Comprehensive Clinical Adherence Interventions to Enable Antiretroviral Therapy: A Case Report
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is key for successful treatment of HIV-infected persons. To enhance adherence, multilevel interventions are necessary. This is often a challenge, as this case of an HIV-infected man with a history of poor adherence and multiple virological failures shows. With a multidisciplinary approach, comprehensive intervention strategies were used to facilitate the patient's adherence to an enfuvirtide-based regimen. The interventions are described in detail and include adherence support with modified daily observed therapy, support regarding symptom management, and social relationships. The patient's clinical progress was monitored using indicators such as clinical surrogate markers, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and HIV-related symptom and depression scores. The case illustrates how interventions that were individualized, culturally sensitive, and provided by a team of health care providers enabled a patient to optimize his adherence, which led to significant improvement in his clinical surrogate markers and subjective quality of life.
Available from: Valence M.K. Ndesendo, Ph.D.
- "Furthermore, as with TB therapy, patients have to consume an excessive number of tablets which is a common cause for non-compliance. Non-adherence by HIV-infected patients has been associated with incomplete viral suppression, the development of drug resistance, disease progression, and mortality (Nicca et al., 2007). With such factors in mind, regimen treatment needs to be designed in such a manner that it would minimise the number of tablets a patient is required to take and/or reduce the dosage frequency while maintaining therapeutic levels. "
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ABSTRACT: Poorly managed healthcare can be directly attributed to extensive drug regimens. Numerous chronic illnesses and epidemics such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis require elaborate drug regimens for efficacious therapeutic outcomes. Various drug delivery systems have been developed to simplify their regimental drug therapy. However, more effective and innovative drug delivery technologies are required to increase patient compliance and provide controlled drug delivery. This review article attempts to provide a concise incursion into the use of fixed dose combinations as a strategy for drug delivery and describes the opportunities and challenges for the treatment of conditions that require chronic suppressive regimental drug therapy.
Available from: Andrea Petróczi
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ABSTRACT: Successful treatment of HIV-positive patients is fundamental to controlling the progression to AIDS. Causes of treatment failure are either related to drug resistance and/or insufficient drug levels in the blood. Severe side effects, coupled with the intense nature of many regimens, can lead to treatment fatigue and consequently to periodic or permanent non-adherence. Although non-adherence is a recognised problem in HIV treatment, it is still poorly detected in both clinical practice and research and often based on unreliable information such as self-reports, or in a research setting, Medication Events Monitoring System caps or prescription refill rates. To meet the need for having objective information on adherence, we propose a method using viral load and HIV genome sequence data to identify non-adherence amongst patients.
With non-adherence operationally defined as a sharp increase in viral load in the absence of mutation, it is hypothesised that periods of non-adherence can be identified retrospectively based on the observed relationship between changes in viral load and mutation.
Spikes in the viral load (VL) can be identified from time periods over which VL rises above the undetectable level to a point at which the VL decreases by a threshold amount. The presence of mutations can be established by comparing each sequence to a reference sequence and by comparing sequences in pairs taken sequentially in time, in order to identify changes within the sequences at or around 'treatment change events'. Observed spikes in VL measurements without mutation in the corresponding sequence data then serve as a proxy indicator of non-adherence.
It is envisaged that the validation of the hypothesised approach will serve as a first step on the road to clinical practice. The information inferred from clinical data on adherence would be a crucially important feature of treatment prediction tools provided for practitioners to aid daily practice. In addition, distinct characteristics of biological markers routinely used to assess the state of the disease may be identified in the adherent and non-adherent groups. This latter approach would directly help clinicians to differentiate between non-responding and non-adherent patients.
Available from: Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
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ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS is widely recognized as a chronic illness within HIV care, but is often excluded from chronic disease lists outside the field. Similar to other chronic diseases, HIV requires lifetime changes in physical health, psychological functioning, social relations, and adoption of disease-specific regimens. The shift from acute to chronic illness requires a self-management model in which patients assume an active and informed role in healthcare decision making to change behaviors and social relations to optimize health and proactively address predictable challenges of chronic diseases generally and HIV specifically. This article reviews literature on chronic disease self-management to identify factors common across chronic diseases, highlight HIV-specific challenges, and review recent developments in self-management interventions for people living with HIV (PLH) and other chronic diseases. An integrated framework of common elements or tasks in chronic disease self-management is presented that outlines 14 elements in three broad categories: physical health; psychological functioning; and social relationships. Common elements for physical health include: a framework for understanding illness and wellness; health promoting behaviors; treatment adherence; self-monitoring of physical status; accessing appropriate treatment and services; and preventing transmission. Elements related to psychological functioning include: self-efficacy and empowerment; cognitive skills; reducing negative emotional states; and managing identity shifts. Social relationship elements include: collaborative relationships with healthcare providers; social support; disclosure and stigma management; and positive social and family relationships. There is a global need to scale up chronic disease self-management services, including for HIV, but there are significant challenges related to healthcare system and provider capacities, and stigma is a significant barrier to HIV-identified service utilization. Recognizing that self-management of HIV has more in common with all chronic diseases than differences suggests that the design and delivery of HIV support services can be incorporated into combined or integrated prevention and wellness services.
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