Article

Antioxidant Activities of Different Colored Sweet Bell Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

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Abstract

Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated. The total phenolics content of green, yellow, orange, and red peppers determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method were 2.4, 3.3, 3.4, and 4.2 micromol catechin equivalent/g fresh weight, respectively. The red pepper had significantly higher total phenolics content than the green pepper. Among the 4 different colored peppers, red pepper contained a higher level of beta-carotene (5.4 microg/g), capsanthin (8.0 microg/g), quercetin (34.0 microg/g), and luteolin (11.0 microg/g). The yellow pepper had the lowest beta-carotene content (0.2 microg/g), while the green one had undetectable capsanthin and the lowest content of luteolin (2.0 microg/g). The free radical scavenging abilities of peppers determined by the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were lowest for the green pepper (2.1 micromol Trolox equivalent/g) but not significantly different from the other 3 peppers. All 4 colored peppers exhibited significant abilities in preventing the oxidation of cholesterol or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) during heating. However, these 4 peppers did not show significant differences in their abilities in preventing cholesterol oxidation. The green pepper showed slightly higher capability in preventing the oxidation of DHA compared to the other 3 peppers.

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... Peppers show many health promoting effects like antiobesity activities (Jeon et al., 2010), antiproliferative activity against tumor cells (Jeon et al., 2012), antioxidant activity (Kedage et al., 2007;Sun et al., 2007;Domínguez-Martínez et al., 2014;Jang et al., 2015) and no report on the use of green peppers in preparation of Takju has been published. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant potentials of the Takju prepared by addition of green peppers. ...
... About 5 Table 3. DPPH radical scavenging activities and total phenol contents of takju prepared using different proportions of green peppers. times higher, DPPH radical scavenging activities of pepper takju varieties might have been as a result of higher antioxidant potential of green peppers (Kedage et al., 2007;Sun et al., 2007;Domínguez-Martínez et al., 2014;Jang et al., 2015). The total phenolic contents of pepper takju (398.12±5.21 to 418.43±3.19 ...
... More than 4 times high value of total phenol contents were detected in the pepper Takju samples as compared to control. High total phenol contents of green pepper Takju were probably caused by, the addition of green peppers (Kedage et al., 2007;Sun et al., 2007;Domínguez-Martínez et al., 2014;Jang et al., 2015). Park and stated that polyphenols, flavonoids, and flavonols in Takju account for antioxidant activities. ...
... They occur in chilli in conjugation with C-glycosides and O-glycosides derivatives [117]. Within Capsicum genus, quercetin and luteolin are ascribed to be the major flavonoids, which account approximately 41% of the total flavonoids in chilli [63,72,[118][119][120]. They are found majorly in their hydrolyzed form. ...
... The fact was found consistent with other studies pertaining to flavonoid content. Reports revealed that immature green fruits possess 4 to 5 times flavonoids to that of mature fruits [72,120,122,126]. Flavonoid concentration decreases upon ripening in C. Chinense Jacq. ...
... The antioxidant properties in chilli can be attributed and judged by presence of several assaying systems such as dimethyl-4-phenylenediamine assay (DMPD), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay (DPPH), 2, 2 -azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] assay (ABTS), Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assay (CuPRAC) [155]. Furthermore, vitamin C, E, anthocyanin and phenolic compounds in chilli pepper possess antioxidant property [120,156]. Phenolic compounds in chilli donate H atoms that neutralize and scavenge radicals inside the body [156]. Medina-Juarez et al. [118] reported that there exists an interdependence between phenolic content and antioxidant potential in chilli pepper. ...
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Worldwide, since ages and nowadays, traditional medicine is well known, owing to its biodiversity, which immensely contributed to the advancement and development of complementary and alternative medicines. There is a wide range of spices, herbs, and trees known for their medicinal uses. Chilli peppers, a vegetable cum spice crop, are bestowed with natural bioactive compounds, flavonoids, capsaicinoids, phytochemicals, phytonutrients, and pharmacologically active compounds with potential health benefits. Such compounds manifest their functionality over solo-treatment by operating in synergy and consortium. Co-action of these compounds and nutrients make them potentially effective against coagulation, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, dreadful diseases, such as cancer, and microbial diseases, alongside having good anti-oxidants with scavenging ability to free radicals and oxygen. In recent times, capsaicinoids especially capsaicin can ameliorate important viral diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2. In addition, capsaicin provides an ability to chilli peppers to ramify as topical agents in pain-relief and also benefitting man as a potential effective anesthetic agent. Such phytochemicals involved not only make them useful and a much economical substitute to wonder/artificial drugs but can be exploited as obscene drugs for the production of novel stuffs. The responsibility of the TRPV1 receptor in association with capsaicin in mitigating chronic diseases has also been justified in this study. Nonetheless, medicinal studies pertaining to consumption of chilli peppers are limited and demand confirmation of the findings from animal studies. In this artifact, an effort has been made to address in an accessible format the nutritional and biomedical perspectives of chilli pepper, which could precisely upgrade and enrich our pharmaceutical industries towards human well-being.
... Red, yellow, and orange peppers, for example, are sweeter than green peppers as a result of higher glucose content during the ripening period [12]. Bell peppers are good sources of vitamins, such as vitamins C and E, provitamin A, and carotenoids [13][14][15]. ey were also found to be a good source of phenolic or flavonoids, such as quercetin, luteolin, and capsaicinoids [16]. Types and quantities of bioactive compounds differ among different colored peppers. ...
... e extraction solvents used may have an impact on the precision with which bioactive compound concentrations are measured [27,28]. In natural foods, the concentration and activity of bioactive compounds can be directly related to solvent properties such as lipophilic and hydrophilic solvents and their respective polarity [14,29]. A study on the efficiency of different extraction solvents (hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and methanol-water mixture) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on the bioactivity of nonpungent peppers demonstrated that solvent chemical properties such as polarity can differentially influence the efficacy of recovering bioactive compounds from foods, and this might eventually result in differences in estimated biological activity, such as antioxidant capacity [30]. ...
... For example, the TPC of methanol extract of green, yellow, and red pepper was 22.69, 24.33, and 22.76, while that of the ethanol extract was 19.63, 15.55, and 17.1 mg GAE/g DW. Our results are contrary to the findings of Sun et al. [14] who reported a higher TPC of red peppers than the green peppers. e TPC of the methanolic extract of green, yellow, orange, and red peppers was documented as 2.4, 3.3, 3.4, and 4.2 micromol catechin equivalent/g fresh weight, respectively. ...
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Plants possessing various bioactive compounds and antioxidant components have gained enormous attention because of their efficacy in enhancing human health and nutrition. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), because of their color, flavor, and nutritional value, are considered as one of the most popular vegetables around the world. In the present investigation, the effect of different solvents extractions (methanol, ethanol, and water) and oven drying on the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties was studied of red, yellow, and green peppers. The green pepper water extract showed the highest total polyphenol content (30.15 mg GAE/g DW) followed by red pepper water extract (28.73 mg GAE/g DW) and yellow pepper water extract (27.68 mg GAE/g DW), respectively. The methanol extracts of all the pepper samples showed higher TPC as compared to the ethanol extract. A similar trend was observed with the total flavonoid content (TFC). The antioxidant assays (DPPH scavenging and reducing power) echoed the findings of TPC and TFC. In both antioxidant assays, the highest antioxidant activity was shown by the water extract of green pepper, which was followed by the water extract of red pepper and yellow pepper. Furthermore, all extracts were assessed for their potential antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Aqueous extracts of all three pepper samples exhibited slightly higher inhibition zones as compared to their corresponding ethanolic and methanolic extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 mg/ml. The lowest MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/ml concentration were recorded for aqueous extracts of green pepper. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed tannic acid as the major phenolic compound in all three pepper samples. Thus, it is envisaged that the microwave drying/heating technique can improve the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the pepper.
... Several factors can affect nutritional content of peppers that includes agronomic practices, harvesting time, storage, food preparation technique and genotypes (Kantar et al. 2016). According to one report among the different colored peppers, red pepper contained a higher level of beta-carotene, capsanthin, quercetin and luteolin than the yellow and green pepper (Sun et al. 2007). Likewise, the free radical scavenging abilities of peppers were also low for the green pepper (Sun et al. 2007). ...
... According to one report among the different colored peppers, red pepper contained a higher level of beta-carotene, capsanthin, quercetin and luteolin than the yellow and green pepper (Sun et al. 2007). Likewise, the free radical scavenging abilities of peppers were also low for the green pepper (Sun et al. 2007). Similarly, Nerdy (2018) observed a significant difference in vitamin C content because of variation in fruit color. ...
... Integration of biofortified peppers with improved nutrients such as vitamins A, B and C into daily diets could help to address nutrient deficiencies by adding a substantial serving of recommended daily nutrients. To unravel the biochemical properties and beneficial effects of secondary metabolites, many studies has been conducted (Nadeem et al. 2011;Sun et al. 2007). Recently, Kantar et al. (2016) examined diverse genotypes of pepper for their nutrient content and reported that some genotypes were high in vitamins A and C, highlighting the opportunities of nutrient supplementation and food fortification through pepper breeding programs to combat vitamin deficiency. ...
Chapter
Bell pepper belongs to the Solanaceae family and is in high demand as a vegetable in India, Middle East, USA, Europe and Southeast Asian countries. It has gained the attention of progressive farmers, consumers and international market traders because of its rich nutritional profile and ever-increasing export potential (USD 4.9 billion in 2017). Thirty-eight Capsicum taxa are currently documented in the USDA Genetic Resources Information Network (GRIN), including the five under commercial cultivation. In the sixteenth century, bell pepper was introduced to the Asian continent. Currently, China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia shares over 70% of the world’s bell pepper production. The World Vegetable Center in Taiwan holds the world’s largest Capsicum collection of 8165 accessions, and covers 11% of global diversity. Besides traditionally-important traits like earliness and higher yield, bell pepper breeding is now challenged by the emergence of new pests and diseases. New varieties are needed with desirable fruit color, pungency, shape and nutritional quality, along with resistance to phytophthora, anthracnose, bacteria, viruses, powdery mildews, root-knot nematodes, heat, cold, drought and salinity tolerance; all of these characteristics represent major breeding goals along with higher yields. Conventional breeding methods like introduction, pure line selection, pedigree selection, mutational and heterosis breeding, and backcross breeding are now being assisted by new breeding approaches like rootstock breeding along with modern genomic tools to break down existing barriers, and to speed up traditional breeding programs. Development and implementation of hybrid cultivars are key aspects of bell pepper production, for which the genetic male sterility system is being exploited commercially in both the public and private sectors. However, in comparison of chili pepper, utilization of the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) system in bell pepper is restricted, owing to high instability of male sterility expression at low temperature, and poor fertility restoration (Rf) ability. This chapter describes recent advances in genetic improvement of bell pepper by using various cultivated and wild species as sources of important traits.
... The red-colored fruits extract in the DPPH method and green-colored fruits extracts in the DHA method showed higher antioxidant activity (J.-H. Park, Jeon,Kim, & Park, 2012;Samrot et al., 2018;Sun et al., 2007). A study reported the presence of some water-soluble components in the fruit of C. annuum which led to antiradical and antioxidant properties when treated against pepper mild mottle virus infected. ...
Article
Capsicum annuum L., commonly known as chili pepper, is used as an important spice globally and as a crude drug in many traditional medicine systems. The fruits of C. annuum have been used as a tonic, antiseptic, and stimulating agent, to treat dys-pepsia, appetites, and flatulence, and to improve digestion and circulation. The article aims to critically review the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of C. annuum and its major compounds. Capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and some caroten-oids are reported as the major active compounds with several pharmacological potentials especially as anticancer and cardioprotectant. The anticancer effect of cap-saicinoids is mainly mediated through mechanisms involving the interaction of Ca 2+-dependent activation of the MAPK pathway, suppression of NOX-dependent reac-tive oxygen species generation, and p53-mediated activation of mitochondrial apo-ptosis in cancer cells. Similarly, the cardioprotective effects of capsaicinoids are mediated through their interaction with cellular transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel, and restoration of calcitonin gene-related peptide via Ca 2+-dependent release of neuropeptides and suppression of bradykinin. In conclusion, this comprehensive review presents detailed information about the traditional uses, phytochem-istry, and pharmacology of major bioactive principles of C. annuum with special emphasis on anticancer, cardioprotective effects, and plausible toxic adversities along with food safety. K E Y W O R D S anticancer, capsaicinoids, Capsicum annuum, cardioprotective, pharmacology, traditional use
... Tanaman ini dikenal sebagai bumbu masakan yang memberikan rasa pedas khas, yang mampu menggugah selera makan. Disamping rasanya yang pedas, tanaman Cabai juga memiliki kandungan nutrisi yang baik, diantaranya vitamin A, B, C, E, Potassium, Fosfor, Kalsium, Folat, Antioksidan, Protein serta kandungan zat anti kanker [2]. ...
Article
Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is a well-known spice plant and is loved because of its distinctive spicy taste. In addition, chili also contains good nutrients including vitamins A, B, C, E, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, folate, antioxidants, protein, and anti-cancer substances. Chili cultivation provides good economic potential because market demand is stable and even increases in certain seasons. One of the chili planting methods is by using a screen house which allows farmers to better control various growth parameters. In this study, an IoT-based monitoring and control system for chili plant growth parameters was developed using a Raspberry Pi, sensors, and other electronic devices. Growth parameter data is processed and sent to an online server and then presented with a time series-based visualization.
... Previous studies alongside research in our laboratory found that orange sweet pepper fruit contains a wide range of carotenoids, such as viola, anthera, capsanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, carotene, and lycopene, in which lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and zeaxanthin contents are higher than those in other sweet pepper fruits [9][10][11]. From the pharmaceutical point of view, sweet pepper exerts various health benefits, such as antioxidant [12], anti-inflammation [13], cancer chemopreventive activity [14], and prevention of cardiovascular diseases [15]. Yellow/orange/red sweet pepper fruit extracts were found to inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by inducing heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages [16]. ...
Article
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Sweet pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) contain various nutrients and phytochemicals that enhance human health and prevent the pathogenesis of certain diseases. Here, we report that oral administration of orange sweet pepper juices prepared by a high-speed blender and low-speed masticating juicer reduces UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice. Sweet pepper juices reduced UVB-induced skin photoaging by the regulation of genes involved in dermal matrix production and maintenance such as collagen type I α 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2, 3, 9. Administration of sweet pepper juices also restored total collagen levels in UVB-exposed mice. In addition, sweet pepper juices downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17, and IL-23, which was likely via inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. Moreover, primary antioxidant enzymes in the skin were enhanced by oral supplementation of sweet pepper juices, as evidenced by increased expression of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase-2. Immunohistochemical staining showed that sweet pepper juices reduced UVB-induced DNA damage by preventing 8-OHdG formation. These results suggest that sweet pepper juices may offer a protective effect against photoaging by inhibiting the breakdown of dermal matrix, inflammatory response, and DNA damage as well as enhancing antioxidant defense, which leads to an overall reduction in skin damage.
... Horn pepper is one of the main green pepper varieties in southwest China, with a distinct spicy taste, dark green peel, and is quite rich in vitamin C, flavonoids and total phenols [1,2]. However, the pepper fruit has a short postharvest lifespan [3]. ...
Article
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Chilling injury (CI) caused by exposure to low temperatures is a serious problem in the postharvest cold storage of pepper fruit. Melatonin (MT) has been reported to minimize CI in several plants. To evaluate the effectiveness of MT to minimize CI in green horn pepper and the possible mechanism involved, freshly picked green horn peppers were treated with MT solution at 100 μmol L−1 or water and then stored at 4 °C for 25 d. Results showed that MT treatment reduced CI in green horn pepper fruit, as evidenced by lower CI rate and CI index. MT treatment maintained lower postharvest metabolism rate and higher fruit quality of green horn peppers, as shown by reduced weight loss and respiratory rate, maintened fruit firmness and higher contents of chlorophyll, total phenols, flavonoids, total soluble solids and ATP. Additionally, the contents of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, and malondialdehyde were kept low in the MT-treated fruit, and the activities of the enzymes peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were significantly elevated. Similarly, the ascorbate–glutathione cycle was enhanced by elevating the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase, to increase the regeneration of ascorbic acid and glutathione. Our results show that MT treatment protected green horn pepper fruit from CI and maintained high fruit quality during cold storage by triggering the antioxidant system
... Also, CAO showed dose dependent effect, the increment of dose up to 400 mg/kg the value is found to be more significant than the positive control group (Loperamide). CAO is reported to have greater amount of flavonoids when compared to CAY and CAG, which might be responsible for its highly significant antidiarrheal potential (Sun et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Capsicum has been an important part of diet since centuries and has been widely used traditionally for ailments. The objective of the present analysis was to determine the diuretic and antidiarrheal potentials of four variations of Capsicum annum L. fruits available in local market of Karachi, Pakistan. It belongs to family Solanaceae and extracts were prepared in 95% ethanol and was given in doses of 200 and 400mg/kg and the activity was correlated with commonly used diuretics and anti-diarrheal further reinforcing its conventional use. Fruits extracts were evaluated for anti-diarrheal properties in castor-oil induced diarrhea to confirm its activity. The diuretic activity of the 95% ethanolic extracts of Capsicum annum L. was assessed based on diuresis of 24 hr. collected through metabolic cage. Urinary excretion of water and electrolytes (Na+ and K+) is significantly increased by the standard diuretic drug furosemide, which is comparable with the extract. The anti-diarrheal effects of 95% ethanolic extracts of Capsicum annum L. were examined by castor oil induced diarrhea and all varieties of Capsicum annum L. significantly inhibited the number of defecations.
... This species is known to be vegetable that low in calories and high in potassium, vitamin A, and vitamin C content (Chew, 2018). Furthermore, fresh chili is proven to be an outstanding source of metabolites with renowned antioxidant activity which made it to have potential on treating disease against cancer, precluding from gastric ulcer and activating immune system (Materska and Perucka, 2005;Sun et al., 2007). All the beneficial characteristics of C. annum shows how important the crop whether in term of uses, nutritional status, or medicinal properties. ...
Article
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Seed priming may improve seed germination and early seedling growth of plants under water deficit condition. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of seed priming on the germination and early seedling growth of chili under water deficit condition and to identify the optimum rate of seed priming for higher seed germination and early seedling growth. The water deficit stress level towards early seedling growth also been identified. The priming treatments involved were non-priming as control, and priming with gibberellic acid (GA3) at 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 15 mg/L. Seed germination experiment was conducted using wet-tissue method for seven days duration. Germination percentage, germination index and seedling vigour index were recorded in the seed germination experiment. The germinated seeds were then sown and grown under five different levels of water deficit treatment in accordance with the frequency of watering mainly watering 8 times (S1), 4 times (S2), 2 times (S3), once (S4), and not watered (S5), in a duration of 14 days. The early seedling growth performance was based on plant height, and root length. Seed germination and early seedling growth performance of 5 mg/L GA3 primed seeds was significantly better as compared to other seed priming treatments. In addition, the S1 and S2 could be regarded as non-stress condition, S3 and S4 as mild to moderate stress and S5 as severe stress since all seedlings were not survived under S5 condition. In general, S2 was found to be the optimum watering treatment as it recorded the highest plant height and root length of the seedlings.
... It improves the parameters beneficial for human health. These additives have been reported to exert a protective role against certain cancers, prevent gastric ulcers, stimulate the immune system, prevent cardiovascular diseases, and protect against age-related macular degeneration and cataract [9,10]. ...
Article
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Cold-pressed oils are becoming increasingly popular. The stability of these oils is the main concern, as changes occur in their organoleptic characteristics during storage, which could affect their suitability for consumption. Various natural plant components with antioxidant properties are added to cold-pressed oils to preserve their freshness for as long as possible. The present study assessed the effect of addition of garlic and chili pepper on the chemical properties of cold-pressed oil extracted from seeds of flax, hemp, and black cumin. First, the moisture level and the fat and protein content in the seeds were determined, and the oil was then extracted. The oil extraction yield was calculated, and the oil was analyzed to determine its fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value, and oxidative stability. Three samples were prepared for further analyses: a control sample with pure oil and two samples supplemented with 1 g/100 g of garlic or chili pepper. Changes in the oil samples stored for 2, 4, and 6 weeks were assessed based on the values of some parameters. The additives were found to exert antioxidant properties, as they caused effective inhibition of oxidative changes occurring during storage of the oils. The additives also extended the induction time.
... Many studies examined the phytochemical composition of different pepper cultivars, but there are only a few which monitor the changes of these compounds upon maturation [19]. In this study, we take differently coloured breeding lines to determine how the colouration affects the nutraceutical properties of the peppers, as well as how the phytochemical composition changes during maturation. ...
Article
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To date, several research studies addressed the topic of phytochemical analysis of the different coloured pepper berries during ripening, but none discussed it in the case of purple peppers. In this study we examine whether the anthocyanin accumulation of the berries in the early stages of ripening could result in a higher antioxidant capacity due to the elevated amount of polyphenolic compounds. Therefore, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was measured in four distinct phenophases of fruit maturity. Furthermore, the expression of structural and regulatory genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway was also investigated. An overall decreasing trend was observed in the polyphenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of the samples towards biological ripeness. Significant changes both in between the genotypes and in between the phenophases were scored, with the genotype being the most affecting factor on the phytonutrients. An extreme purple pepper yielded outstanding results compared to the other genotypes, with its polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as its antioxidant capacity being the highest in every phenophase studied. Based on our results, besides MYBa (Ca10g11650) two other putative MYBs participate in the regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.
... The antioxidant activities were affected by genotype, ripening, the increased amounts of carotenoids, phenolic, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and plant growth conditions in chili pepper (Sun et al., 2007;Deepa et al., 2007). The increase of antioxidant, phenol, flavonoid and vitamin C, in line with the rise of carotenoid, was observed in sweet pepper too. ...
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Pruning and light quality and quantity can affect the fruit load, fruit shape, nutritional value, and quality of sweet pepper. The experiment was arranged as a split-plot conducted in a randomized block design. Treatments consisted of keeping 3, 5, and 7 fruits on the bush, and having un-pruned (P3, P5, and P7 Pnon=without pruning) sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L., cv. Lumos) with 3 replications. Two greenhouses including 14,000 for the full-light one and 6000-Lux for the low one were designed. The results showed that carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation were highly related to light, with a significant effect in the full light greenhouse, as compared with the low one. Leaves carbohydrate content was raised in P3 and P5 for both greenhouses and this was more significant in the full light greenhouse, as compared with the low one. TSS was higher in full light with pruning (P3, P5, P7); the highest TSS in the low-light greenhouse was seen in P3. Phenol, antioxidant, vitamin C, and organic acid were higher in the full light greenhouse, as compared with the low one. Conclusively, pruning was more effective on weight after increased growth of bush in the second or third harvest. Longer shape and less flushing are favored by pepper producers. This can be achieved in the full light greenhouse with P3 and then P5 pruning.
... Fresh peppers are a source of vitamin C, provitamin A, carotenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. These nutrients are beneficial to human health because of their protective role against certain cancers, in the prevention of gastric ulcers, stimulation of the immune system, prevention of cardiovascular diseases and protection against age-related macular degeneration and cataracts, as documented in the literature [6,7]. Specifically, red peppers have high antioxidant potential due to high total phenolic and flavonoid content [8]. ...
Article
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Peppers are grown all around the world, usually for fresh consumption, as well as for the industrial production of different products. Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds are mostly considered a by-product. Recent investigations have shown that pepper seeds have the potential to be a valuable source of edible oil and fiber-rich flour and protein after processing. Pepper seed oil is a high-quality edible oil according to quality analysis (nutritional, chemical, sensory and antioxidant characteristics) and is suitable as an ingredient for use in the food and nonfood industries (pharmaceutical, chemical, cosmetic industries). The literature review presented in this paper revealed the high quality of two pepper seed by-products (pepper seed oil and pepper seed flour (Capsicum annuum L.)), which could guide the food industry toward new product development based on the circular bioeconomy.
... The higher levels of antioxidants, the more excellent resistance to various types of diseases can be observed. 3,4 For instance, the essence of Eryngium Campestre contains methylated phenylpropanoid, eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, and benzaldehyde derivative 5,6 and/or the essential constituents of Stachys byzantine essence are sesquiterpenes, namely alpha cocaine, spathulenol, and beta-caryophyllene. Research shows that using these plants improves human antioxidant performance. ...
Article
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Free radicals are a group of damaging molecules produced during the normal metabolism of cells in the human body. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation, cigarette smoking, and other environmental pollutants enhances free radicals in the human body. The destructive effects of free radicals may also cause harm to membranes, enzymes, and DNA, leading to several human diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, malaria, coronavirus disease (COVID‐19), rheumatoid arthritis, and neurodegenerative illnesses. This process occurs when there is an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidant defenses. Since antioxidants scavenge free radicals and repair damaged cells, increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high antioxidant values is recommended to slow down oxidative stress in the body. Additionally, natural products demonstrated a wide range of biological impacts such as anti‐inflammatory, anti‐aging, anti‐atherosclerosis, and anti‐cancer properties. Hence, in this review article, our goal is to explore the role of natural therapeutic antioxidant effects to reduce oxidative stress in the diseases. Role of natural products in oxidative stress (Confirmation of publication and licensing light by bio RENDER; Agreement Number: PS238VX2QY)
... It is regarded as one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide owing to diverse positive aspects in field of cuisine, medicine and healthcare, and economy [1][2][3]. Pepper fruits are largely consumed as fresh and dried ingredients as well as processed foods and render a wide variety of essential bioactive elements, such as vitamins, minerals, phenolics, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids [4][5][6][7][8]. The consumption of pepper has been gradually increased for several decades, together with the cultivation area and production in agriculture (http://www.fao.org/faostat ...
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Bacterial wilt (BW) disease, which is caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is one globally prevalent plant disease leading to significant losses of crop production and yield with the involvement of a diverse variety of monocot and dicot host plants. In particular, the BW of the soil-borne disease seriously influences solanaceous crops, including peppers (sweet and chili peppers), paprika, tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplants. Recent studies have explored genetic regions that are associated with BW resistance for pepper crops. However, owing to the complexity of BW resistance, the identification of the genomic regions controlling BW resistance is poorly understood and still remains to be unraveled in the pepper cultivars. In this study, we performed the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis to identify genomic loci and alleles, which play a critical role in the resistance to BW in pepper plants. The disease symptoms and resistance levels for BW were assessed by inoculation with R. solanacearum. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was utilized in 94 F2 segregating populations originated from a cross between a resistant line, KC352, and a susceptible line, 14F6002-14. A total of 628,437 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was obtained, and a pepper genetic linkage map was constructed with putative 1550 SNP markers via the filtering criteria. The linkage map exhibited 16 linkage groups (LG) with a total linkage distance of 828.449 cM. Notably, QTL analysis with CIM (composite interval mapping) method uncovered pBWR-1 QTL underlying on chromosome 01 and explained 20.13 to 25.16% by R2 (proportion of explained phenotyphic variance by the QTL) values. These results will be valuable for developing SNP markers associated with BW-resistant QTLs as well as for developing elite BW-resistant cultivars in pepper breeding programs.
... This species is known to be vegetable that low in calories and high in potassium, vitamin A, and vitamin C content (Chew, 2018). Furthermore, fresh chili is proven to be an outstanding source of metabolites with renowned antioxidant activity which made it to have potential on treating disease against cancer, precluding from gastric ulcer and activating immune system (Materska and Perucka, 2005;Sun et al., 2007). All the beneficial characteristics of C. annum shows how important the crop whether in term of uses, nutritional status, or medicinal properties. ...
Article
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Seed priming may improve seed germination and early seedling growth of plants under water deficit condition. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of seed priming on the germination and early seedling growth of chili under water deficit condition and to identify the optimum rate of seed priming for higher seed germination and early seedling growth. The water deficit stress level towards early seedling growth also been identified. The priming treatments involved were non-priming as control, and priming with gibberellic acid (GA3) at 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 15 mg/L. Seed germination experiment was conducted using wet-tissue method for seven days duration. Germination percentage, germination index and seedling vigour index were recorded in the seed germination experiment. The germinated seeds were then sown and grown under five different levels of water deficit treatment in accordance with the frequency of watering mainly watering 8 times (S1), 4 times (S2), 2 times (S3), once (S4), and not watered (S5), in a duration of 14 days. The early seedling growth performance was based on plant height, and root length. Seed germination and early seedling growth performance of 5 mg/L GA3 primed seeds was significantly better as compared to other seed priming treatments. In addition, the S1 and S2 could be regarded as non-stress condition, S3 and S4 as mild to moderate stress and S5 as severe stress since all seedlings were not survived under S5 condition. In general, S2 was found to be the optimum watering treatment as it recorded the highest plant height and root length of the seedlings.
... The chemical changes in the chloroplast lead to the accumulation of keto-carotenoids with changes in metabolism of lipids as galactolipids levels have been found to diminish while phospholipids have been reported to accumulate in chromoplasts. Oxygenated configurations of carotenoids having acylcyclopentanol end groups like capsanthin, capsanthin-5,6-epoxide and capsorubin have been observed to control the intensity of red color in chili pepper fruits [146]. In ripened pepper fruits, ketoxanthophylls (capsanthin, capsorubin and capsolutein) accumulate the most, followed by xanthophylls (violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) then the epoxyxanthophylls (capsanthin-3,6 epoxide and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide) along with a small accumulation of lycopene. ...
Article
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Background Fruits are vital food resources as they are loaded with bioactive compounds varying with different stages of ripening. As the fruit ripens, a dynamic color change is observed from green to yellow to red due to the biosynthesis of pigments like chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Apart from making the fruit attractive and being a visual indicator of the ripening status, pigments add value to a ripened fruit by making them a source of nutraceuticals and industrial products. As the fruit matures, it undergoes biochemical changes which alter the pigment composition of fruits. Results The synthesis, degradation and retention pathways of fruit pigments are mediated by hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. Manipulation of the underlying regulatory mechanisms during fruit ripening suggests ways to enhance the desired pigments in fruits by biotechnological interventions. Here we report, in-depth insight into the dynamics of a pigment change in ripening and the regulatory mechanisms in action. Conclusions This review emphasizes the role of pigments as an asset to a ripened fruit as they augment the nutritive value, antioxidant levels and the net carbon gain of fruits; pigments are a source for fruit biofortification have tremendous industrial value along with being a tool to predict the harvest. This report will be of great utility to the harvesters, traders, consumers, and natural product divisions to extract the leading nutraceutical and industrial potential of preferred pigments biosynthesized at different fruit ripening stages.
... Watanabe and Ayugase, (2015), found that the nutritional quality of winter sweet spinach (S. oleracea L.) was higher if the crop was subjected to low temperatures, considering the abundance in ascorbic acid (vitamin C), lycopene content and total phenols resulting from chilling stress. Sweet bell pepper plants grown under the lowveld region showed an increase of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and this was in agreement with, (Rivero et al., 2001;Sun et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Abiotic factors coupled with varietal differences have a special bearing on the synthesis of bioactive compounds and enhancement of antioxidant capacities of sweet bell pepper. The aim of the present study was to characterize the content of bioactive compounds (lycopene, vitamin C, β-carotenes, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annum L) grown under different Agro climatic regions with different environmental conditions, the Eastern Highlands (High veld region) and the Save Valley (low veld region). The results from the study showed statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the different growing locations with regard to the bioactive compounds which were identified and quantified. Capsicum annum var. Lafayette presented the highest concentration of vitamin C content, lycopene content and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity in the high veld region. In addition, the results indicated that low temperatures favour in vivo biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and enhances antioxidant capacities of sweet bell pepper.
... Total soluble phenols were quantified spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method (Sun et al., 2007) with minor changes. In brief, 50 μL of the same methanolic extracts described above was mixed with 0.45 mL of distilled water and 0.25 mL of 1 M Folin-Ciocalteau reagent solution and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. ...
Article
Fruit pungency is caused by the accumulation of capsaicinoids, secondary metabolites whose relation to primary metabolism remains unclear. We have selected ten geographically diverse accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq with different pungency levels. A detailed metabolic profile was conducted in the fruit placenta and pericarp at 20, 45, and 60 days after anthesis aiming at increasing our understanding of the metabolic changes in these tissues across fruit development and their potential connection to capsaicin metabolism. Overall, despite the variation in fruit pungency among the ten accessions, the composition and metabolite levels in both placenta and pericarp were uniformly stable across accessions. Most of the metabolite variability occurred between the fruit developmental stages rather than among the accessions. Interestingly, different metabolite adjustments in the placenta were observed among pungent and non-pungent accessions, which seem to be related to differences in the genetic background. Furthermore, we observed high coordination between metabolites and capsaicin production in C. chinense fruits, suggesting that pungency in placenta is adjusted with primary metabolism.
... 파프리카는 carotenoid 이외에도 vitamin, mineral, tocopherol, flavonoid 및 phenolic compounds가 풍부하게 함유되어 있어 phytochemical 물질의 좋은 급원이 될 수 있는 과채류이며 (Kaur et al., 2020;Kim et al., 2011b), 이러한 화합물은 항산화 효과를 가지므로 인체에서 유해한 산화반응을 감소시켜 암 및 심혈관 질환과 관련된 다양한 질병을 예방할 수 있다고 알려져 있다 (Sun et al., 2007). 이에 따라 어떤 색을 가진 파프리카를 섭취하느냐에 색마다 지닌 효능이 다를 수 있지만 (Kim et al., 2011a) ...
... Extracts of both fresh and dried peppers were prepared using methanol as extracting solvent (Sun et al., 2007). The ground pepper (30 g) was extracted with 300 ml of 50% methanol (v/v) using Soxhlet apparatus for approximately 24 hr. ...
Article
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The present study investigated the effects of sun-drying on the antioxidant potential of three pepper varieties: Capsicum annuum var, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum annuum. Fresh fruits of the pepper varieties were collected, washed under distilled water and were divided into two parts: one for fresh sample and the other for the dried sample. Dried and fresh samples of the pepper varieties were homogenized and extracted with methanol. The concentrations of total phenolics and flavonoids were evaluated; DPPH-radical scavenging activity and the FRAP potential of the extracts were also determined. The results revealed that sun-drying process significantly reduced the total phenolic content of C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum from 5.91 ± 0.22 mg/g GAE, 6.9 ± 0.23 mg/g GAE, 6.67 ± 0.99 mg/g GAE to 3.31 ± 0.72 mg/g GAE, 3.59 ± 0.89 mg/g GAE, 3.01 ± 0.17 mg/g GAE respectively and flavonoid content from 3.80 ± 0.02 mg/g QE, 3.91 + 0.08 mg/g QE, 3.84 ± 0.08 mg/g QE to 1.26 ± 0.90 mg/g QE, 1.95 ± 0.07 mg/g QE, 1.23 ± 0.04 mg/g QE respectively. The result also revealed that the fresh samples of C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum exhibited higher percentage inhibition of DPPH-radical at 59.4 ± 0.5%, 61.2 ± 0.6%, 58.9 ± 0.2% respectively and were significantly different from the percentage inhibition by the dried samples: 39.2 ± 0.5%, 42.4 ± 0.4%, 38.6 ± 0.6% respectively.The FRAP potential of the fresh samples of C. annuum var, C. chinense and C. annuum: 588.56 ± 29.4 ìmol Fe(II)/g, 691.34 ± 20.46 ìmol Fe(II)/g and 598.9 ± 23. 82 ìmol Fe(II)/g respectively were significantly different from the dried samples: 370.22 ± 14.75 ìmol Fe(II)/g, 392.34 ± 45.74 ìmol Fe(II)/g and 358.6 ± 30.08 ìmol Fe(II)/g respectively. The three Capsicum species are very rich in antioxidants. However, the sun drying method reduced the antioxidant capacities of the peppers, thus further studies should be carried out on the best method for the preservation of Capsicum species. Key Words: Capsicum. annuum var, C. chinense, C. annuum, Antioxidant, Sun-drying, methanolic extract
... and hot pepper cultivars provide e.g. vitamins C, E and beta-carotene, chlorophylls, polyphenols or lycopene that show antioxidant activity and protect the body against the harmful effects of free radicals (De Marino et al. 2006, Topuz and Ozdemir 2007, Nazarro et al. 2009, Buczkowska and Michałojć 2012, Baenas et al. 2019, which translates into the prevention of cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases, neurological disorders (Navarro et al. 2006, Sun et al. 2007, and diabetes (Howard et al. 2000, Perucka et al. 2004. Proper growth and development of Capsicum annum require warm and sunny weather and the appropriate amount of water, which is rather challenging in a temperate climate. ...
Article
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Due to its nutritional, health-promoting and taste-related values, new cultivars are introduced every year. The aim of the study was to assess the biological value of Polish and Bulgarian cultivars of pepper grown in moderate climate conditions and collected at different degrees of maturity. Ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and antioxidant activity (DPPH) were determined in air-dried fruit. The investigation included five Polish cultivars: Roberta, Marta Polka, Etiuda, Trapez, and Cyklon and five Bulgarian cultivars: Bulgarski Ratung, Sivriya, Kurtovska Kapiya, Delikates, and Dzuliunska Shipka. Its design involved randomised sub-blocks, with three replications comprising nine plants each. The area of a single plot was 1.44 m<sup>2 </sup>(1.2 m × 1.2 m). The study confirmed the strong antioxidant properties of pepper grown in the field, without cover, and under temperate climate conditions. The vegetable is rich in vitamin C, polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll pigments, and shows high antioxidant activity. However, the biological value of pepper is cultivar-dependent and is also determined by the fruit colouration degree. The coloured fruits are richer in vitamin C and carotenoids than the green ones, and when matured, they have greater antioxidant capacity. Green fruits contain more chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll than the coloured ones. The fruits of cv. Etiuda were the richest in vitamin C, of cv. Sivriya in polyphenols, of cv. Dzuliunska Shipka in carotenoids, and of cv. Trapez in total chlorophyll. Cv. Sivriya showed the strongest antioxidant properties.
... Ранее проведенные исследования показали, что антиоксидантный потенциал плодов перца определяется концентрацией аскорбиновой кислоты, а также фракциями водо-и жирорастворимых соединений, содержание которых может существенно варьировать между различными сортами перца и зависит от стадии зрелости плода, его цвета и условий произрастания (Lee et al., 1995;Howard et al., 2000;Fox et al., 2005;Sun et al., 2007;Frary et al., 2008;Nadeem et al., 2011). В данном исследовании была проведена оценка концентрации водорастворимых пигментов антоцианов, относящихся к фракции фенольных соединений, которые, согласно A.K. Blanco-Ríos с коллегами (2013), вносят наибольший вклад в антиоксидантный потенциал перцев по сравнению с фракцией жирорастворимых антиоксидантов. ...
Article
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Wart (a disease caused by Synchytrium endobioticum) and golden cyst potato nematode (Globodera rostochiensis), which parasitize the roots of the host plant, cause significant damage to potato crop. Both of these disease factors are quarantined in the Russian Federation, and each registered variety is tested for resistance to their most common races and pathotypes. The main method of opposing such diseases is by the development of resistant varieties. An important step in this process is the selection of resistant genotypes from the population and the estimation of the resistance of hybrids obtained by crosses during the breeding process. Conducting a permanent phenotypic evaluation is associated with difficulties, for example, it is not always possible to work with pathogens, and phenotypic evaluation is very costly and time consuming. However, the use of DNA markers linked to resistance genes can significantly speed up and reduce the cost of the breeding process. The aim of the study was to screen the GenAgro potato collection of ICG SB RAS using known diagnostic PCR markers linked to golden potato cyst nematode and wart resistance. Genotyping was carried out on 73 potato samples using three DNA markers 57R, CP113, Gro1-4 associated with nematode resistance and one marker, NL25, associated with wart resistance. The genotyping data were compared with the data on the resistance of the collection samples. Only the 57R marker had a high level of correlation (Spearman R = 0.722008, p = 0.000000, p < 0.05) between resistance and the presence of a diagnostic fragment. The diagnostic efficiency of the 57R marker was 86.11 %. This marker can be successfully used for screening a collection, searching for resistant genotypes and marker-assisted selection. The other markers showed a low correlation between the presence of the DNA marker and resistance. The diagnostic efficiency of the CP113 marker was only 44.44 %. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (Spearman R = –0.109218, p = 0.361104, p < 0.05) did not show significant correlation between resistance and the DNA marker. The diagnostic efficiency of the NL25 marker was 61.11 %. No significant correlation was found between the NL25 marker and resistance (Spearman R = –0.017946, p = 0.881061, p < 0.05). The use of these markers for the search for resistant samples is not advisable.
... Among the 30 species in Capsicum, around five species, including C. annum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens mill, and C. pubescens, are broadly domesticated by plant breeders and farmed in agricultural areas [1]. The pepper fruits of chili and bell peppers are used in diverse cuisines as a source of basic ingredients, contributing a variety of vitamins, phytochemicals, minerals, food colors, and capsaicin [2][3][4]. The importance of peppers in agriculture and the cultivation area and production of peppers is increasingly worldwide. ...
Article
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Pepper plants are subject to complex environmental factors including abiotic and biotic stresses in fields, as well as the significant effects of climate changes, including low and high temperatures. Low temperature stress in the growth and development of pepper plants is one of the most critical issues, and directly impacts the crop yield and productivity of pepper plants. Therefore, it is essential to select and breed low temperature-(LT) tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. This research was conducted to assess the agronomical traits of 39 pepper accessions belonging to the chili and bell fruit varieties which were cultivated under two different night temperature set-points: at 15 °C for a suboptimal temperature (CT) and at 10 °C for a low temperature (LT). The plant heights (PH) of most pepper accessions in a LT were significantly decreased compared to those in a CT. The stem diameter (SD) and the length of main axis (LMA) varied depending on the genotypes under LT. Moreover, the number of flowers (NFL), total number of fruits (NFR), fruit yield (FY), fruit fresh weight (FFW), fruit length (FL), fruit diameter (FD), and number of seeds in a fruit (NSF) remarkably declined in a LT compared to in a CT. The evaluated agronomical traits between LT and CT were further applied for the correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis. Notably, the FY trait was correlated with other reproductive traits including NFR, FFW, FD, and FL on the positive directions and thirty-nine LT-treated pepper accessions were clustered into seven groups by the hierarchical clustering analysis. The selected accessions were primarily involved in the positive trends with the reproductive index including NFR, FL, FD, and FFW traits and could be used for pepper breeding programs to develop LT-tolerant cultivars.
... Among the 30 species in Capsicum, around five species, including C. annum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens mill, and C. pubescens, are broadly domesticated by plant breeders and farmed in agricultural areas [1]. The pepper fruits of chili and bell peppers are used in diverse cuisines as a source of basic ingredients, contributing a variety of vitamins, phytochemicals, minerals, food colors, and capsaicin [2][3][4]. The importance of peppers in agriculture and the cultivation area and production of peppers is increasingly worldwide. ...
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Pepper plants experience complex environmental factors including abiotic and biotic stresses in field and the importance of climate changes including low and high temperatures has been emerged. Low temperature stress in the growth and development is one of the most critical issues, which directly impact on the crop yield and productivity of pepper plants. It is essential to select and breed low temperature-(LT) tolerant pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars. The research was performed to assess the agronomical traits of 39 pepper accessions belonging to chili and bell fruit types which cultivated two different night temperature set-points at 15°C for suboptimal temperature (CT) and at 10°C for low temperature (LT), respectively. Plant heights (PH) of most pepper accessions in LT were significantly decreased compared to those in CT. The stem diameter (SD) and the length of main axis (LMA) were various depending on the genotypes under LT. Moreover, the number of flowers (NFL), the total number of fruits (NFR), fruit yield (FY), fruit fresh weight (FFW), fruit length (FL), fruit diameter (FD), and the number of seeds in a fruit (NSF) were notably declined in LT compared to CT. The evaluated agronomical traits between LT and CT were further applied for the correlation analysis, the principal component analysis (PCA), and the hierarchical cluster analysis. Notably, FY trait was correlated with other reproductive traits including NFR, FFW, FD, and FL on positive directions and LT treated-39 pepper accessions were clustered into seven groups by the clustering analysis. The selected accessions were primarily involved with the positive trends with the reproductive index including NFR, FL, FD, and FW traits and would be used for pepper breeding programs on developing LT-tolerant cultivars.
... Antioxidant compounds can inhibit free radical compounds due to the redox properties of their hydroxyl groups(Palma et al., 2015). The difference in antioxidant activity between green and red peppers could be explained by their differences in carotenoid, phenolic, and flavonoid contents(Sun et al., 2007).---------------------------------------------------WWW.SIFTDESK.ORG 367 Vol-6 Issue-2 ...
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Peppers are a popular fresh market commodity but have a limited shelf life. The present study evaluated the effects of storage time, packaging films, and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on weight loss, firmness, respiration rate, ethylene production, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, and bioactive compounds of Sweet Delilah (Capsicum annuum). Four packaging films were tested in this study: polypropylene (P12F), laminated polynylon (30 NV), coextruded vacuum pouch (30 NVC), and polyethylene (P15G). Collectively, packaged peppers showed less weight loss than the control. When stored at the red stage, the firmness loss was 13 % in peppers that were treated with 1-MCP compared to 25% loss in the control samples. The most significant reduction in respiration rate in the red stage peppers was 0.88 ml kg-1 h-1 when packaged with 30NVC and 0.91 ml kg-1 h-1 when packaged with P15G, compared to 1.22 ml kg-1 h-1 for the control. The ranges of total phenolic and total flavonoid compounds were 3782 and 5090, respectively, in the green stage and 519 and 647 µg/g, respectively, in the green and red stages. When Sweet Delilah peppers that were treated with 1-MCP maintained higher levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds than the control samples. Overall, the largest phenolic and flavonoid losses occurred from the control samples, while the smallest phenolic and flavonoid losses occurred from the packaged peppers. The highest ABTS activity was 150 µmol TE/g when packaged with P12G film, whereas the lowest ABTS activity was 143 µmol TE/g in the control samples in the red stage. Peppers packaged with 30NVC films retained higher ascorbic acid levels than peppers that were packaged with other films and the control samples. Keywords: Peppers, Phenolics, Flavonoids, Ascorbic acid, Antioxidant activity, Packaging.
... Capsaicin, the most active compound in pepper is an antioxidant that can retards microbial storage in meat by inducing lower production of lipid within the animals, particularly membrane structures. Similarly,Sun et al. (2007) reported that bell pepper pre-K. A. SANWO, A.V. ADEGOKE, L.T. EGBEYALE, J.A. ABIONA, R.A. SOBAYO, O.V. OBAJULUWA AND A.O. ABDULAZEEZvented the oxidation of essential fatty acids. ...
Article
This experiment was designed to determine the meat quality and lipid profile of broiler chickens fed diets containing turmeric (Curcuma longa) powder (Tur) and cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder (Cay) as antioxidants. Two hundred and forty three (two-week old) Abor Acre broiler chicks were randomly allotted to nine treatment groups of 27 birds each, consisting of three replicates of nine birds each in a completely randomised design. Three levels of Tur (0, 2 and 4 g/kg) and three levels of Cay (0, 1 and 2 g/kg) were used to provide nine dietary treatments. Meat quality indices such as cook and refrigerated losses, water absorptive power, etc were measured and determined at the 8th week. Broiler Chickens fed the basal diet had highest meat dry matter, protein content and least (p<0.05) meat pH, cook and refrigeration loss values. Meat triglyceride and meat malondialdehyde value was best (p<0.05) in treatments fed dietary 2 g/kg Cay, while chickens fed 2 g/kg Cay, 2 g/kg Tur + 1 g/kg Cay and 2 g/kg Tur + 2 g/kg Cay had better meat lipoprotein values. For meat sensory characteristic, meat flavour of broiler chickens fed diets containing 2 and 4 g/kg dietary Tur, were moderately liked while overall flavour was best (p<0.05) in groups fed the basal diet with no dietary additive. It was evident in the study that the dietary inclusions of the test ingredients limited lipid oxidation, thus improved storage duration and meat flavor.
... β-carotenes a provitamin A with many benefits and is easy to obtain because β-carotenes found in many green, yellow, orange, and red fruits and vegetables [5]. This is also proven in research that has been done on red, yellow, and green peppers so that the highest β-carotene levels are found in red peppers, the second-highest β-carotene content is in yellow peppers, and β-carotene is the least in green peppers [6]. ...
Article
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Beta-carotene is converted in the body to vitamin A, a powerful antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining healthy eyes, skin, and neurological function. Beta-carotene and other carotenoids have antioxidant activities and are valued for their ability to prevent chronic disease. β-carotene is found in yellow, orange, red, and green fruits. The purpose of this study was to determine the β-carotene in Jongi. Jongi (Dillenia Serrata Thunb.) is an endemic fruit of Sulawesi which contains β-carotene. The samples used in this study were raw jongi and ripe jongi extracted with n-hexane: acetone (1:4). To the samples were analyzed quantitatively using UV-Vis spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 450.00 nm. The results showed that the β-carotene in raw jongi was 0.3554 mg/100 g and the β- carotene in ripe jongi was 1.1841 mg/100 g. Ripe jongi consist of more β-carotene than the raw jongi, hence better as a source of Vitamin A.
... Watanabe and Ayugase, (2015), found that the nutritional quality of winter sweet spinach (S. oleracea L.) was higher if the crop was subjected to low temperatures, considering the abundance in ascorbic acid (vitamin C), lycopene content and total phenols resulting from chilling stress. Sweet bell pepper plants grown under the lowveld region showed an increase of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and this was in agreement with, (Rivero et al., 2001;Sun et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abiotic factors coupled with varietal differences have a special bearing on the synthesis of bioactive compounds and enhancement of antioxidant capacities of sweet bell pepper. The aim of the present study was to characterize the content of bioactive compounds (lycopene, vitamin C, β-carotenes, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annum L) grown under different Agro climatic regions with different environmental conditions, the Eastern Highlands (High veld region) and the Save Valley (low veld region). The results from the study showed statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05) between the different growing locations with regard to the bioactive compounds which were identified and quantified. Capsicum annum var. Lafayette presented the highest concentration of vitamin C content, lycopene content and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity in the high veld region. In addition, the results indicated that low temperatures favour in vivo biosynthesis of bioactive compounds and enhances antioxidant capacities of sweet bell pepper.
... Total flavonoid (TF) was found higher in T0 (0.12 ± 0.0 OD 450 ) than that in T6 (0.08 ± 0.01 OD 450 ) for Y-FCBP while R-FCBP did not show a significant difference between the T0 and T6 at 15 day interval (Tables 3 and 4). The results strongly evidenced that the TF and TP were potent antioxidants with health beneficial properties, in support of an early report (Sun et al., 2007). The present results evidenced that treatment T6 not affected the nutritional quality of the FCBP while disinfecting the microbial contamination. ...
Article
This work evaluated the effect of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), fumaric acid (FA) and antioxidant solution treatments on the quality of red and yellow fresh-cut bell pepper (FCBP) challenged with foodborne pathogens (L. monocytogenes and Salmonella sp.). The quality of the FCBP was determined in terms of the microfloral contamination, and sensory properties. The sanitizer treatment such as (T1-T6) significantly inhibited the microbial colonization comparing to the untreated control (T0) group of R-FCBP and Y-FCBP. Total bacterial count (TBC) was reduced by 4.1 and 76.8 fold for Y-FCBP and R-FCBP respectively when treated with T6 during the 15 d of storage. The treatment of T6 significantly reduced the total fungal (TF) counts by 7.9 fold for Y-FCBP and 7.7 fold for R-FCBP comparing to T0 at 15 d of interval. Also, this treatment inhibited the total Salmonella sp., (TSC) by 4.93 fold for Y-FCBP and 4.23 fold for R-FCBP when comparing to T0 at 15 d of interval. These results proved the efficiency of T6 (FA, SAEW, and antioxidant solution) treatment compared to untreated control (T0) expands the quality of FCBP up to 9 days when preserved at 4°C through inhibiting the microfloral colonization.
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Biosynthesis of biologically active substances, products of secondary plant metabolism is highly sensitive to various geographic, ecological and phenological factors. Clarification of these relationships is essential to define their impact on the efficacy and therapeutic potential of phytochemical preparations of medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in the pattern of the main biologically active compounds of Petasites hybridus (L.) (Butterbur), classified as sesquiterpene esters of petasin and iso-petasin, in natural population from different habitats in Bulgaria. The results from TLC analysis confirmed the petasin chemo-type of Butterbur plants from the investigated areas. HPLC analysis revealed qualitative and quantitative differences of the six main sesquiterpene esters found in leaf and subterranean parts extracts. The investigated Bulgarian populations of Petasites hybridus have a relatively high content of petasin in the roots and are relatively poor in petasin content in the leaves. The present results indicate modulations in the profile and accumulation of secondary metabolites in Petasites hybridus, reflecting adaptive responses to specific environmental conditions in their natural habitats.
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The coronavirus disease‐19 (COVID‐19) pandemic caused dietary changes. Humans reduced social activities to prevent the spread of COVID‐19, which led to increasing demand for machines to help cook. This work studies the effect of different stirrer modes on the texture of celery, asparagus, green peppers, and spinach during the cooking process and the functional loss of components in vegetables by measuring the changes in vitamin C, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids. The results showed that color changes and loss of nutrients in each vegetable varied under different stirrer modes. Stirring was found to be the best mode for cooking all four vegetables. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the a* value and functional components during the cooking process, which means that the color difference and nutritional loss of vegetables can be modulated together. This study provides theoretical guidance for developing the stirring unit in a cooking machine.
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In this review, we outline the new expertise and research progress with luteolin as an antitumor agent, and clarify the related results from the aspects of tumor proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, angiogenesis, and immunotherapy. In recent years, with the development of medical technology, the early detection rate of tumors has increased significantly. However, the number of cancer patients remains high. Therefore, a new and reasonably effective tumor therapeutic drug is urgently demanded. Luteolin, a flavonoid and widespread in nature, attracts more and more attention due to its universal biological utility, especially in the study of antitumor activity. This article reviews the work published in the past 20 years on the role and mechanism of luteolin as an antitumor agent, showing that this compound has a variety of effects for antitumor treatment by acting on different cytokines. Although clinical studies have not yet been widely carried out, a series of basic studies have confirmed that luteolin is a reasonably effective antineoplastic agent or anticancer adjuvant. Besides, derivatives of luteolin have good application prospects.
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Total carotenoid, phenolic content, flavonoid, and antioxidant activity value of fresh capia peppers were 21.17 μ g/g, 1297.49 mg GAE/100 g, 631.00 mg/100 g, and 35.85 mmol/kg, respectively. Total carotenoid and total phenolic contents of capia peppers dried by the air, conventional, and microwave systems were identified between 128.95 (air) and 131.98 μg/g (microwave) to 348.64 mgGAE/100 g (conventional) and 401.54 mg GAE/100 g (air), respectively. Total flavonoid amounts and antioxidant activities of dried‐capia peppers were determined between 142.32 (air) and 442.98 mg/100 g (microwave) to 3.71 mmol/kg (microwave) and 3.94 mmol/kg (air), respectively. L*, a*, and b* values of capia pepper ranged from 28.30 to 35.56, from 15.62 to 22.67, and from 7.73 to 11.80, respectively. The highest decrease in L* values (brightness) of peppers was observed after air drying (28.30). Gallic and 3,4‐dihydroxybenzoic acid amounts of dried peppers were detected between 22.66 (conventional) and 28.05 mg/100 g (microwave) to 36.33 (air) and 42.44 mg/100 g (microwave), respectively. Catechin and caffeic acid values of dried peppers were identified between 88.97 (air) and 141.96 mg/100 g (microwave) to 8.94 (air) and 24.59 mg/100 g (conventional), respectively. The greatest increase in phenolic components of peppers was detected in microwave dried samples, followed by conventional and air drying systems in descending order. Fruits and vegetables, which contain many different antioxidant compounds that protect against harmful free radicals, are an important source of natural antioxidants. Pepper is one of the important vegetables due to its phytochemicals, and it has been reported to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases because it contains a wide variety of phytochemicals, vitamin C, and carotenoids. Capsicum annum L. red sweet peppers are widely used commercially in the food processing industry. Considering its nutritional values, it is a very important source of ascorbic acid and is also rich in carotenoids, tocopherols, and flavonoids.
Article
In order to investigate the light quality of LED lamps on some of the composition of leaf lettuce, an experiment was conducted in randomized complete block with 3 replications. Lettuce transplants for 35 days were exposed to irradiation of six light spectra [red (R), blue (B), white (W), 1red:1blue (RB), 1Red: 1Blue: 1White (RBW) and Fluorescent (FL) (control)]. The results showed the quality of light was significant at 1% level on soluble sugars, starch, soluble proteins, nitrate concentration, total phenol, total flavonoid, total antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin and vitamin C levels. The maximum dry weight plant (13.8 g), soluble sugars (14.3 mg/g) and starch (13.0 mg/g) were observed in R treatment. The maximum protein (0.39 mg/g), total phenol (19.78 mg/100 g,), total flavonoid (17.68 mg/100 g), total antioxidant capacity (78.66%), anthocyanin (30 mg/100 g) and vitamin C (0.19 mg/100 g) appeared in B treatment. The highest and lowest nitrate concentration were observed in the R (85.5 mg/kg FW) and B (354.44 mg/kg FW), respectively. According to the results, it can be said that red light produces the necessary materials for the growth of the aerial part of the plant, and blue light produces the most secondary metabolites.
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Auxin is an important hormone playing crucial roles during fruit growth and ripening, however, the metabolic impact of changes in auxin signalling during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) ripening remains unclear. Here, we investigated the significance of changes in auxin signalling during different stages of fruit development by analysing changes in tomato fruit quality and primary metabolism using mutants with either lower or higher auxin sensitivity [diageotropica (dgt) and entire mutants, respectively]. Altered auxin sensitivity modifies metabolism, through direct impacts on fruit respiration and fruit growth. We verified that the dgt mutant plants exhibit reductions in fruit set, total fruit dry weight, fruit size, number of seeds per fruit, and fresh weight loss during post-harvest. Sugar accumulation was associated with delayed fruit ripening in dgt, likely connected with reduced ethylene levels and respiration, coupled with a lower rate of starch degradation. By contrast, despite exhibiting parthenocarpy, increased auxin perception (entire) did not alter fruit ripening, leading to only minor changes in primary metabolism. By performing a comprehensive analysis our results connect auxin signalling and metabolic changes during tomato fruit development, indicating that reduced auxin signalling led to extensive changes in sugar content and starch metabolism during tomato fruit ripening.
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Mexico is the center of domestication and genetic diversity of Capsicum annuum L., which has led to the development of a wide diversity of chili pepper landraces that includes the x´catik and sweet chili pepper. As result of the spontaneous cross between these genotypes, a hybrid locally named as “bobo chili” is obtained. However, in these three genotypes the phenotypic traits, nutritional content and nutraceutical properties is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic, nutritional and nutraceutical traits in fruits of the x'catik pepper, sweet pepper and its F1 hybrid (bobo chili). A completely randomized design with 10 repetitions was used. Phenotypic, nutritional and nutraceutical variables were measured. The results showed that fruits of x'catik chili pepper had the higher length and pericarp thickness with elongated conical shape; the fruits of sweet chili pepper were round with irregular indentations. The F1 hybrid (bobo chili) had an elongated oblong shape. Regarding to the nutritional and nutraceutical traits the x´catik chili pepper had the highest ash content (8.18%) and protein (8.90%), high content of total phenols (456.35 ± 8.71 mg EAG 100 g-1) and the major content of capsaicin (791.9.0±31.84 mg kg-1) and dihydrocapsaicin (262.45±22.17 mg kg-1). The sweet chili pepper highlighted by its raw fiber content (17.75%) and the F1 hybrid had the higher iron content (85 mg kg-1) and higher content of flavonoids (330.01 ± 36.33 mg EQ 100g-1). The genotypes of chili pepper evaluated have a high content of protein, fiber, fat, carbohydrates and they are a rich source of secondary metabolites, therefore, the implementation of these genotypes in cultivated areas would be favorable for farmers in the region.
Article
Background Cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are top-ranked diseases worldwide and for the elderly, they are the top three. In the past decade, dietary flavonoids have become one the of research topics of attention due to their definite protective and to some extent therapeutic effects on cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and NDs. In addition, to maximize bioactivities and the utilization of dietary flavonoids, recently great efforts have been devoted to the bioavailability enhancement of dietary flavonoids. Scope and approach Various dietary flavonoid extracts and pure dietary flavonoid molecules that display protective and/or therapeutic effects on cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, or NDs are demonstrated. Only in vivo bioactive reports and findings with solid evidences (both human and animal-based ones) are compiled in this paper to exemplify the practical use of dietary flavonoids as complementary therapies for cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, or NDs. Furthermore, the strategies for improving the bioavailability of dietary flavonoids are discussed. Key findings and conclusions: Both dietary flavonoid extracts and pure dietary flavonoid molecules can reduce the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, or NDs. Many types of nano-systems like drug nanocrystals, polymer nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, and nanoliposomes can evidently increase the bioavailability and thereby the therapeutic index for dietary flavonoids. All these findings suggest the potential utility of dietary flavonoids as dietary supplements in the adjuvant therapy of cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and NDs.
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Bell peppers are widely considered as healthy foods that can provide people with various phytochemicals, especially phenolic compounds, which contribute to the antioxidant property of bell peppers. Nevertheless, the acknowledgment of phenolic compounds in bell peppers is still limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the phenolic content and the antioxidant potential in pulps and seeds of different bell peppers (green, yellow, and red) by several in vitro assays followed by the characterization and quantification of individual phenolics using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) quantification, respectively. The captured results showed that the pulp of red bell peppers exhibited the highest phenolic content in the total polyphenol content (1.03 ± 0.07 mg GAE/gf.w.), total flavonoid content (137.43 ± 6.35 μg QE/gf.w.), and total tannin content (0.22 ± 0.01 mg CE/gf.w.) as well as the most antioxidant potential in all antioxidant capacity estimation assays including total antioxidant capacity (3.56 ± 0.01 mg AAE/gf.w.), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.89 ± 0.01 mg AAE/gf.w.), 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (1.36 ± 0.12 mg AAE/gf.w.), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.15 ± 0.01 mg AAE/gf.w.). LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS isolated and identified a total of 59 phenolic compounds, including flavonoids (21), phenolic acids (20), other phenolic compounds (12), lignans (5), and stilbenes (1) in all samples. According to HPLC-PDA quantification, the seed portions showed a significantly higher amount of phenolic compounds. These findings indicated that the waste of bell peppers can be a potential source of phenolic compounds, which can be utilized as antioxidant ingredients in foods and nutritional products.
Chapter
The uses of herbal biomolecules as phytomedicines in healthcare have been practiced from the early stage of human civilization to the modern age. Plethora of plants with significant value are available worldwide. According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of world population receives phytomedicine for their primary healthcare. Herbal biomolecules are chemicals that have definite biological activities including alkaloids, glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, oils, etc. Active biomolecules from herbal resources have been popularly used for the treatment of various diseased conditions, such as cancers, diabetes, malaria, mental illness, microbial infections, cardiovascular disorders, etc., and have also been extensively used as antioxidants, immunomodulators, neutraceuticals, anticancer agents, antidiabetics, etc. In addition, many herbal biomolecules have been exploited as functional biomaterials in different biomedical applications like drug delivery, antimicrobial applications, tissue engineering, wound healing, etc. To attain the optimal health benefits with the uses of herbal biomolecules, standardization of phytoconstituents with the application of modern analytical techniques as well as uses of sophisticated analytical equipments are very much essential. The global market for herbal biomolecules as phytomedicines is increasing day by day. Strict regulation and systematic scientific research will definitely brighten the future prospects of herbal biomolecules.
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This study was focused on the effect of hot air drying temperatures (40, 50, and 60°C) on rehydration (25°C) behavior and quality attributes of green (G), red (R), and yellow (Y) color bell peppers (BP). Increase in drying temperature significantly (p < 0.05) improved the drying rate and the moisture diffusivity of BP. Drying temperature increased the rehydration-ratio and higher rehydration was observed for freeze-dried samples (−50°C). Two-term exponential and first-order kinetics models were found the most appropriate to explain the drying and rehydration kinetics, respectively. The variation in color parameters was correlated with the significant (p < 0.05) deviation in total chlorophylls (20.53–16.88 μg/g dry-mass), red pigment (493.02–766.25 μg/g dry-mass), and nonsignificant deviation in yellow pigment (203.6–202.77 μg/g dry-mass) of respective BP during drying. Increasing drying temperature increased the phenolic and flavonoid contents, but decreased the free-radical scavenging activity of the BP. Practical Application This study will add scientific data on comparative analysis of drying of red, yellow and green bell pepper with respect to different drying temperatures. Study will help to identify the best drying condition with respect to desired quality and color of bell pepper. Dried sample can be used in curry making, ready to eat products or seasoning without any seasonal barrier.
Article
Although paclitaxel is a promising frontline chemotherapy agent for various malignancies, the clinical applications have been restricted by side effects, drug resistance, and cancer metastasis. The combination of paclitaxel and other agents could be the promising strategies against malignant tumor, which enhances the antitumor effect through synergistic effects, reduces required drug concentrations, and also suppresses tumorigenesis in multiple ways. In this study, we found that luteolin, a natural flavonoid compound, combined with low-dose paclitaxel synergistically regulated the proliferation, migration, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells in vitro, as well as synergistically inhibited tumor growth without obvious toxicity in vivo. The molecular mechanism of inhibiting cell migration and EMT processes may be related to the inhibition of SIRT1, and the mechanism of apoptosis induction is associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway–mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.
Article
Backgrounds Plants and their derived products have been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various forms of human disorders since very ancient time. In the traditional system of medicine and modern allopathic medicine, numerous phytoconstituents have been used for the preparation of various types of formulation. Flavonoidal class phytochemicals are the main active phytoconstituents of plants, fruit, vegetables and beverages. Flavonoidal class phytochemicals are more referred as “nutraceuticals” due to their important pharmacological activities in the mammalian body. Methods In order to understand the health beneficial effects of flavonoidal class chemical, present work summarized the health beneficial aspects of pectolinarin. Present work summarized the medicinal importance, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects of pectolinarin with various experimental models and advance analytical methods. However, all the collected scientific information’s have been analyzed in the present work for their health beneficial potential. Results From the analysis of all the collected scientific information in the present work it was found that pectolinarin is an important phytochemical found to be present in the numerous medicinal plants but especially found in Cirsium japonicum which is an important medicinal herb of Korea, China and Japan. Pharmacological activities data analysis signified the health beneficial potential of pectolinarin for their anti-rheumatoid arthritis, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, anti-dengue, antiviral, neuroprotective and antidepressant activity. However effectiveness of pectolinarin in central nervous system, bone, liver and cancerous disorders have been also reported in the literature. Analysis of present scientific information revealed the health beneficial potential of pectolinarin in the modern medicine due to their numerous pharmacological activities in different part of biological systems. Due to their biological importance in food and human health, a better understanding of their biological activities indicates their potentials as therapeutic agents. Conclusion Scientific data of the present work signified the biological potential and therapeutic benefit of pectolinarin.
Article
Since in late 2019, when the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread all over the world, causing the awful global pandemic we are still experiencing, an impressive number of biologists, infectious disease scientists, virologists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, immunologists, and other researchers working in laboratories of all the advanced countries focused their research on the setting up of biotechnological tools, namely vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, as well as of rational design of drugs for therapeutic approaches. While vaccines have been quickly obtained, no satisfactory anti-Covid-19 preventive, or therapeutic approach has so far been discovered and approved. However, among the possible ways to achieve the goal of COVID-19 prevention or mitigation, there is one route, i.e., the diet, which until now has had little consideration. In fact, in the edible parts of plants supplying our food, there are a fair number of secondary metabolites mainly belonging to the large class of the flavonoids, endowed with antiviral or other health beneficial activities such as immunostimulating or anti-inflammatory action that could play a role in contributing to some extent to prevent or alleviate the viral infection and/or counteract the development of SARS induced by the novel coronavirus. In this review, a number of bioactive phytochemicals, in particular flavonoids, proven to be capable of providing some degree of protection against COVID-19, are browsed, illustrating their beneficial properties and mechanisms of action as well as their distribution in cultivated plant species which supply food for the human diet. Furthermore, room is also given to information regarding the amount in food, the resistance to cooking processes and, as a very important feature, the degree of bioavailability of these compounds. Concluding, remarks and perspectives for future studies aimed at increasing and improving knowledge and the possibility of using this natural complementary therapy to counteract COVID-19 and other viral pathologies are discussed.
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Since in late 2019, when the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread all over the world, causing the awful global pandemic we are still experiencing, an impressive number of biologists, infectious disease scientists, virologists, pharmacologists, molecular biologists, immunologists, and other researchers working in laboratories of all the advanced countries focused their research on the setting up of biotechnological tools, namely vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, as well as of rational design of drugs for therapeutic approaches. While vaccines have been quickly obtained, no satisfactory anti-Covid-19 preventive, or therapeutic approach has so far been discovered and approved. However, among the possible ways to achieve the goal of COVID-19 prevention or mitigation, there is one route, i.e., the diet, which until now has had little consideration. In fact, in the edible parts of plants supplying our food, there are a fair number of secondary metabolites mainly belonging to the large class of the flavonoids, endowed with antiviral or other health beneficial activities such as immunostimulating or anti-inflammatory action that could play a role in contributing to some extent to prevent or alleviate the viral infection and/or counteract the development of SARS induced by the novel coronavirus. In this review, a number of bioactive phytochemicals, in particular flavonoids, proven to be capable of providing some degree of protection against COVID-19, are browsed, illustrating their beneficial properties and mechanisms of action as well as their distribution in cultivated plant species which supply food for the human diet. Furthermore, room is also given to information regarding the amount in food, the resistance to cooking processes and, as a very important feature, the degree of bioavailability of these compounds. Concluding, remarks and perspectives for future studies aimed at increasing and improving knowledge and the possibility of using this natural complementary therapy to counteract COVID-19 and other viral pathologies are discussed.
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The color and functionality of paprika fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) are important factors that determine consumption preferences. Paprika contains a large amount of functional phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and polyphenols. In this study, the total polyphenol content by total phenol content (TPC) assay, antioxidant activity by 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and total red pigment content by American spice trade association (ASTA) color were evaluated in a total of 93 commercial cultivars and germplasms of red paprika. In results, the total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP, and total red pigment content ranged from 6.35-11.84 mg GAE⋅g-1 dry weight (DW), 19.80-44.84 mg trolox⋅g-1 DW, 8.82-31.06 mg trolox⋅g-1 DW, and 5.30-75.03 ASTA value, respectively. For each trait, there were 2, 31, 16, and 44 germplasms, respectively, which were higher than those of the commercial cultivars. The correlation analysis between the total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity (ABTS and FRAP) showed highly positive correlations, with r=0.69 and r=0.75, respectively. In contrast, the ASTA values showed very low negative correlations with ABTS (r=-0.15) and FRAP (r=-0.26). These results imply that the antioxidant activity in paprika was largely affected by the total polyphenol content but was hardly affected by the ASTA value. Accessions 30, 31, and 56 were selected with high red pigment content, and accessions 5, 21, 24, and 26 had high antioxidant activity as well as high polyphenol content. These germplasms will be useful for the development of new paprika varieties with high red pigment content or high antioxidant activity.
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The brightness of green and yellow peppers reduced by heat treatment. In other words, in green and yellow peppers, greenness and yellowness were reduced by thermal processes. Total carotenoid amounts of peppers dried in oven were detected between 11.35 µg/g (green) and 126.56 µg/g (red) while total carotenoid amounts of different three microwave dried peppers were found between 12.96 µg/g(green) and 125.43µg/g (red). Antioxidant activity values for oven‐dried had been measured between 3.05 mmol/L (red) and 4.00 mmol/L (green) while antioxidant activity values of microwave dried peppers are determined between 1.01 mmol/L (yellow) and 2.74 mmol/L (green). Gallic, 3,4‐dihydroxybenzoic, syringic and rutin were the key phenbolic ingredients of control sample and dried‐peppers. Polyphenolic contents of dried red pepper were higher than the contents gren and yellow ones.
Book
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As our understanding of the science and functions of color in food has increased, the preferred colorants, forms of use, and legislation regulating their uses have also changed. Natural Colorants for Food and Nutraceutical Uses reflects the current tendency to use natural pigments. It details their science, technology, and applications as well as their nutraceutical properties. Starting with the basics, the book creates an understanding of physical colors, discusses color measurement, and analyzes why natural pigments are preferred today. The authors present an overview of global colorants, including safety, toxicity and regulatory aspects. Information about inorganic and synthetic colorants is included. The book then focuses on applications of natural colorants, with special attention given to characteristics, extraction and processing stability, and the use of biotechnology and molecular biology to increase colorant production. Finally, the book examines the nutraceutical properties of natural colorants and compares them to other well-known nutraceutical components. From the basics to highly specialized concepts and applications, Natural Colorants for Food and Nutraceutical Uses presents essential, practical information about pigments in the food industry. With its coverage of state-of-the-art technologies and future trends in the application of color to food, this book provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the field.
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Colorants: From the Physical Phenomenon to their Nutraceutical Properties: An Overview The Color Phenomenon Definition Human Perception Measurement Pigments Definition A World of Colorless Compounds Pigments in Biology Molecular Affinities of Pigments Natural Distribution of Pigments Classification of Food Colors Choice and Application of Colors Pigments as Food Colorants Colorants as Food Additives Safety of Food Colorants Inorganic and Synthetic Pigments: History, Sources and Uses Inorganic Synthetic Analytical Techniques and the Evaluation of Color Purity Natural Pigments: A Global Perspective Distribution Functions Carotenoids Definition Classification and Nomenclature Distribution Biosynthesis: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Functions Methodological Aspects Carotenoids as Food Colors Processing and Stability Production of Carotenoids in Bioreactors Anthocyanins and Betalains Anthocyanins Betalains Other Natural Pigments Chlorophylls Caramel Turmeric Cochineal, Carmine and other Natural Pigments from Insects Monascus Iridoids Chemicals and Colorants as Nutraceuticals Fundamentals Nutraceuticals and Related Terms: Definitions Food Items as Nutraceuticals Natural Colorants as Nutraceuticals Nutraceuticals: The Perspective Appendix: List of Abbreviations
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Most bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) produced and consumed are green. However, yellow, red, orange, white, black, and purple bell peppers are also available. While bell pepper consumption in the United States has been increasing in the past 10 years, limited information is available on how their color, retail price, and vitamin C content influence consumer preferences. A conjoint analysis of 435 consumer responses showed that, for the total sample, color was about three times more important than retail price in shaping consumers' purchase decisions, while vitamin C content was nearly irrelevant. Six distinct consumer segments were identified through cluster analysis. Four segments favored green peppers, while one segment favored yellow and one favored brown. Demographic variables generally were not good predictors of segment member-ship, but several behavioral variables, such as past bell pepper purchases, were signifi-cantly related to segment membership. While green is generally the preferred color, market segments exist for orange, red, yellow, and even brown peppers. Applications to marketing strategies suggested that price sensitivity could explain why green peppers were priced individually, but those of other colors were priced by weight, and that promotion of increased vitamin C content would be most effective if associated specifically with yellow and orange peppers. Bell peppers are becoming an increasingly popular decorative and nutritive food item in the United States. Per capita consumption of bell peppers in the United States nearly tripled in the last three decades, rising from 1.1 kg per capita per year in 1973 to 3.2 in 1996, repre-senting a total value of domestic bell pepper production of $461 million (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1997a). However, there is little published information about consumer
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Fruits and vegetables in the diet have been found in epidemiology studies to be protective against several chronic diseases. Epidemiological evidence suggests that flavonoid consumption in the diet is protective against heart disease. Phenols in 23 vegetables have been measured by extraction with and without acid hydrolysis to determine the percent of conjugated and free phenols. Phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin−Ciocalteu reagent with catechin as the standard. The extracts' antioxidant quality was assayed by the inhibition of lower density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by cupric ions. Vegetables had antioxidant quality comparable to that of pure flavonols and were superior to vitamin antioxidants. The phenol antioxidant index, measuring both the quantity and the quality of antioxidants present, was used to evaluate 23 vegetables. Isolated lower density lipoproteins from plasma spiked with two vegetable extracts were enriched with phenol antioxidants and showed decreased oxidizability. The average per capita consumption of vegetable phenols in the United States was estimated to be 218 mg/day of catechin equivalents. This is 3 times higher than the recommended intake of vitamin antioxidants. Keywords: Phenols; antioxidants; vegetables; lipoprotein oxidation
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The antioxidant activities and total phenolics of 28 plant products, including sunflower seeds, flaxseeds, wheat germ, buckwheat, and several fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants were determined. The total phenolic content, determined according to the Folin−Ciocalteu method, varied from 169 to 10548 mg/100 g of dry product. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extract evaluated according to the β-carotene bleaching method expressed as AOX (Δ log A470/min), AA (percent inhibition relative to control), ORR (oxidation rate ratio), and AAC (antioxidant activity coefficient) ranged from 0.05, 53.7, 0.009, and 51.7 to 0.26, 99.1, 0.46, and 969.3, respectively. The correlation coefficient between total phenolics and antioxidative activities was statistically significant. Keywords: Antioxidant activity; phenolics; medicinal plants; oilseeds; buckwheat; vegetables; fruits; wheat products
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Oxidized derivatives of cholesterol, known as oxysterols, are present in the diet as contaminants of cholesterol-containing foods. They can enter the circulation through the diet or they are generated through peroxidation of lipoproteins or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, oxysterols are transported in serum with lipoproteins but, unlike cholesterol, they may also be transported by serum albumin. This additional means of transport may allow for more efficient removal of cellular sterols or transfer between tissues. It has been suggested that the physiologic regulation of cholesterol metabolism may be through generation of oxysterols. In addition, oxysterols potentially play a role in aspects of various diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer, either as contributory or protective agents, most likely through their action as potent modulators of cholesterol metabolism and/or their direct effects on membrane structure and function. Thus, these compounds may represent normal physiologic processes as well as pathological ones and strategies to enhance or diminish oxysterol levels may prove useful in the future.
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Cholesterol is an important constituent of animal food products and has often been implicated in the etiology of atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases. Recent reports have, however, shown the possible role of cholesterol oxidation products (COP), rather than cholesterol, in the initiation of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol and 25-hydroxycholesterol have been reported as the most potent atherogenic agents. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) enzyme activity and cholesterol biosynthesis by cholesterol oxidation products has also been thoroughly investigated in cultured cells. Various animal food products, viz meat products, egg products and dairy products (especially butter, butter oil, ghee, cheese etc) have been reported to contain various COP developed during certain processing treatments. The literature on the presence of COP in food products and their cytotoxic and atherogenic effects is reviewed.
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Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is important in human diets in many parts of the world and a major source of several antioxidants, including carotenoids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols and phenolics. More information on genetic diversity within Capsicum for antioxidant (AO) content and antioxidant activity (AOA) could contribute to improved human health. We evaluated 46 Capsicum accessions from AVRDC—the World Vegetable Center Capsicum core collection for content of nine AO (five carotenoids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols α and γ, and total phenolics) and two AOA assays for 2 years in south Taiwan. Ample genetic diversity exists within C. annuum to increase AO content. Based on dry weight values, non-pungent C. annuum entries as a group were significantly greater than pungent entries for contents of β-cryptoxanthin (36%), ascorbic acid (65%), total phenolics (36%) and α-tocopherol (11%). Group means of the brown-fruited entries exceeded the means of red-fruited entries for capsanthin (34%), zeaxanthin (37%), lutein (36%), β-cryptoxanthin (71%), β-carotene (82%), ascorbic acid (19%) and α-tocopherol (40%). Red-fruited C. annuum entries ‘Verdano Poblano’ and ‘Guajillo Ancho’ from Mexico ranked among the entries highest for all carotenoids, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP) assay could be adopted for AOA characterization or selection because of high variation among entries and consistent entry performance over years. ILP was positively correlated with phenolics (r=0.72**) and ascorbic acid (r=0.58**) contents. Significant positive correlations were detected between most carotenoids as well as a significant positive correlation between ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents (r=0.78**).
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Flavonoid, ascorbic acid and total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of “jalapeño” (Veracruz, Mitla, Tam Mild, Jaloro, Sweet Jalapeño), “yellow wax” [(Hungarian Yellow, Long Hot Yellow, Gold Spike (hybrid)], “Chile” (New Mexico-6, Green Chile), “ancho” (San Luis Ancho), and “serrano” (Hidalgo) peppers were investigated at green or yellow stages of maturity. Major pepper flavonoids were quercetin and luteolin which were present in conjugate forms. Total flavonoid content varied from none detectable to 800 mg/kg after hydrolysis. “Chile”, “yellow wax” and “ancho” peppers had greater flavonoid and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant activities than “jalapeño” peppers. Sep-Pak C18(tm) bound phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, correlated well with antioxidant activity (r2=0.86). Luteolin had highest antioxidant activity followed by capsaicin and quercetin on equimolar basis.
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Alpha and beta carotene, provitamin A activity, dehydroascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid and total ascorbic acid content of “jalapeño,”“bell,” long green/red “chile,”“serrano” and “yellow wax” peppers (Cupsicum annuum L.) at green and red stages of maturity were determined by HPLC. Effects of thermal processing on vitamin A and C retention in “jalapeno” peppers was also determined. Provitamin A activity ranged from 27.3 to 501.9 Retinol Equivalents (RE/100g). Ascorbic acid concentration ranged from 76.1 to 243.1 (mg/100g). Provitamin A activity and ascorbic acid content increased with maturity in all cultivars. Thermal processing of “jalapeño” cultivars resulted in a 25% decrease of total provitamin A activity and a 75% decrease in total ascrobic acid.
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Antioxidant components of methanolic extracts of groats and hulls from Ogle oats were identified and quantified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography after N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide derivatization. Ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acids and vanillin and catechol were quantified in groat and hull extracts. Additionally, caffeic acid in groat extracts, and o-coumaric, sinapic and slaicylic acids in hull extracts were quantified. Extracts from groats and hulls at levels of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% w/w, based on total phenolic content, were added to soybean oil, and their antioxidant effectiveness was compared with that of 0.02% w/w tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and a control (no additives) at 60°C in the dark by measuring peroxide values. Antioxidant activities of both extract sources increased with increased concentration. During 20 d of storage, the groat extract (0.3%) was not significantly different from TBHQ after day 16, and hull extracts (0.2 and 0.3%) were not significantly different from TBHQ on day 20. Oils containing pure phenolics at the same concentrations measured in the groat and hull extracts oxidized more quickly than did oils containing the extracts.
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The potential of various cooking oils to prevent cholesterol degradation and/or oxidation, as measured by the production of 7-ketocholesterol during heating at different temperatures, was studied using a cholesterol model system. In the control group (without cooking oil), cholesterol was relatively stable, and 73% of its initial concentration was present after 30 min of heating at 125°C. Less than 30 and 10% of cholesterol remained at 150 and 175°C after 30 min, respectively, and 10% at 200°C after 10 min. In the treatment group, cholesterol mixed with corn, canola, soybean, or olive oil had significantly improved thermal stability. More than 60 and 40% of cholesterol remained at 150 and 175°C after 30 min, respectively. In the control group, 7-ketocholesterol was produced when samples were heated above 150°C, and levels increased consistently during 30 min of heating. At 175 or 200°C, the level of 7-ketocholesterol did not increase further after reaching the highest level after 10 min of heating. 7-Ketocholesterol is not stable above 175°C, and its degradation rate could be much faster than its production at 200°C. 7-Ketocholesterol was not found in samples of cholesterol mixed with corn oil or laboratory-prepared soybean and rice bran oils until the heating temperature was raised to 175°C for 20 min. The levels of 7-ketocholesterol in those treatment groups were greater than that in the control group at 175°C for 30 min. These oils may increase the thermal stability of 7-ketocholesterol and retard its degradation rate.
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Several oxidation products of cholesterol have been reported to have biological activity in animals. Cholesterol oxidizes readily in solution, in aqueous dispersion and in foods when it is exposed to air, elevated temperatures, free radical initiators, light, or a combination of these. The main outline of the pathway for cholesterol oxidation is fairly well understood and involves initial formation of allylic hydroperoxides. HPLC and GC techniques are available for measuring the concentration of cholesterol oxides in animal-derived lipids. Biologically active cholesterol oxides have been reported to be present in egg products, dairy products, frying oils and other foods. Their concentration may be subject to process control.
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The components of a natural food additive, “eucalyptus leaf extract”, were isolated and identified in order to determine their structures and contents. The structures of eight major compounds, namely gallic and ellagic acids, eucalyptone and macrocarpals A–E, isolated from them were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidative activities of these isolated compounds were estimated by several assays, and it appears that the antioxidant activity is mostly due to the gallic and ellagic acids. On the other hand, in the determined eucalyptus product, the content of 1,8-cineole, a major component of the eucalyptus oil, was lower than the isolated compounds, and its activity as an antioxidant was negligible.
Article
Most bell pepper fruits are green at the unripe stages, and they become red as they ripen. However, the fruits of new varieties may be white, yellow, orange, red, purple, brown, or black. Ascorbic acid, provitamin A carotenoids, proximate composition, and 11 mineral elements were evaluated in these unusually colored bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Over a 2-year period, peppers were grown at the same location following current recommendations for bell pepper production. The fruits were harvested at the unripe and fully colored stages. For each variety, total ascorbic acid and provitamin A contents were determined on two independent samples by microfluorometry and HPLC, respectively. Minerals and proximate composition were determined by AOAC methods. Ascorbic acid (P< 0.001), provitamin A (P< 0.001), protein (P< 0.001), and some minerals (P< 0.001) were affected by genotypes and color stages (R2= 0.96), but fat or moisture was not (P> 0.05). Ascorbic acid increased as color developed in some cultivars, but remained unchanged or decreased in others. Black, purple, and white peppers contained lower ascorbic acid levels compared to the green, yellow, red, brown, or orange peppers. Provitamin A increased as color developed in most cultivars except for yellow varieties. Brown peppers had the highest provitamin A activity compared to other colored peppers.
Article
Phenolic phytochemicals from food-grade plants that are antioxidants are an important part of a healthy diet in a global population that is projected to reach 9 billion in the next 50 years. Such phytochemicals are being targeted for designing conventional foods with added health benefits and are called functional foods. These value-added foods are needed for dietary support to manage major oxidation-linked diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, cognition diseases and cancer. Plants produce phenolic metabolites during growth and developmental and stress adaptation responses. These phenolic phytochemicals can be targeted for designing functional foods and in order to design consistent food-grade phytochemical profiles for safety and clinical relevancy, novel tissue culture and bioprocessing technologies have been developed. These are based on the model that phenolic metabolites in plants are efficiently produced through an alternative mode of metabolism linking proline synthesis with the pentose phosphate pathway. Proline biosynthesis coupled to the pentose phosphate pathway stimulates the synthesis of NADPH2 and sugar phosphates for anabolic pathways, including phenolic and antioxidant response pathways. The reducing equivalents for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are provided by proline replacing NADH, with oxygen being the terminal electron acceptor. Using this system, techniques have been developed to isolate high phenolic clonal lines of food-grade plants from single heterozygous seeds. Applying the same model, elicitation concepts and techniques have been used to over-produce phenolic metabolites in seeds and sprouts. In both clonal and seed sprout systems, exogenous treatment of phenolic phytochemicals from a non-target species elicited endogenous stimulation of phenolic synthesis and potentially an antioxidant response. From these initial plant antioxidant response investigations, a model has been proposed in which the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway is critical for modulating protective antioxidant response pathways in diverse biological systems, including humans. The proposed proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway model, when confirmed precisely, provides a mechanism for understanding the mode of action of phenolic phytochemicals in modulating antioxidant pathways in relation to human health. This can provide dietary and nutritional mechanisms as well as new strategies to manage the oxidation-linked diseases through improvement of host physiological response. In other environmental applications, this model can be used to screen and design plants targeted for phytoremediation of aromatic pollutants and adaptation of plants in various stressed environments, including outdoor adaptation of tissue culture and transplanted seedlings for better food production.
Article
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Over 4000 different flavonoids have been described. They may have beneficial health effects because of their antioxidant properties and their inhibitory role in various stages of tumour development in animal studies. An estimation of the total flavonoid intake is difficult, because only limited data on food contents are available. It is estimated that humans ingest a few hundreds of milligram per day. The average intake of the subclasses of flavonols and flavones in The Netherlands was 23 mg/day. The intake of flavonols and flavones was inversely associated with subsequent coronary heart disease in most but not all prospective epidemiological studies. A protective effect of flavonols on cancer was found in only one prospective study. Flavonoids present in foods were considered non-absorbable because they are bound to sugars as beta-glycosides. However, we found that human absorption of the quercetin glycosides from onions (52%) is far better than that of the pure aglycone (24%). Flavonol glycosides might contribute to the antioxidant defences of blood. Dietary flavonols and flavones probably do not explain the cancer-protective effect of vegetables and fruits; a protective effect against cardiovascular disease is not conclusive.
Article
The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.
Article
A study was conducted to investigate the change in quality attributes of red pepper (paprika) (Capsicum annuum L. var. Km-622) as a function of ripening and some technological factors. Of quality attributes, carotenoids and bioantioxidants (ascorbic acid and tocopherols) have been studied. It was found that the dynamics of fruit ripening with regard to carotenoids and bioantioxidants was influenced to a considerable extent by weather conditions of the production season. A rainy and cool season yielded fruits with more beta-carotene but less diesters of red xanthophylls as compared to those produced in a relatively dry and warm season. The ripening stage at harvest was found to affect the quality of paprika. Harvest at unripe stages (color break or faint red) resulted in a high accumulation of dehydroascorbic acid in the overripe fruits, whereas de novo biosynthesis of carotenoids and tocopherols was partially retarded. Application of pre-drying centrifugation resulted in a marked loss of ascorbic acid, and as a consequence, carotenoid stability was impaired during the storage of ground paprika. Sugar caramelization caused dry pods and ground paprika to retain more pigments and tocopherol as compared to those from control or centrifuged red pepper samples. During the storage of ground paprika, color stability was improved by grinding the seeds with the pericarp.
Article
The antioxidant activity of the extracts from Gevuina avellana hulls was evaluated and compared with that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), using the beta-carotene bleaching assay, the accelerated oxidation of crude soybean oil, and the 2,2-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. Solvents of different polarity were used to obtain the extracts. Both the extraction yield and the antioxidant activity were strongly dependent on the solvent. The ethanol and diethyl ether soluble fractions were the most active with the beta-carotene assay. Ethanol and methanol extracts were the most active in hydrogen radical scavenging activity. Water and methanol inhibited more efficiently the oxidation of soybean oil at 70 and 80 degrees C, respectively. As a general trend, increased antioxidant activity was observed for increased extract concentration. Except the acetone extracts, all were stable after 6 months storage at 4 degrees C. The ethanol solubles from G. avellana hulls present antioxidant activity similar to that of synthetic antioxidants and to other reported residual agroindustrial materials.
Article
Some of the recent advances in flavonoid research are reviewed. The role of anthocyanins and flavones in providing stable blue flower colours in the angiosperms is outlined. The contribution of leaf flavonoids to UV-B protection in plants is critically discussed. Advances in understanding the part played by flavonoids in warding off microbial infection and protecting plants from herbivory are described. The biological properties of flavonoids are considered in an evaluation of the medicinal and nutritional values of these compounds.
Article
Both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidant capacities were determined using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(FL)) assay with fluorescein as the fluorescent probe and 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride as a peroxyl radical generator on over 100 different kinds of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, dried fruits, spices, cereals, infant, and other foods. Most of the foods were collected from four different regions and during two different seasons in U.S. markets. Total phenolics of each sample were also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Hydrophilic ORAC(FL) values (H-ORAC(FL)) ranged from 0.87 to 2641 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g among all of the foods, whereas lipophilic ORAC(FL) values (L-ORAC(FL)) ranged from 0.07 to 1611 micromol of TE/g. Generally, L-ORAC(FL) values were <10% of the H-ORAC(FL) values except for a very few samples. Total antioxidant capacity was calculated by combining L-ORAC(FL) and H-ORAC(FL). Differences of ORAC(FL) values in fruits and vegetables from different seasons and regions were relatively large for some foods but could not be analyzed in detail because of the sampling scheme. Two different processing methods, cooking and peeling, were used on selected foods to evaluate the impact of processing on ORAC(FL). The data demonstrated that processing can have significant effects on ORAC(FL). Considering all of the foods analyzed, the relationship between TP and H-ORAC(FL) showed a very weak correlation. Total hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacity intakes were calculated to be 5558 and 166 micromol of TE/day, respectively, on the basis of data from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996).
Article
Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) cv. Vergasa have been studied at four maturity stages (immature green, green, immature red, and red). The individual phenolics (hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids), vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid), and individual carotenoids were characterized and quantified. Five hydroxycinnamic derivatives and 23 flavonoids were characterized and quantified from the pericarp of sweet pepper by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Identification was carried out by their UV spectra, chromatographic comparisons with authentic markers, identification of hydrolysis products, and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Hydroxycinnamic derivatives, O-glycosides of quercetin, luteolin, and chrysoeriol, and a large number of C-glycosyl flavones have been characterized. Some of these compounds were found for the first time in nature. Clear differences in the individual and total phenolic content were detected between the different maturity stages. Immature green pepper had a very high phenolic content while green, immature red, and red ripe peppers showed a 4-5-fold reduction. Ascorbic acid was the main form of vitamin C, and its content increased as the pepper reached maturity. The red ripe stage had a relevant impact on the carotenoids content. Thus, immature green peppers showed the highest content of polyphenols, while red ripe fruits had the highest content of vitamin C and provitamin A.
Article
Four cultivars (Bronowicka Ostra, Cyklon, Tornado, and Tajfun) of pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. were studied for phenolics contents and antioxidant activity. Two fractions of phenolics, flavonoids (with phenolic acids) and capsaicinoids, were isolated from the pericarp of pepper fruit at two growth stages (green and red) and were studied for their antioxidant capacity. Both fractions from red fruits had higher activities than those from green fruits. A comparison of the capsaicinoid fraction with the flavonoid and phenolic acid fraction from red fruit with respect to their antioxidant activity gave similar results. Phenolic compounds were separated and quantified by LC and HPLC. Contents of nine compounds were determined in the flavonoid and phenolic acid fraction: trans-p-feruloyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, trans-p-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, trans-p-ferulyl alcohol-4-O-[6-(2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionyl] glucopyranoside, luteolin 6-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside, apigenin 6-C-beta-d-glucopyranoside-8-C-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside, lutoeolin 7-O-[2-(beta-d-apiofuranosyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside], quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside, and luteolin 7-O-[2-(beta-d-apiofuranosyl)-4-(beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6-malonyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside. The main compounds of this fraction isolated from red pepper were sinapoyl and feruloyl glycosides, and the main compound from green pepper was quercetin-3-O-l-rhamnoside. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the main components of the capsaicinoid fraction. A high correlation was found between the content of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of both fractions. Their antioxidant activities were elucidated by heat-induced oxidation in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system and the antiradical activity by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) decoloration test. The highest antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system was found for trans-p-sinapoyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside, which was lower than the activity of free sinapic acid. Quercetin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside had the highest antiradical activity in the DPPH system, which was comparable to the activity of quercetin. The activities of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were similar to that of trans-p-feruloyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside in the DPPH model system.
Biostatistical analysis. 3ed. Upper Saddle River
  • Jh N J Zar
Zar JH. 1996. Biostatistical analysis. 3ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall Inc. p 662. S102 JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE—Vol. 72, Nr. 2, 2007