Repetitive behaviors in typically developing 2-year-olds

Department of Psychology, University of Durham, UK.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.46). 12/2007; 48(11):1131-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01778.x
Source: PubMed


Repetitive behaviours are an essential part of the diagnosis of autism but are also commonly seen in typically developing children. The current study investigated the frequency and factor structure of repetitive behaviours in a large community sample of 2-year-olds.
A new measure, the Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ-2) was completed by 679 parents.
The RBQ-2 had good psychometric properties. A four-factor model provided the best fit for the data, accounting for 51% of the variance, and suggested 4 sub-scales: unusual sensory interests, repetitive motor movements, rigidity/adherence to routine and preoccupations with restricted patterns of interest. These sub-scales closely resembled repetitive behaviour subtypes within the ICD-10 criteria for autism. Repetitive behaviours of every type were frequently reported. Higher scores were found for all children, and especially boys, on the subscale relating to preoccupations with restricted patterns of interests.
The results support the proposal that repetitive behaviours represent a continuum of functioning that extends to the typically developing child population.

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Available from: Bronia Arnott
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    • "The aim of Study 1 was to develop and test the RBQ-2A as a self-report measure of RRBs in NT adults. An existing parent report measure of RRBs, the RBQ-2 (Leekam et al. 2007b), was adapted into an adult self-report measure and administered to a university student sample. PCA resulted in a two-component structure, one comprising motor behaviours, RMB, and the other behaviours related to routines and a preference for sameness, IS. "
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    ABSTRACT: In two studies we developed and tested a new self-report measure of restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) suitable for adults. In Study 1, The Repetitive Behaviours Questionnaire-2 for adults (RBQ-2A) was completed by a sample of 163 neurotypical adults. Principal components analysis revealed two components: Repetitive Motor Behaviours and Insistence on Sameness. In Study 2, the mean RBQ-2A scores of a group of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 29) were compared to an adult neurotypical group (N = 37). The ASD sample had significantly higher total and subscale scores. These results indicate that the RBQ-2A has utility as a self-report questionnaire measure of RRBs suitable for adults, with potential clinical application.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
    • "Evans et al. (1997) reported no main effects of gender in typically developing children's routines. However Leekam et al. (2007) reported higher total scores on the Repetitive Behavior Questionnaire (Leekam et al. 2007) for 2 year old typically developing boys, driven by elevated scores on the preoccupation and restricted interests subscales, mirroring what has been found with boys with ASD (Frazier et al. 2014; Hiller et al. 2014). Therefore the inclusion of matched typically developing controls will further enhance the study of gender differences in ASD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD demonstrated similar rates and types of RRBs in early childhood, using discrete observational coding from a video-taped play interaction. Twenty-nine girls with ASD were matched to 29 boys based on ASD severity. While boys in our sample demonstrated a greater frequency of RRBs, this was not significant and our findings indicate that girls and boys under five are more similar than dissimilar on this core deficit. However our data also revealed a trend toward gender-differential growth trajectories—a finding worthy of further investigation in larger samples.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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    • "The results indicate that the modified form of RBQ, the 20-item RBQ-2, provides a suitable measure of RRB not only for typically developing children (Arnott et al., 2010; Leekam et al., 2007) but also for children with ASD aged from 2 to 17 years, with good internal consistency. Total repetitiveness scores exceeded the published RBQ-2 repetitiveness scores of typically developing 15-and 24-month-olds (Arnott et al., 2010; Leekam et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore how atypical reactions to sensory stimuli contribute to the relation between restricted and repetitive behaviors and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In Study 1, factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors was carried out using the Repetitive Behavior Questionnaire-2 (RBQ-2), completed by 120 parents of 2- to 17-year-olds with ASD. Two subtypes resulted: repetitive sensory and motor behaviors, and insistence on sameness, accounting for 40% of the variance. This two-factor solution was retained even when the sensory items of the RBQ-2 were removed. In Study 2, 49 of the same parents also completed the Spence Anxiety Scales and the Sensory Profile. The insistence on sameness factor was significantly associated with anxiety while the repetitive motor behaviors factor was not. The relation between anxiety and insistence on sameness was mediated by sensory avoiding and to a lesser extent by sensory sensitivity. Implications for arousal explanations of ASD and for clinical practice are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
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