Molecular cytogenetic analysis of follicular lymphoma (FL) provides detailed characterization of chromosomal instability associated with the t(14;18)(q32;q21) positive and negative subsets and histologic progression

Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research (Impact Factor: 1.56). 11/2007; 118(2-4):337-44. DOI: 10.1159/000108318
Source: PubMed


We analyzed a cohort of 61 follicular lymphomas (FL) with an abnormal G-banded karyotype by spectral karyotyping (SKY) to better define the chromosome instability associated with the t(14;18)(q32;q21) positive and negative subsets of FL and histologic grade. In more than 70% of the patients, SKY provided additional cytogenetic information and up to 40% of the structural abnormalities were revised. The six most frequent breakpoints in both SKY and G-banding analyses were 14q32, 18q21, 3q27, 1q11-q21, 6q11-q15 and 1p36 (15-77%). SKY detected nine additional sites (1p11-p13, 2p11-p13, 6q21, 8q24, 6q21, 9p13, 10q22-q24, 12q11-q13 and 17q11-q21) at an incidence of >10%. In addition to the known recurring translocations, t(14;18)(q32;q21) [70%], t(3;14)(q27;q32) [10%], t(1;14)(q21;q32) [5%] and t(8;14)(q24;q32) [2%] and their variants, 125 non-IG gene translocations were identified of which four were recurrent within this series. In contrast to G-banding analysis, SKY revealed a greater degree of karyotypic instability in the t(14;18) (q32;q21) negative subset compared to the t(14;18)(q32;q21) positive subset. Translocations of 3q27 and gains of chromosome 1 were significantly more frequent in the former subset. SKY also allowed a better definition of chromosomal imbalances, thus 37% of the deletions detected by G-banding were shown to be unbalanced translocations leading to gain of genetic material. The majority of recurring (>10%) imbalances were detected at a greater (2-3 fold) incidence by SKY and several regions were narrowed down, notably at gain 2p13-p21, 2q11-q21, 2q31-q37, 12q12-q15, 17q21-q25 and 18q21. Chromosomal abnormalities among the different histologic grades were consistent with an evolution from low to high grade disease and breaks at 6q11-q15 and 8q24 and gain of 7/7q and 8/8q associated significantly with histologic progression. This study also indicates that in addition to gains and losses, non-IG gene translocations involving 1p11-p13, 1p36, 1q11-q21, 8q24, 9p13, and 17q11-q21 play an important role in the histologic progression of FL with t(14;18)(q32;q21) and t(3q27).

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    • "Genes such as TP53, TP73, MDM2, and MYC as well as REL (at 2p16) are often mentioned as possibly involved in the transformation pathogenesis. There are previous reports on 2p15–16 gain detected by genome-wide array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in DLBCL (Martinez-Climent et al., 2003; Tagawa et al., 2005; Nanjangud et al., 2007). Amplification of 2p encompassing the REL gene has been detected in FL using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and CGH (Goff et al., 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: To outline further genetic mechanisms of transformation from follicular lymphoma (FL) to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we have performed whole genome array-CGH in 81 tumors from 60 patients [29 de novo DLBCL (dnDLBCL), 31 transformed DLBCL (tDLBCL), and 21 antecedent FL]. In 15 patients, paired tumor samples (primary FL and a subsequent tDLBCL) were available, among which three possessed more than two subsequent tumors, allowing us to follow specific genetic alterations acquired before, during, and after the transformation. Gain of 2p15–16.1 encompassing, among others, the REL, BCL11A, USP34, COMMD1, and OTX1 genes was found to be more common in the tDLBCL compared with dnDLBCL (P < 0.001). Furthermore, a high-level amplification of 2p15–16.1 was also detected in the FL stage prior to transformation, indicating its importance during the transformation event. Quantitative real-time PCR showed a higher level of amplification of REL, USP34, and COMMD1 (all involved in the NFκΒ-pathway) compared with BCL11A, which indicates that the altered genes disrupting the NFκΒ pathway may be the driver genes of transformation rather than the previously suggested BCL11A. Moreover, a 17q21.33 amplification was exclusively found in tDLBCL, never in FL (P < 0.04) or dnDLBCL, indicating an upregulation of genes of importance during the later phase of transformation. Taken together, our study demonstrates potential genomic markers for disease progression to clinically more aggressive forms. We also confirm the importance of the TP53-, CDKN2A-, and NFκΒ-pathways for the transformation from FL to DLBCL. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Genes Chromosomes and Cancer
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    • "However, several facts indicate that elevated BCL2 is not sufficient for lymphoma development. For example, the t(14;18)(q32;q21) is often found in healthy individuals, we and others find a multitude of genomic aberration in diagnosis samples of FL, and also the long latency to lymphoma development in Bcl2 transgenic animals indicate that additional events are required for lymphomagenesis (Bende et al., 2007; Egle et al., 2004; Nanjangud et al., 2007). Deletions affecting chromosome 6q11-27 are particularly common in FL and can affect the outcome of treatment in lymphoma patients (Johnson et al., 2009; Nanjangud et al., 2007; Viardot et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Insights into cancer genetics can lead to therapeutic opportunities. By cross-referencing chromosomal changes with an unbiased genetic screen we identify the ephrin receptor A7 (EPHA7) as a tumor suppressor in follicular lymphoma (FL). EPHA7 is a target of 6q deletions and inactivated in 72% of FLs. Knockdown of EPHA7 drives lymphoma development in a murine FL model. In analogy to its physiological function in brain development, a soluble splice variant of EPHA7 (EPHA7(TR)) interferes with another Eph-receptor and blocks oncogenic signals in lymphoma cells. Consistent with this drug-like activity, administration of the purified EPHA7(TR) protein produces antitumor effects against xenografted human lymphomas. Further, by fusing EPHA7(TR) to the anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) we can directly target this tumor suppressor to lymphomas in vivo. Our study attests to the power of combining descriptive tumor genomics with functional screens and reveals EPHA7(TR) as tumor suppressor with immediate therapeutic potential.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Neoplasien des hämatopoetischen und lymphoiden Systems können in Hodkin Lymphome und in Non-Hodgkin Lymphome (NHL) unterteilt werden. Etwa 80% der NHL sind B-Zell Lymphome (B-NHL), während etwa 20% T-Zell und NK-Zell Lymphome (T-NHL) umfassen. Genetische Alterationen, insbesondere Translokationen, welche die Immunglobulin (Ig) Rezeptor Gene betreffen, sind für die Klassifikation von B-NHL von großem Nutzen und sind auch in der Pathogenese dieser Neoplasien von erheblicher Bedeutung. Ein Beispiel hierfür ist die Translokation t(14;18)(q32.33;q21.3) in follikulären Lymphomen (FL). Analog zu den Ig Rezeptor Genen in B-NHL, sind die T-Zell Rezeptor (TCR) Gene von etwa 30% der Vorläufer T-Zell Neoplasien von einer Translokation oder Inversion betroffen, die in der Regel mit der Überexpression eines Onkogens einhergehen. Die Pathogenese von reifen T-NHL, sowie deren zugrunde liegenden molekularen Mechanismen sind jedoch weitestgehend unbekannt. Um das Vorkommen und die Häufigkeit von chromosomalen Bruchpunkten im Bereich der TCR Gene in reifen T-NHL detailliert zu charakterisieren, wurden 227 Fälle im Tissue Microarray Format mit spezifischen Fluoreszenz in situ Hybridisierungs (FISH)-Assays analysiert. Translokationen oder Inversionen konnten in lediglich zwei der untersuchten Fälle nachgewiesen werden, was darauf hindeutet, dass reife T-NHL nur selten von Bruchpunkten in ihren TCR Loci betroffen sind. FL sind die zweithäufigste B-Zell Neoplasie, die durch ein vorwiegend follikuläres, follikulär und diffuses, oder durch ein vorwiegend diffuses Wachstum geprägt sein kann. Die Translokation t(14;18), die in etwa 90% der Fälle auftritt, ist mit einer deregulierten Expression des BCL2 Proto-Onkogens assoziiert. Während bereits eine Vielzahl von Studien die morphologischen, klinischen und molekularen Aspekte dieser Entität definieren konnte, fehlt eine detaillierte Charakterisierung t(14;18)-negativer FL bislang vollständig. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden mittels Polymerase Kettenreaktion und FISH Analyse 184 FL in t(14;18)-positive und t(14;18)-negative Fälle unterteilt, und die Genexpressionsprofile sowie die nummerischen chromosomalen Aberationen dieser Subgruppen untersucht. Die einzige genetische Alteration, die sich im Vergleich von t(14;18)-negativen und t(14;18)-positiven FL als signifikant erwies, waren Zugewinne und Amplifikationen in 18q11-q21, die in 32% der t(14;18)-positiven und in 0% der t(14;18)-negativen FL auftraten. Mit Hilfe von Genexpressionsanalysen und einer Gene Set Enrichment-Analyse (GSEA) konnte eine signifikante Assoziation von Keimzentrums B-Zell (GCB) Signaturen mit t(14;18)-positiven FL nachgewiesen werden, während in den t(14;18)-negativen FL eine signifikante Anreicherung von aktivierten B-Zell (ABC)-, NFkB-, Proliferations-, Zell Zyklus-, Interferon- und „Bystander“ Zell Signaturen beobachtet wurde. In einem immunhistochemischen Validierungsansatz mit einer unabhängigen FL Studiengruppe konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Keimzentrums Marker CD10/MME in t(14;18)-positiven FL häufiger exprimiert wird als in t(14;18)-negativen FL, während häufig eine erhöhte Expression des Post-Keimzentrums Markers IRF4/MUM1, des Proliferations Markers Ki67 und des zytotoxischen T-Zell Markers GZMB in t(14;18)-negativen FL nachweisbar war. Diese Ergebnisse weisen auf einen Post-Keimzentrums Phänotyp in t(14;18)-negativen FL hin. Das Vorkommen von „ongoing“ somatischen Hypermutationen in den schweren Ketten der Ig Gene dieser Fälle spricht jedoch gegen diese Hypothese und deutet darauf hin, dass der Phänotyp der t(14;18)-negativen FL eher dem einer B-Zelle im späten Keimzentrumsstadium entspricht. In einer unabhängigen Studie mit 35 vorwiegend diffus wachsenden FL konnte mittels immunhistochemischer Färbungen, klassischer Chromosomenbänderung, FISH und Genexpressionsanalysen eine Untergruppe von t(14;18)-negativen FL definiert werden, die sich durch eine chromosomale Deletion in 1p36 und durch spezifische morphologische und klinische Eigenschaften auszeichnete. Das Genexpressionsprofil der diffusen FL fügte sich in das Spektrum der klassischen FL ein. Mittels GSEA konnte jedoch eine signifikante Anreicherung von T-Zell-, NK-Zell- und zwei dendritischen Zell Signaturen in diesen Fällen beobachtet werden, während die Kontrollgruppe mit klassischen FL signifikant mit GCB-, Proliferations-, Zell Zyklus- und B-Zell Signaturen assoziiert war. Die diffusen FL zeichneten sich häufig durch ein frühes klinisches Stadium, sowie durch große inguinale Tumoren aus. Zusammenfassend deuten die vorliegenden Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass t(14;18)-negative FL dem Spektrum „klassischer“ FL angehören, aber dennoch spezifische molekulare und klinische Eigenschaften aufweisen. Insbesondere scheinen´t(14;18)-negative diffuse FL, die durch eine Deletion in 1p36, ein frühes klinisches Stadium und große in der Leiste lokalisierte Tumoren charakterisiert sind, eine eigene FL Subgruppe zu repräsentieren. Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid system are classified into Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Approximately 80% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are B-cell lymphomas (B-NHL) and the remainder include T-cell and NK-cell lymphomas as well as immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. The presence of genetic alterations such as translocations involving the immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor loci in B-NHL, e.g. the translocation t(14;18)(q32.33;q21.3) in follicular lymphoma (FL), are of great value for the classification and of importance in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. In analogy to the Ig receptor genes in B-NHL, the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene loci are targeted by chromosomal breaks in approximately 30% of precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemias/lymphomas involving various translocation or inversion partners. Most of these events result in the overexpression of an oncogene by juxtaposing it to the regulatory sequences of the TCR genes. However, the pathogenesis of mature T-cell NHL (T-NHL) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are only poorly understood so far. To determine the exact frequency of breakpoints occurring in the TCR loci of 227 mature T-NHL cases, we designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for the TCR loci that are applicable for large scale analysis of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) lymphoma specimens in a tissue microarray format. This approach revealed only two mature T-NHL cases with a chromosomal breakpoint in one of the TCR loci making the rearrangement of TCR loci a very rare event in these neoplasms that occurs in less than 1% of cases.FL is the second most frequent type of B-NHL that can show predominantly follicular, combined follicular and diffuse, or predominantly diffuse growth patterns. The characteristic genetic hallmark of FL is the translocation t(14;18)that occurs in approximately 90% of cases and leads to a deregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 proto-oncogene. FL has yet been a subject of many studies deciphering morphological, clinical and molecular features of this entity. However, only little information exists about cases lacking this translocation. In this thesis we divided 184 FL cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by FISH assays into FL cases with and without t(14;18) and investigated their respective gene expression profiles and copy number alterations. For FISH analysis we followed the refined conditions established for the T-NHL study. The only genetic alterations that differed significantly by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis between FL cases with and without t(14;18) were frequent gains or amplifications in 18q11-q21 in 32% of t(14;18)-positive and 0% of t(14;18)-negative cases. Gene expression profiling and geneset enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed an enrichment of germinal center B-cell (GCB) signatures in t(14;18)-positive cases whereas an enrichment of activated B-cell (ABC) like, NFkB-, proliferation-, cell cycle-, interferon and bystander cell signatures were observed in t(14;18)-negative cases. A validation approach by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on an independent test set of FL cases (n=84) revealed a more frequent expression of the germinal center (GC) marker CD10/MME in cases with t(14;18) and a higher expression of the post GC marker IRF4/MUM1, the proliferation marker Ki67 and the cytotoxic T-cell marker GZMB in cases without t(14;18). Although these results may suggest a post-GCB phenotype for translocation t(14;18)-negative cases, ongoing somatic hypermutations of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in these cases rather point to a late GC stage of B-cell differentiation in FL without t(14;18). In an independent study with 35 predominantly diffuse FL cases, it was furthermore possible to define another subset of t(14;18)-negative FL characterized by a chromosomal deletion (del) in 1p36 and distinct morphological and clinical features by IHC, classical chromosome banding, FISH and gene expression profiling. The gene expression profiles of predominantly diffuse FL cases fell into the spectrum of FL. However, by GSEA they showed a significant enrichment of T-cell, NK-cell- and two dendritic-cell subset signatures, whereas a significant enrichment of GCB cell-, proliferation-, cell cycle- and B-cell signatures was observed in a control group of “classic” FL cases. Remarkably, patients with diffuse FL frequently presented with low clinical stage and large, but localized inguinal tumors. In conclusion, our results suggest that t(14;18)-negative FL are part of the spectrum of FL in general, but nevertheless show distinct molecular and clinical features. In particular, predominantly diffuse FL with (del)1p36, low clinical stage and large but localized inguinal tumors may represent a distinct t(14;18)-negative FL subtype.
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