Incidence and risk factors of nevirapine-associated skin rashes among HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <250 cells/ L
The objective of the study was to determine cumulative incidence and risk factors of nevirapine (NVP)-associated rashes that lead to NVP discontinuation among HIV-infected patients with CD4 <250 cells/microL. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients who had baseline CD4 <250 cells/microL and were initiated NVP-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2003 and October 2005. There were 910 patients with a mean age of 35.4 years and 43% were women. Median CD4 cell count was 27 cells/microL and median HIV RNA was 5.5 log copies/mL. Cumulative incidences of rashes at 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months after ART were 3.7%, 6.2%, 8.1%, 8.5% and 8.5%, respectively. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the higher baseline CD4 cell counts had a higher probability of NVP-associated rashes (log-rank test, P=0.041). By Cox regression analysis, higher baseline CD4 cell count was associated with a higher incidence of rashes (hazard ratio=1.244, 95% confidence interval=1.045-1.482, for every 50 cells/microL increment of baseline CD4 stratum). In conclusion, NVP-associated skin rashes that lead to NVP discontinuation are common among HIV-infected patients with baseline CD4 <250 cells/microL. Despite the low baseline in this population, the higher number of baseline CD4 cells is continuously associated with a higher risk for skin rashes.
Available from: Sumonmal Uttayamakul
- "Previous studies have also suggested that higher CD4 counts at baseline increased risk of NVP-induced rash [25-30]. In our study, however, the median baseline CD4 counts of NVP-induced rash cases (43.5 cells/μl) was very similar to that of 248 NVP-tolerant patients (43 cells/μl). "
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ABSTRACT: A high incidence of rash has been reported in HIV-1 patients who received the anti-retroviral drug nevirapine. In addition, several studies have suggested that polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes may play important roles in nevirapine-induced rash. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different HLA-C alleles on rash associated with nevirapine in patients who started highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) containing nevirapine in Thailand.
A case-control study was carried out involving HIV-1 patients under treatment at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Nonthaburi, Thailand between March 2007 and March 2008. The study included all HIV/AIDS patients being treated with nevirapine-containing regimens. The study population comprised 287 HIV/AIDS patients of whom 248 were nevirapine-tolerant and 39 developed rash after nevirapine treatment. From the nevirapine-tolerant patients, 60 were selected as the control group on the basis of age, sex, and therapy history matched for nevirapine-induced rash cases. We observed significantly more HLA-Cw*04 alleles in nevirapine-induced rash cases than in nevirapine-tolerant group, with frequencies of 20.51% and 7.50%, respectively (P = 0.009). There were no significant differences between the rash and tolerant groups for other HLA-C alleles except for HLA-Cw*03 (P = 0.015).
This study suggests that HLA-Cw*04 is associated with rash in nevirapine treated Thais. Future screening of patients' HLA may reduce the number of nevirapine-induced rash cases, and patients with alleles associated with nevirapine-induced rash should be started on anti-retroviral therapy without nevirapine.
Available from: Angkana Charoenyingwattana
- "Rare but serious hypersensitivity reactions, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, had been reported [5, 9, 10]. Risk factors for NVP-associated rash were female gender including pregnant women [11-14], lower body weight , initiation of NVP at high CD4 cell counts [11, 12, 15, 16], pretreated with antiretroviral drugs less than 12 months , higher plasma NVP level , and genetic (human leukocyte antigen) [18, 19]. However, some factors may not be applicable to patients who were initiated NVP at low CD4 cell counts in resource-limited settings. "
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ABSTRACT: Rash is the most common adverse effect associated with nevirapine (NVP). We aimed to develop a model and risk score for predicting NVP-associated rash among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts.
Cross-sectional study was conducted and 383 HIV-infected patients consecutively enrolled in the study.
Of 222 patients in the training set, 116 (52.2%) were males and median (IQR) age was 35.2 (31.1-42.0) years. Median (IQR) CD4 cell count was 104 (35-225) cells/mm(3). Of these, 72 and 150 patients were in "rash" and "no rash" group, respectively. Four factors were independently associated with rash: a history of drug allergy (odds ratio (OR) 4.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.75-9.20, P = 0.001), body weight <55 kg. (OR 2.02, 95% CI, 1.09-3.76, p = 0.026), not receiving slow dose escalation (OR 2.00, 95% CI, 1.06-3.77, p = 0.032), and no concomitant drug(s) (OR 2.48, 95% CI, 1.32-4.64, p = 0.005). Receiver-operator characteristic analysis yielded area under the curve of 71% and the goodness-of-fit statistics was 6.48 (p = 0.840). The variables were given scores of 14, 7, 7 and 9, respectively. A cutoff >21 points defined the high risk individuals which yielded specificity and positive predictive value of 99% and 69%, respectively, with OR of 3.96 (95% CI, 1.79-8.86, p = 0.001).
A model and risk score for predicting NVP-associated rash performed well in this study population. It might be useful for predicting the risk of rash before NVP initiation among HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts.
Available from: Somnuek Sungkanuparph
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ABSTRACT: Background: Generic fixed-dose combination (FDC) antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been widely used in resource-limited settings. Treatment based on these combinations provide low pill burden and are less expensive. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness and metabolic complications of a generic FDC of stavudine (d4T)/lamivudine (3TC)/ nevirapine (NVP), among ART-naive HIV-infected patients. Methods: A prospective study was conducted among patients who were initiated on d4T/3TC/NVP between November 2004 and March 2005. Plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4 and alanine transaminase were assessed every 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid profile were determined at 96 weeks. Adverse events and genotypic drug resistance were recorded. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of patients who achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA 160 mg/dL, 6 (6.9%) had tri- glycerides >400 mg/dL, and 2 (2.3%) had FPG >126 mg/dL. Eleven patients (12.6%) had a lactic acid level >2.5 mmol/L. Eight patients (9.2%) needed to take antihypertensive
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