 259-260.
9. Zausner, C., Lassnig, H., Endler, P.C., Scherer, W., Haidvogl, M., Frass, M., Kastberger G., and Lüdtke, R. (2002)
Die Wirkung von "homöopathisch" zubereitetem Thyroxin auf die Metamorphose von Hochlandamphibien -
Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Kontrollstudie. Perfusion 17, 268-276.
10. Welles, S.U., Suanjak-Traidl, E., Weber, S., Scherer-Pongratz, W., Frass, M., Endler, P.C., and Lothaller, H. (2007)
Does pretreatment with thyroxin (10e-8 M) enhance a "curative" effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10e-
30) on highland frogs? Results of a multi researcher study. Submitted to Res Compl Med
11. König, K. (1927) Über die Wirkung extreme verdünnter (“homöopathischer”) Metallsalzlösungen auf Entwicklung
und Wachstum von Kaulquappen. Zschft ges exp Med. 56, 881-593.
12. Zausner-Lukitsch, C. (2001) Auswirkungen von homöopathisch zubereitetem Thyroxin auf die
Metamorphosegeschwindigkeit von Rana temporaria. Thesis, Vienna University.
13. Endler, P.C. and Schulte, J. (1998) Ultra High Dilution. Physiology and Physics. Kluwer Academic Publishers,
Dortrecht.
14. Welles, S.U., Weber, S., Suanjak-Traidl, E., Scherer-Pongratz, W., Frass, M., Endler,
P.C., and Lothaller, H. (2007)
The effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10
-30
parts by weight) on highland frogs is influenced by
electromagnetic fields. Submitted to Homeopathy.
Graunke et al: Treatment of Lowland Frogs TheScientificWorldJOURNAL (2007) 7, xxx-xxx
7
15. Endler, P.C. (2003) Homeopathy - An Expedition Report. An old healing system gains plausibility.
edition@inter-uni.net, Graz.
This article should be cited as follows:
Graunke
,
H., Endler, P.C., Scherer-Pongratz, W., Frass, M., and Lothaller, H. (2007) Treatment of lowland frogs from the
spawn stage with homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10
-30
) TheScientificWorldJOURNAL: TSW Holistic Health & Medicine
7, xx–xx. DOI 10.1100/tsw.2007.220.
... . Further studies on thyroxin 10 –30 were discussed elsewhere, namely analogous experiments with animals from lowland biotopes[5], experiments with highland[3,4] and lowland[5] animals pretreated with molecular thyroxin, and experiments with lowland animals treated from the spawn stage on[6]. For the experiment presented here, we used the same setup as for the initial multilaboratory study[1,2,3,4], but a special preparation process of the homeopathic drug involving dilution steps of 1: 50,000 and leading to thyroxin 10 –11 – 10 –21 was used. ...
... From our studies[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9], there appears to be a relationship between the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin and an elevated thyroxin level in the animals during metamorphosis. Thyroxin diluted in steps of 1:10 ( " decimal dilution " ) up to 10 –30 led to a slowing down of metamorphosis of about 3–11%[1,2,3,4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of moderately diluted, agitated, i.e., homeopathically prepared, thyroxin solutions (10-11 - 10-21, final concentration in the basin water 0.6 10-15 - 0.6 10-25 parts by weight after the first application) on metamorphosis in highland Rana temporaria from the two-legged stage was studied. In accordance with the homeopathic idea of effects of specially prepared dilutions being inverse to those of their mother substances, animals were treated either with thyroxin 10-11 - 10-21 or analogously prepared blank solution (water). Development was monitored by documenting the number of animals that had entered the four-legged stage. It has been found that animals treated with the thyroxin solutions metamorphosed more slowly than the control animals, i.e., the effect of the homeopathically prepared thyroxin was opposed to the usual effect of molecular thyroxin. The number of test animals that reached the four-legged stage at defined points in time was smaller (2-13.5%) in the group treated with homeopathically prepared thyroxin at the points in time, compared to control. The results in this study sustain the previous multiresearcher findings that show that diluted homeopathically prepared thyroxin is able to slow down metamorphosis of R. temporaria.
... Study type III concerns the influence of thyroxine 30x compared to water 30x on hyperstimulated lowland Rana temporaria treated from the spawn stage on [44]. The objective of study type IV was to investigate whether earlier onset of pretreatment with thyroxine (1.1 x 10 -8 mol/l, prepared in pure water) sensitizes lowland animals to thyroxine 30x. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our previous paper described methodological problems and a generally acceptable pooling method for metamorphosis experiments and application of that method to the results of multicentre experiments performed over the course of two decades (1990 -2010) on highland amphibians (Rana temporaria) treated with a homeopathically prepared high dilution of thyroxine ("30x"). Differences between treatment groups thus calculated were in line with those obtained with other pooling methods: Thyroxine 30x does slow down metamorphosis in highland amphibians. This follow up paper provides a broader background on metamorphosis physiology and describes application of the pooling method to experiments with Rana temporaria from lowland biotopes both with a moderate dilution of thyroxine ("8x") and with 30x. Analogously prepared water was used for control (water 8x or 30x). Development was, again as above, monitored by documenting the number of animals that had entered the 4-legged stage. Experiments were carried out between 1990 and 2000 by different researchers independently and in blind. As it is well known, metamorphosis can be speeded up by thyroxine 10-8 mol/l; interestingly, thyroxine 8x may produce a reverse, i.e. inhibiting effect (p < 0.01). In contrast to the inhibiting effect of thyroxine 30x on highland larvae (see above), 2-legged lowland larvae did not react to thyroxine 30x (p > 0.05). However, an inhibiting effect on lowland larvae was found when animals were treated from the spawn stage on (p < 0.01).
Article
Background: Studies performed in 5 laboratories have shown that homeopathically prepared highly diluted thyroxin (10-30 = 30x) slowed down metamorphosis of highland amphibians. Metamorphosis of lowland amphibians, however, could be slowed down by a low dilution of thyroxin (10-8 = 8x) if animals had been artificially pretreated with thyroxin. Objective: To combine the advantages of using animals from highland biotopes and hyperstimulation prior to treatment. Animals and Methods: Rana temporaria from an alpine biotope were pretreated in an aqueous molecular thyroxin dilution (10-8 parts by weight, hyperstimulation). This is supposed to accelerate metamorphosis. In accordance with the homeopathic idea of detoxification or cure, one group of these hyperstimulated animals was then treated with thyroxin 30x, and another group with water 30x. Experiments were performed by 4 independent researchers. Results: As a trend, the thyroxin-30x animals metamorphosed more slowly than the water-30x animals. The number of thyroxin-30x animals that reached the 4-legged stage at defined points in time was slightly smaller at some but not all points in time, compared to control. This is in line with previous findings and can be discussed as an interesting result. Contrary to our working hypothesis, however, differences were not bigger than in the previous experiments in which animals had not been pretreated with thyroxin 10-8. Conclusion: This study supports previous findings but does not prove the assumption that pretreatment of highland animals with molecular thyroxine improves the original protocol.
Article
The purpose of this study was to reproduce an experiment with diluted thyroxine and amphibians. A detailed account of the difficulties of this line of research has been published by the initial team (Endler and Scherer-Pongratz). One experiment which has been reported reproducible by the initial team and independent researchers is the effect of extremely diluted agitated thyroxine (T30x) versus analogously prepared water (W30x) in amphibians from biotopes above the tree line (highland amphibians). (A) The author replicated the experiment. Rana temporaria were taken from an alpine biotope and the methods given in the original protocols were followed. Animals were treated from the 2-legged stage on. (B), the author reanalyzed the results reported by the initial team and by independent researchers (van Wijk, Lassnig, Zausner-Lukitsch, Bach, Harrer). (A) In the author's own experiment, there was a clear trend of T30x animals developing more slowly (i.e. up to 6 h within 3 days) than W30x animals. This is in line with the previous experiments. Due to small numbers of animals, the differences in the frequency of larvae reaching the 4-legged stage and the stage with reduced tail were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The effect size was large (d > 0.08). (B) In the analysis of all available data with regard to the 4-legged stage, pooled T30x values from the initial team were 10.1% smaller than W30x values (100%) and pooled T30x values from the 5 independent researchers were 12.4% smaller (p < 0.01 and d > 0.08). Analogously, the number of animals entering the juvenile stage with reduced tail was smaller for T30x than for W30x.
Article
Previous experiments show that amphibian larvae are responsive to homeopathically prepared thyroxine. We studied the effect of a highly diluted and agitated thyroxine solution exposed to various electromagnetic fields on metamorphosis in highland Rana temporaria. The devices tested were: microwave oven, mobile phone, airport X-ray, and a red light barcode scanner. Animals were treated either with homeopathically prepared thyroxine (10(-30) parts by weight, 10(-35) in the water in which the animals were kept), or analogously prepared blank solution, or analogously prepared thyroxine exposed to the electromagnetic field of one of the devices tested. Solutions were administered at 48h intervals according to a standardized protocol. Animals treated with the standard test solution thyroxine 10(-30) metamorphosed more slowly than the control animals, ie the effect of the homeopathically prepared thyroxine was opposed to the usual physiological effect of molecular thyroxine. The cumulative number of test animals that had reached the four-legged stage at defined points in time was smaller in the group treated with homeopathically prepared thyroxine at most of the points in time. This was found independently by all three research teams involved. In contrast, this effect did not occur when the thyroxine solution had been exposed to the field of the early model microwave oven, or mobile phone. There was no difference between aqueous or alcoholic solutions were used, and there was, if any, only a small protective effect from aluminum foil. Airport X-ray and red light barcode scanning did not diminish the effect of the homeopathic solution.
Article
Full-text available
These experiments, performed in Graz and in Utrecht, investigate the influence of extremely dilute thyroxine in a special "homeopathic" preparation on two transitions in the metamorphosis of highland amphibia: a) from the 2-legged to the 4-legged stage; b) from the tailed 4-legged stage to the untailed stage, the juvenile frog (performed in the two laboratories in Graz) or to the stage with reduced tail, respectively (performed in Utrecht). A homeopathic dilution (T4.30X) of thyroxine in a small but significant range slows down the metamorphosis of highland tadpoles as compared to the reference solution H2O.30X. This effect could be observed for both transitions. The retardation of metamorphosis was independently shown in all 3 laboratories during the course of the metamorphosis season of the highland amphibia (from August to October). In one experiment (Graz), the number of juvenile frogs climbing out of the water in the final stages of metamorphosis was counted. Fewer "climbers" were observed under treatment with solution T4.30X.
Article
Full-text available
Wir untersuchten den Einfluss einer extremen Verdünnung von Thyroxin (10 -30) auf die Metamorphose von Hochlandfröschen. Das Hormon wurde schrittweise verdünnt und verschüttelt, wie dies in der Literatur zur Homöopa-thie angegeben ist. Als Kontrolle wurde Wasser analog behandelt. Aufgrund früherer Studien galt als Arbeitshypothese, dass Larven, die mit der Testlösung behandelt wurden, langsamer metamorphosieren als Kontrolltiere. In jüngsten Experimenten wurde diese Hypothese von 3 unabhängigen Forschern bestätigt. Die Anzahl der Tiere, die zu den Messzeitpunkten das Vierbeinstadium erreicht hatten, was auch die Metamorphose des Herz-Kreislauf-Systems einschließt, war unter Behandlung mit dem homöopathisch zubereiteten Thyroxin geringer als unter der Behandlung mit Kontrollwasser. Weitere Experimente legen nahe, dass der beschriebene Unterschied größer ist, wenn alle Tiere mit einer molekularen Thyroxindosis (10 -8) vorbehandelt wer-den. Auf diese Weise konnten auch Tiere aus Tieflandbiotopen für Versuche mit homöopathisch verdünntem Thyroxin geeignet gemacht werden.
Article
Full-text available
We studied the influence of a moderate homeopathically prepared thyroxine dilution (final concentration in the basin water 10-(13) parts by weight) on the metamorphosis of lowland Rana temporaria which had been hyperstimulated with thyroxine. Two groups of animals were pretreated by immersing them in a molecular thyroxine dilution (10-(8) parts by weight). This pretreatment speeds up development, as is well known. In accordance with the homeopathic/isopathic idea of detoxication or cure, the same hormone was then diluted and agitated in successive steps for further treatment. This homeopathically prepared dilution was administered at 24-hour intervals to one of the groups. An analogously prepared blank solution was used for the control group. Our hypothesis, which was derived from earlier studies, was that animals treated with the test solution would metamorphose more slowly than the control animals, i.e. that the homeopathically prepared thyroxine would have a 'curative' effect. In this new series of experiments this hypothesis was examined by 3 independent researchers. In the experiments carried out by 2 of the 3 researchers the number of animals that reached the four-legged stage at defined points in time was smaller in the group treated with homeopathically prepared thyroxine. In the third laboratory no difference was found between the groups. However, the overall inhibiting effect was statistically significant and more pronounced than in earlier, less promising studies and in parallel experiments in which nonprestimulated animals had been used. Other studies carried out by the 3 researchers involved animals from highland biotopes, where the natural environment probably induces a greater sensitivity towards thyroxine or higher thyroxine levels. These animals reacted to the homeopathically prepared thyroxine with a slowing down of metamorphosis, even when they had not been prestimulated with a molecular dose of the hormone. This effect was observed in all 3 laboratories and is consistent with the results of previous studies.
Article
Background: Studies performed in 5 laboratories have shown that homeopathically prepared highly diluted thyroxin (10-30 = 30x) slowed down metamorphosis of highland amphibians. Metamorphosis of lowland amphibians, however, could be slowed down by a low dilution of thyroxin (10-8 = 8x) if animals had been artificially pretreated with thyroxin. Objective: To combine the advantages of using animals from highland biotopes and hyperstimulation prior to treatment. Animals and Methods: Rana temporaria from an alpine biotope were pretreated in an aqueous molecular thyroxin dilution (10-8 parts by weight, hyperstimulation). This is supposed to accelerate metamorphosis. In accordance with the homeopathic idea of detoxification or cure, one group of these hyperstimulated animals was then treated with thyroxin 30x, and another group with water 30x. Experiments were performed by 4 independent researchers. Results: As a trend, the thyroxin-30x animals metamorphosed more slowly than the water-30x animals. The number of thyroxin-30x animals that reached the 4-legged stage at defined points in time was slightly smaller at some but not all points in time, compared to control. This is in line with previous findings and can be discussed as an interesting result. Contrary to our working hypothesis, however, differences were not bigger than in the previous experiments in which animals had not been pretreated with thyroxin 10-8. Conclusion: This study supports previous findings but does not prove the assumption that pretreatment of highland animals with molecular thyroxine improves the original protocol.
Article
Zusammenfassung 1. Es wurden Larven von Rana fusca in extrem verd�nnten L�sungen von Blei- und Silbernitrat aufgezogen. 2. Die L�sungen wurden nach hom�opathischer Vorschrift hergestellt und zur Pr�fung die 1.–30. Potenz verwendet. 3. Einzelne dieser Potenzen �bten eine spezifische Wirkung aus. So kam es inD 5 der Bleinitratreihe und inD 26 der Silbernitratreihe zur Fr�hmetamorphose aller Tiere. 4. Ferner wirkten einzelne Potenzen giftig auf die Larven, andere wieder bactericid auf die in ihnen sich ansiedelnden Pilze. 5. Weder die bactericide, noch die sch�digende Wirkung auf die Larven selbst stand zum Grade der Verd�nnung in Beziehung, vielmehr zeigte sich ein gewisser Rhythmus in der Reihe der wirkenden Potenzen, so da� starke Wirkungen sowohl in niederen als auch in h�heren Potenzen auftraten. 6. Schon aus diesem Rhythmus geht hervor, da� es sich nicht um Zufallswirkungen handelt.
Chapter
The amphibian model appears to be a useful tool for explaining certain phenomena encountered in homeopathy and homeopathy research (Endler et al., 1991, 1994a, 1995; Endler, 2003). One particular aspect of the similia principle, iso-endopathy, can be demonstrated by first hyper stimulating Rana temporaria by immersion in an aqueous molecular thyroxin solution (10−8 parts by weight, not submitted to an agitation process) and then inducing an inverse effect by a homeopathically prepared solution (10−13) of the same hormone thyroxin (Endler et al., 2003). There appears to be a relationship between the effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin and a naturally or artificially elevated thyroxin level in the animals during metamorphosis. This is in some respects analogous to intoxication/detoxication studies, where organisms are first treated with a high dose of a toxin and then with a step-by-step diluted and agitated solution of the same toxin (Roth, 1991; Göldner, 2005). Significant curative effects have been observed, e.g. that of highly diluted Cd on Cd intoxicated frog spawn (Herkovits et al., 1993). Artificial speeding up of metamorphosis can not only be achieved by adding molecular thyroxin, but by enhancing temperature of the basin water. A curative effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin on hyper stimulation caused by temperature may be discussed in the light of the homeopathic similia principle.
Article
Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in a spontaneously metamorphosing population of green frog, Rana clamitans, tadpoles. In accordance with species previously studied, a sharp rise in plasma T4 was seen at metamorphic climax, followed by a decline at final transformation. Unlike other species studied thus far, T4 levels were also moderately high in growing tadpoles (stages X-XIII). These early elevated levels may be due to daily rhythmicity in thyroid secretion coupled with the restricted hours of blood collection used in this study.
Article
One strand of research on the scientific basis of homeopathy is based on inversion effects of dilutions and the biophysical properties of information transfer. A model developed by Endler, was the basis for the study of the influence of high-diluted solution (1:1026 part by weight) of thyroid glands on the rate of metamorphosis of the frog Rana catesbeiana from the no legged to four-legged stage. The glands were obtained from tadpoles and prepared according by (dilution and succussion). Similar pure hydroalcoholic solution (unsuccussed) was used as control. In order to identify significant differences in the frequencies of four-legged tadpoles, in homeopathic and control group, we used a chi-square goodness-of-fit test (P<0.01) and the cumulative risk for metamorphosis by Cox's Proportional Hazards model (P<0.05). The number of animals that reached the four-legged stage is generally smaller in the treated group, than in the hydroalcoholic control group. It was postulated that thyroid hormones transmitted information' specific to the molecules used to prepare the solution, even though the molarity was beyond Avogadro's number.