Agreement Between Parents and Children Regarding Anxiety and Depression Diagnoses in Children With Asthma

ArticleinThe Journal of nervous and mental disease 195(11):897-904 · December 2007with5 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318159289c · Source: PubMed
Abstract
This study examined parent-child agreement regarding anxiety and depressive disorders in youth with asthma and evaluated key demographic and health differences associated with parent-child agreement. Of 756 outpatient youth with asthma, 122 (16.0%) were diagnosed with a DSM-IV anxiety or depression disorder using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC). Parents reported on internalizing symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors related to parent- and child-reported symptom agreement. Low rates of agreement (48.9%) between youth and parents regarding diagnosis of a DSM-IV anxiety or depressive disorder were found among youth with asthma. Increased agreement was associated with higher externalizing behavior score on the CBCL and more anxiety and depressive symptoms on the C-DISC. Children without behavioral problems and with less severe anxiety and depression were recognized significantly less often by their parents.
    • "Reported behavioral characteristics indicate that of the children taking allergies and asthma medications, approximately the same number of children exhibit externalizing characteristics (27%; n = 32) as internalizing characteristics (28%; n = 35) and maladaptive characteristics (27%; n = 32). However, this may be due to the belief that externalizing behaviors are easier for caregivers to track and recall, when compared to internalizing behaviors (Rockhill et al., 2007). The association between mental health issues and childhood asthma is particularly important for caregivers and education professionals to understand, since current research indicates that the mental health of caregivers of children with asthma may be more important than the mental health of children with asthma (Feldman et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This descriptive study examined the prevalence of pharmacological and psychopharmacological medication use in a Head Start preschool sample, as well as trends in medication use based on gender, ethnicity, and behavioral characteristics. The participants for this study included 1,544 parents of children ages 2 to 5 years old enrolled in a Head Start program during the 2008-2009 academic year in three diverse Michigan counties. Fifteen percent of children in this sample (n =233) were taking medication on a regular basis according to parent report. Pharmacological treatments accounted for 98.2% (n =306) of the medications in the sample. Sixty-nine percent (n =214) of medications reported were asthma related, significantly less than was reported in this population of children just two years ago. The importance of educating parents about the lack of a research base and potential side effects of common medications given to preschool children is discussed. There is a paucity of research concerning the prevalence rate of pharmacological and psychopharmacological medication in the preschool population. Pharmacological medications are those drugs that are used to relieve the symptoms of physical ailments such as the common cold or a headache, whereas psychopharmacological medications (e.g. sedatives, mood stabilizers, psychostimulants) are drugs that relieve the symptoms of psychiatric disorders (Elder, Evans, & Nizette, 2009). The umbrella term " medication " frequently includes both pharmacologic and psychopharmacological medications. A great need exists for understanding the scope of medication use given the possible deleterious effects of these medicines when used in young children. One recent study found that 6.8% of children in a Head Start sample were taking a prescribed medication according to parent report (Brinkman & Carlson, 2008). Another study found that almost 10% of children take over-the-counter medication at any given time (Vernacchio, Kelley, Kaufman, & Mitchell, 2008). These data indicate that at least one child in every preschool classroom may be taking medications which might affect their classroom functioning. Currently, asthma is the most prevalent chronic childhood illness in the United States (Medco Health Solutions, 2004). It is estimated that eighty percent of children who have asthma also have allergies, and often children will take multiple medications concurrently to treat these
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
    • "This aligns with a report (Non-Hispanic Black = 75%, Hispanic = 23%) that demonstrated significant association between children's anxiety and depression and both interpersonal relationships and peer network extensiveness (Berz, 2005). Another study found that parental recognition of anxiety and depression was more frequent if children who had asthma exhibited behavioral problems (Rockhill et al., 2007). One report discussed the problems of recognizing internalizing disorders in youth with asthma by the health care system. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions (a) What factors contribute to the emotional responses of school-age children who have asthma? (b) What are the potential gaps in the literature regarding the emotional responses of school-age children (ages 6-12) who have asthma? (c) Are children with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and those who are minorities represented in the literature proportionate to their prevalence? Two main focus areas regarding emotional responses were identified: (a) factors related to children who have asthma and (b) factors related to caregivers of children who have asthma. Internalizing disorders were reported consistently for children and caregivers of children who have asthma. Negative consequences of asthma for children included panic and asthma attacks, missed school days, and behavioral problems. Issues for caregivers included higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, asthma management deficits, and lower caregiver warmth and involvement. Gaps in the literature included separated studies for children ages 6-12, a lack of a standardized method to define SES, studies that were of a more experimental nature, and a disparate number of studies of minority children and caregivers relative to their asthma prevalence.
    Article · Jul 2012
    • "There are several potential explanations for the different fi ndings regarding depressive symptoms across informant. For example, it is possible that parents' ability to detect depressive symptoms among their children is low because many of the symptoms involve assessment of internal feelings , states, and cognitions that may not be readily shared by parent and child, particularly in the absence of behavioral problems (Rockhill et al., 2007). As adolescents age and spend more time away from parents and out-of-the-home context, observation of these symptoms may become even more diffi cult for parents. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite frequent theorizing, prior literature on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol use in adolescence has been inconsistent. Yet studies have varied widely with respect to age at assessments, time frame of prediction, and controls for comorbid conditions and demographic factors. The current study examined whether the associations between depressive symptoms and alcohol use were similar in valence and magnitude over a 4-year period in early adolescence. A sample of 521 young adolescents and their parents were interviewed every year from sixth (Mage = 12.0 years) through ninth grades. At each interview, symptom counts on depressive and conduct disorders were generated from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Adolescents also reported on their alcohol use, which was converted to a binary variable. Autoregressive, cross-lagged panel models specifying depressive and conduct disorder symptoms as predictors of alcohol use 1 year later with equality constraints were tested and compared with models allowing path coefficients to vary over time. For youth self-report, depressive symptoms were positively associated with alcohol use 1 year later over and above conduct problems and earlier alcohol use throughout early adolescence. By parental report, only very early adolescent depressive symptoms (sixth to seventh grades) were associated with alcohol use. Gender did not moderate findings for analyses with self- or parental-report data. These results indicate that, even in the context of conduct disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms are important indicators of risk for use of alcohol across early adolescence.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012
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