Non-cardiac surgery in patients with prosthetic heart valves: A12 years experience

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore, Pakistan.
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan: JCPSP (Impact Factor: 0.35). 11/2007; 17(10):583-6. DOI: 10.2007/JCPSP.583586
Source: PubMed


Objective: To study patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgery and their anticoagulation management during these procedures. Study Design: It was a cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore and Department of Surgery, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore, from September 1994 to June 2006. Patients and Methods: Patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgical operation during this period, were included. Their anticoagulation was monitored and anticoagulation related complications were recorded. Results: In this study, 507 consecutive patients with a mechanical heart valve replacement were followed-up. Forty two (8.28%) patients underwent non-cardiac surgical operations of which 24 (57.1%) were for abdominal and non-abdominal surgeries, 5 (20.8%) were emergency and 19 (79.2%) were planned. There were 18 (42.9%) caesarean sections for pregnancies. Among the 24 procedures, there were 7(29.1%) laparotomies, 7(29.1%) hernia repairs, 2 (8.3%) cholecystectomies, 2 (8.3%) hysterectomies, 1(4.1%) craniotomy, 1(4.1%) spinal surgery for neuroblastoma, 1(4.1%) ankle fracture and 1(4.1%) carbuncle. No untoward valve or anticoagulation related complication was seen during this period. Conclusion: Patients with mechanical valve prosthesis on life-long anticoagulation, if managed properly, can undergo any type of non-cardiac surgical operation with minimal risk.

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    ABSTRACT: There is a tendency to avoid noncardiac surgery in patients with mechanical heart valves (MHVs) owing to the increased risk of perioperative thromboembolism, infective endocarditis, and bleeding. We aimed to determine the risk of cardiac and noncardiac complications in patients with MHVs who underwent noncardiothoracic, nonvascular surgery. A total of 140 patients with MHVs (77 aortic, 46 mitral, and 17 double valve) and 1,200 patients with native valves (control group) were prospectively followed up for a minimum of 3 months after noncardiothoracic and nonvascular surgery. Patients with bioprostheses were excluded. Those patients aged >18 years who underwent an elective, non-outpatient, open surgical procedure were enrolled. Subcutaneous enoxaparin 1 mg/kg, twice daily, was used as bridging anticoagulation. The demographics, co-morbidities, and preoperative (medications, echocardiographic findings, laboratory results) and postoperative data were evaluated for their association with the occurrence of perioperative adverse events. The incidence of perioperative adverse cardiovascular (10.8% vs 10.7%, p = 0.985) and noncardiovascular (11.9% vs 11.4%, p = 0.989) events was similar in those patients with and without MHVs. Bleeding (18.6% vs 14.2%, p = 0.989), thromboembolism (3.6% vs 2%, p = 0.989), and mortality at 3 months (1.4% vs 1.3%, p = 0.825) were also similar for the 2 groups. In conclusion, with close follow-up and strict adherence to the guidelines, patients with MHVs and patients with native heart valves undergoing noncardiac and nonvascular surgery have a similar risk of mortality and morbidity.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · The American journal of cardiology