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The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown About Telecommuting: Meta-Analysis of Psychological Mediators and Individual Consequences

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Abstract

What are the positive and negative consequences of telecommuting? How do these consequences come about? When are these consequences more or less potent? The authors answer these questions through construction of a theoretical framework and meta-analysis of 46 studies in natural settings involving 12,883 employees. Telecommuting had small but mainly beneficial effects on proximal outcomes, such as perceived autonomy and (lower) work-family conflict. Importantly, telecommuting had no generally detrimental effects on the quality of workplace relationships. Telecommuting also had beneficial effects on more distal outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intent, and role stress. These beneficial consequences appeared to be at least partially mediated by perceived autonomy. Also, high-intensity telecommuting (more than 2.5 days a week) accentuated telecommuting's beneficial effects on work-family conflict but harmed relationships with coworkers. Results provide building blocks for a more complete theoretical and practical treatment of telecommuting.

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... The benefits of teleworking in the professional sphere include reduced interruptions during professional activities, fewer distractions, and the rest time necessary for work recovery. The result is better concentration, professional efficiency, performance and productivity [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Teleworking also fosters a feeling of control over one's working time and flexibility, together with a greater perceived level of control in terms of task performance, organization and carrying out one's daily work [10,[12][13][14][15]. It reinforces a feeling of autonomy and strengthens motivation at work, as well as organizational commitment and job satisfaction [5,6,9,11,12,16]. ...
... The result is better concentration, professional efficiency, performance and productivity [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Teleworking also fosters a feeling of control over one's working time and flexibility, together with a greater perceived level of control in terms of task performance, organization and carrying out one's daily work [10,[12][13][14][15]. It reinforces a feeling of autonomy and strengthens motivation at work, as well as organizational commitment and job satisfaction [5,6,9,11,12,16]. Furthermore, teleworking not only reduces the perception of professional stress, but is a resource for coping with it, irrespective of whether this stress is the result of frequent interruptions in the usual work environment or very demanding professional situations [17]. ...
... The above-mentioned benefits have been qualified and refined in various studies. The meta-analysis conducted by Gajendra and Harrison [12] indicated that while teleworking fosters better performance-measured using objective indicators or supervisor appraisals-it has no significant effect on self-assessed performance. In their study of 245 employees in two large information and financial service organizations geographically distributed in the United States, Kossek, Lautsch and Eaton [18] highlighted that only formalised teleworking fosters greater supervisor-perceived performance in terms of quality of work, the number of errors made, and meeting the supervisor's expectations. ...
Article
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Using a qualitative research-based approach, this study aimed to understand (i) the way home-based teleworkers in France perceive and organize their professional activities and workspaces, (ii) their teleworking conditions, (iii) the way they characterize the modalities and the nature of their interactions with their professional circle, and more broadly (iv) their quality of life ‘at work’. We performed a lexical and morphosyntactic analysis of interviews conducted with 28 teleworkers (working part-time or full-time from home) before the COVID-19 crisis and the associated establishment of emergency telework. Our results confirm and complement findings in the literature. Participant discourses underlined the beneficial effects of teleworking in terms of professional autonomy, flexibility, concentration, efficiency, performance, productivity, and being able to balance their professional and private lives. Nevertheless, they also highlighted the deleterious effects of teleworking on temporal workload, setting boundaries for work, work-based relationships and socio-professional integration. Despite the study limitations, our findings highlight the need for specific research-based and practical strategies to support the implementation of a sustainable telework organization in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era.
... Flexible work arrangement regarding working times (Baltes et al. 1999) or work locations (Gajendran/Harrison 2007) are not new organizational concepts but have been implemented in organizations since the early 1970s and investigated by researchers for decades. However, since the COVID-19 pandemic began in 2020 (and still continues), working from home (WFH) in particular has become a more common work location arrangement because policymakers demanded for its more intensive use in order to improve infection control and public health protection. ...
... In the literature on WFH, employee outcomes such job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, job performance, career development, and work-to-home or hometo-work interference have been studied most frequently but less is known about potential health effects (Allen et al. 2015;Gajendran/Harrison 2007;Martin/MacDonnell 2012;Vartiainen 2021). ...
... From a conceptual and theoretical perspective, WFH is a work context variable that affects work characteristics (e.g., job autonomy, social support, and work intensity) that, in turn, shape individual outcomes, for instance, health (Gajendran/Harrison 2007). Using the job-demandsresources approach (Bakker/Demerouti 2017), Wöhrmann and Ebner (2021) have suggested an opposing indirect effects model for relationships between telework (as type of WFH) and health. ...
Article
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Background. Due to the ongoing COVID-19-pandemic and the need to improve health protection, companies in many countries have been encouraged to offer their employees more work-from-home (WFH) opportunities when possible, which is often the case with office work. WFH offers advantages and disadvantages in terms of work design and, as a consequence, employee health. Due to their health effects, rest breaks are a work factor that is strongly regulated by national legislation. However, their organization at different locations of work has been so far largely unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify if WFH affects employees' compliance with mandatory break regulations and if rest break behavior relates to physical and mental health complaints. Methods. This cross-sectional study relies on survey data (10-12/2020, prior to/during the 2nd pandemic wave in Germany) from 534 office workers working in the office (n = 391) or at least partially from home (n = 143). We assessed their compliance with six mandatory rest break criteria according to German legislation (i.e., total rest break duration, single break duration, no interruptions, no skipping, sched-uled/predictable, regular leaving of visual display workplaces and/or regular short rest break) and physical (muscular tension, headache) as well as mental (exhaustion, de-pressive mood) health complaints. Results. Ninety-two percent reported at least one violation of these rest break principles. WFH (frequency) did not affect the (non-)compliance with these regulations but was associated with increased risk for muscular tension (OR = 1.93). Frequent break skipping increased risk of headache (OR = 2.38). After controlling for potential confounders, noncompliance with three or more of these rest break criteria related to risk of depressive mood (OR = 2.61) and headache (OR = 3.11), and noncompliance related to risk of exhaustion in a dose-response relationship (3.10 ≤ ORs ≤ 3.69).
... Above and beyond the accelerated digitalization, the pandemic has led to a large-scale shift towards telecommuting which is defined as "an alternative work arrangement in which employees perform tasks elsewhere that are normally done in a primary or central workplace, for at least some portion of their work schedule, using electronic media to interact with others inside and outside the organization" (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007, p. 1525). All of a sudden thousands of employees worldwide were sent to work from home as telecommuting proved to be an effective way for organizations to facilitate social distancing and protect their employees from infection, while maintaining business operations as best as possible (Alipour et al., 2020). ...
... When assessing the impact of telecommuting on employees, research often speaks of a "telecommuting paradox of mutually incompatible consequences for employees" (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007, p. 1526). Research has shown that telecommuting benefits employees in many ways, but the literature also indicates that telecommuting presents employees with a variety of challenges. ...
... On the positive side, telecommuting has been found to provide employees with greater psychological control or autonomy by having a choice over the location, schedule (at least for some), and the means of work (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Gajendran et al., 2015). Perceived autonomy has particularly been highlighted as one of the principal mechanisms through which telecommuting benefits employees (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). ...
... These dimensions together form a two-dimensional eudaimonic workplace well-being scale (EWWS) (Bartels et al., 2019). The relationship between remote work and employee well-being in the pre-pandemic context has revealed inconsistent findings (T.D. Golden and Veiga, 2016). Often-cited benefits of this work arrangement include increased job satisfaction due to enhanced flexibility and autonomy (Lee and Sirgy, 2019;Virick et al., 2010), as well as greater control through the use of technologies that enables the efficient access to and exchange of information, not restricted to location or time (Cavazotte et al., 2014). ...
... However other studies have reported that remote work results in higher work-home conflict (Delanoeije et al., 2019), difficulties in "switching off" and detaching from work after hours (Felstead and Henseke, 2017) and higher levels of professional isolation (Harrington and Santiago, 2006). Other studies report the possibility of relational impoverishment in the remote work context (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007) due to weakened interpersonal bonds as a result of reduced physical interaction and lower frequency and richness of communication. ...
... This study explores two key challenges highlighted in the pre-pandemic literature as pertinent to the remote work environment, namely, work-home conflict (Igbaria and Guimaraes, 1999; Exploring employee wellbeing Delanoeije et al., 2019;Knight et al., 2020) and social isolation (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007;Harrington and Santiago, 2006). These demands are expected to have been exacerbated in the current context due to the involuntary nature and intensity of remote work, and the concurrent staying-at-home of many members of the household (Sandoval-Reyes et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly accelerated a shift to remote working for previously office-based employees in South Africa, impacting employee outcomes such as well-being. The remote work trend is expected to continue even post the pandemic, necessitating for organizational understanding of the factors impacting employee well-being. Using the Job Demands–Resources model as the theoretical framework, this study aims to understand the role of job demands and resources as predictors of employee well-being in the pandemic context. Design/methodology/approach A self-administered online survey questionnaire was used to gather quantitative data about remote workers’ ( n = 204) perceptions of specifically identified demands, resources and employee well-being. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation and moderated hierarchical regression were used to analyse the data. Findings This study found that job demands in the form of work–home conflict were associated with reduced employee well-being. Resources, namely, job autonomy, effective communication and social support were associated with increased employee well-being. Job autonomy was positively correlated to remote work frequency, and gender had a significant positive association to work–home conflict. Social support was found to moderate the relationship between work–home conflict and employee well-being. Findings suggest that organizations looking to enhance the well-being of their remote workforce should implement policies and practices that reduce the demands and increase the resources of their employees. The significant association of gender to work–home conflict suggests that greater interventions are required particularly for women. This study advances knowledge on the role of demands and resources as predictors of employee well-being of remote workforces during COVID-19 and beyond. Originality/value This paper provides insight on employee well-being during COVID-19 remote work. Further, the findings suggest that organizations looking to enhance the well-being of their remote workforce should implement policies and practices that reduce the demands and increase the resources of their employees. The significant association of gender to work–home conflict suggests that greater interventions are required particularly for women. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study carried out to explore the employee well-being during COVID-19 pandemic and will be beneficial to stakeholders for understanding the factors impacting employee well-being.
... Literature reviews show that commonly studied outcomes of telework are job satisfaction, autonomy, general health aspects, well-being, stress, exhaustion, social support, social isolation, organizational commitment, trust, control, work relationships, and leadership support. The populations being studied mainly fall within the knowledge branches of telecommunications, finance, IT, engineering, and government departments (3,6,8,10,26,28,79,112). Studies have also been conducted within logistics, health care services, higher education, and property and construction sectors, and there are studies that have not defined their samples. ...
... The cross-sectional data provide insights into the relational effects of telework, but lack a directional insight into studied relationships and may therefore fail to capture the effects of change and longerlasting exposure. Several different instruments have been used to measure telework and health outcomes, which has affected the uniformity of research (3,6,8,10,26,28,79,112). ...
... There are also differences in the amount and frequency of the telework being studied, and several studies lack definition (2,8,10). The problem with the lack of a common definition also applies to the outcomes being studied, such as work-life balance/conflict (2,6,8,10,26,28,79,112). ...
Thesis
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Background: Telework reshapes the conventional work practice by providing the flexibility to perform work at new places and times. Telework can increase individual autonomy to control and organize work, but can also place higher demands on the ability to separate work-nonwork in time and space, physically and mentally. Leaders’ abilities to manifest trusting relationship with staff, and support them seems important during telework. Academic staff are frequent teleworkers, but little is known about how it may impact on their well-being. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate how academic teaching and research staff practice telework and how telework affects their well-being at work. Another aim was to investigate the experiences of academic managers leading teleworkers in academia. Methods: Study I was a cross-sectional survey and examined the association between the amount and frequency of telework and perceived health aspects. Study II was conducted with assessments of psychophysiological activity, pos- tures and movements, and with daily self-ratings on stress, fatigue, and recu- peration, to compare exposures during telework and work at the conventional workplace. Study III and study IV had qualitative study design and were based on semi-structured interviews using an inductive phenomenographic approach. Results: Academics who teleworked several times per week or more reported more work-related stress related to indistinct organization and conflicts, and individual demands and commitment, compared to academics who teleworked less. The psychophysiological activity indicated more relaxation before and after workhours during teleworking days. Academics had overall sedentary be- haviors regardless of work location, alternated more between sitting and stand- ing during working hours during telework than at the ordinary workplace. The academics’ experiences of telework were related to work tasks, coping strate- gies, workgroup relationships, and policies/regulations, which were mostly in- terrelated. Collectively, the process of change of managers’ conditions and ex- periences of leading teleworkers before, during and after the pandemic were related to digital and social interaction, work performance, the work environ- ment in, and regulations of, telework. Conclusions: The use of different research designs and methods showed that telework in academia could impact biological, psychological, social and pro- fessional aspects of academics’ well-being. The perspective of academic man- agers showed that the organizational context could impact on the conditions for providing academics with support in telework. We argue future studies to adopt different research designs and methods when studying well-being in tel- ework, and especially consider the professional and organizational context in telework.
... As for hours committed to work, many WFH workers feel the need to reciprocate the privilege of WFH with flexibility, autonomy, and saved commuting time by working longer hours and/or harder work (Gajendran & Harrison 2007), mirrored with empirical evidence on longer hours for WFH (Kelliher & Anderson 2010;Mariani 2000) or "hard to plug off work" in the survey (Buffer 2019). We therefore believe WFH workers work for longer hours than workers in traditional offices for a work day, i.e., > 1. ...
... It not only brings the flexibility and a better work-family balance to workers [c.f. Gajendran, et al (2007)], but also often blurs the boundaries between work and family (Riggoti et al. 2020). ...
Preprint
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While work from home (WFH) becomes the new norm in the COVID-19 pandemic and while small businesses could be more vulnerable in crisis, whether the WFH norm will fade after the stay-at-home mandate ended and whether WFH could be a Schumpeterian “creative” force that helps small businesses do well in the pandemic is unknown. The study first builds a theoretical framework based on marginal revenue product cost utility theory subject to a “contagion” agglomeration parameter and argues that WFH is a rational choice for businesses. Then, we compiled from multiple data sources an up-to-date real-time daily and weekly multifaceted data set tracking WFH propensity from March 20 through July 28. Our empirical analysis estimated a variety of fixed-effects panel data models, population-averaged generalized linear panel-data models with the generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach, and two-level mixed-effects panel-data models. After controlling for the local pandemic, economic, and demographic factors, we find (1) after the stay-at-home order ended, WFH rate got higher; (2) small businesses in states with higher WFH rate are more likely to have higher increases in operating revenue, better cash flow and lower chances of temporary closure. Our robust empirics confirm our theories and hypotheses and demonstrate WFH as a potential force that expedited the “creative destruction” into a new efficient work paradigm.
... Gender has an insignificant influence on job performance in digital work. Such a finding is consistent with existing research, such as Gajendran and David [51], Allen et al. [52]. Female compared to male are more likely to adopt digital work due to higher perceived autonomy [51] and the work-life balance digital work offers [52]. ...
... Such a finding is consistent with existing research, such as Gajendran and David [51], Allen et al. [52]. Female compared to male are more likely to adopt digital work due to higher perceived autonomy [51] and the work-life balance digital work offers [52]. However, there is little evidence that such adoption of digital work in different gender leads to significant variations of job performance [52]. ...
Article
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The adoption of digital technologies is transforming traditional working practices so that understanding the interplay between individuals, work-life balance, and digital technology use is becoming important for job performance. This research explores how work-life balance mediates the association between intrinsic needs of individuals and job performance in digitalized working settings. A conceptual framework is proposed from reviewing the related literature based on the need theory and the boundary theory. Such a framework is tested through structural equation modeling of the survey data in Australia. The research finds that need for achievement and work-life balance significantly influence job performance in a direct manner. It reveals that need for autonomy indirectly influences job performance through the full mediation of work-life balance. This research is the first attempt to investigate the interplay between intrinsic needs, work-life balance, and job performance, therefore extending the understanding of the relationship between these variables in digital work.
... Mainly the prior studies regard new ways of working with autonomy: new work practices give opportunity to knowledge workers to perform their tasks wherever and whenever they opt and hence remove temporal and spatial organizational boundaries and increase flexibility of employees (Chatterjee et al., 2017). In addition, the empirical studies show relationships between remote working and job performance (Golden & Gajendran, 2019), job satisfaction (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007); and well-being (Dettmers, 2017). Nevertheless, considering how the new working modalities require new adjustments, it would be expected for organizations to face some challenging aspects. ...
... The latest studies suggest how leaders and coordination plays an important role of remote workers (Dolce, Vayre, Molino, & Ghislieri, 2020), which in our research was evidenced through the issues arising from the lack of supervision or when the latter was more exhaustive when working in smart working. Job performance and job satisfaction have been proven to go hand in hand and to have an important effect on one other(Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). Our study extends this notion by showing through concrete examples how productivity is not related to work modalities, but rather on whether the employees are given the right tools, space and flexibility that the new working modalities command. ...
Conference Paper
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New working modalities such as smart working have removed the constraints of time and place and turned the traditional concept of work into a highly flexible phenomenon that can now be conducted anywhere through digital tools and an array of new technologies. After having experienced it in an unprecedented rate worldwide following the Covid-19 pandemic, many companies have vowed that these new work configurations are here to stay and will be more and more common. Organizations will continue to embrace them as a way of improving employees' satisfaction and revolutionizing operations. Despite the benefits often associated with the new ways of work, evidence shows that many companies have struggled to cope with it. In light of the complexity of such adoption, we investigate through a longitudinal case study of a multinational company that embraced such initiatives before, during and after the pandemic, the main challenges and difficulties voiced by both managers and employees. The analysis of the findings shows that the main issues relate to excessive supervision, longer working hours, change of team dynamics and insufficient use of technologies-all of which call for a change in organizational culture and approach to new ways of working that goes beyond changes in individual tasks and work practices.
... Overall, the detected correlations and areas of risk can be considered highly dependent on the extent and specific design of telework. For example, Gajendran and Harrison (2007) found rather negative effects on relationships with coworkers when more than half of working hours were spent teleworking. Baruch (2000) reported that teleworking did not change conceptions of oneself as an employee as long as teleworking was balanced out by work in the 'standard mode'. ...
... Later studies focused on specific mediators, identifying increased role ambiguity and reduced support and feedback as crucial for the negative effects of telework. Conversely, positive effects are related to increased autonomy (Gajendran and Harrison 2007;Sardeshmukh et al. 2012). Moreover, the quality of communication between team members may change in the context of telework. ...
Article
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With the increase of telework during the COVID-19 pandemic, employees’ interactions with colleagues have shifted almost exclusively to digital channels. Hence, it is critical to understand the underpinnings of successful collaboration and individual wellbeing in digital working structures. Combining qualitative experience reports and quantitative surveys from 145 teleworkers, this study sheds light on teleworking from a psychological perspective, taking social norms as a conceptual frame. The qualitative reports revealed five types of typical conflicts related to communication in the telework context, including both (1) technical problems (e.g., a bad connection) and psychological aspects such as (2) uncertainty or a lack of social feedback, (3) norm violations, (4) a lack of rules or meta-communication about appropriate behavior, and (5) digital communication barriers. Respondents’ quantitative ratings of qualities of telework versus working on-site revealed benefits of telework regarding task fulfillment and efficiency, but lower levels of motivation, conflict management, leadership, team spirit, inspiration and creativity. Participants qualitative reports on perceived challenges in remote work conditions included feelings of loneliness and increased demands related to self-management, creating boundaries between private and working life, motivation and self-regulation. This paper connects these findings with theoretical concepts from psychology and human-computer interaction and discusses implications for leadership and technology design. Practical Relevance: This article discusses practical implications for leadership and technology design, e.g., interventions against conflicts in the context of digital work.
... Thus, previous studies on the effects of teleworking on job satisfaction report positive (Fonner & Roloff, 2010;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007), negative (Baker et al., 2007), and curvilinear (Golden & Veiga, 2005) relationships. These conflicting results highlight a paradox that is rooted in the theoretical premises that workplace relationships, frequent feedback, and face-to-face contact are positive drivers of job satisfaction (Szilagyi et al., 1976). ...
... Our results showed a negative association between professional isolation and satisfaction with the telework experience, thus confirming the direct effect hypothesis (H 1 ). Result from past studies on the association between telework and job satisfaction are inconsistent, reporting positive, negative, or curvilinear relationships (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007). These contradictory findings highlight a paradox that is rooted in the theoretical premises that workplace relationships, frequent feedback, and face-to-face contact are positive drivers of job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Buchanan, 1974;Cooper & Kurland, 2002;Szilagyi et al., 1976). ...
Article
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has abruptly and profoundly changed the way people interact with their organization, their colleagues and their supervisor. Objective This study assesses the effects of telework-induced professional isolation due to the pandemic. Drawing on organizational support theory, this study examines the relationship between professional isolation and satisfaction with the telework experience and affective organizational commitment during mandatory teleworking caused by the COVID-19 crisis. It does so by focusing on the moderating role of perceived organizational and supervisor support in these relations. Methods Data was collected via self-reported survey questionnaires from 728 pandemic teleworkers from various industry sectors in Quebec during the COVID-19 crisis. The study's hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM), and moderation effects were probed with the Johnson-Neyman technique. Results The results reveal that professional isolation negatively affects satisfaction with the telework experience, but does not affect affective organizational commitment. The relationship between satisfaction with telework and professional isolation was moderated by perceived organizational support, and the relationship between affective organizational commitment and professional isolation was moderated by perceived supervisor support. Conclusion This study expands the organizational support theory by examining perceived organizational and supervisor support during a crisis as a counterbalance to a challenging social and organizational climate that has led to professional isolation. The implications of the findings as well as future directions for research on professional isolation and telework are discussed.
... These studies typically compare employees who chose to work at home either permanently or for the purpose of an experiment (Bloom et al., 2015) with those who work in the office. Most studies report that employees who work at home are more satisfied with their job (Allen et al., 2015;Bloom et al., 2015;Fonner & Roloff, 2010;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Rupietta & Beckmann, 2018) and life more generally (e.g. Bloom et al., 2015;Virick et al., 2010;Wheatley, 2017) compared to permanent office workers, although some studies report null effects (e.g. ...
... An often-cited demand associated with homeworking is coping with social isolation from colleagues, customers and others who one mixes within the workplace and the loneliness it can induce (Charalampous et al., 2019;Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Rook, 1984). While working at home might provide some employees with greater opportunities to interact with one's family or household members, employees who are working at home have to cope with the lack of face-toface contact with colleagues and others they may typically see in the workplace. ...
Article
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As greater numbers of people have worked at home during the COVID‐19 pandemic, workers, organizations and policy makers have begun considering the benefits of a sustained move towards homeworking, with workers’ satisfaction with homeworking often cited as a key driver. But is satisfaction with homeworking that relevant to workers’ overall job satisfaction? In this study, we examine whether job and homeworking satisfaction are predicted by different demands and resources, namely those well‐established in the job design literature (workload, job autonomy, social support) for the former and those specific to the context of homeworking (loneliness, work‐nonwork interference, work–nonwork interference and adequacy of homeworking environment) for the latter. We also explore whether homeworking satisfaction mediates the relationship between homeworking demands and resources and job satisfaction. Findings of a study of university workers during the COVID ‐19 pandemic (N = 753 in phase 1, 471 in phase 2) support our expectations about the domain‐specific nature of the predictors of job and homeworking satisfaction, autonomy is positively related to job satisfaction, while loneliness, nonwork‐to‐work interference, and inadequate homeworking environment are negatively related to homeworking satisfaction. Results also support the argument that satisfaction with homeworking mediates the relationship between homeworking factors and job satisfaction, reinforcing the value of differentiating the two concepts.
... The COVID-19 pandemic brought about a global crisis that suddenly required almost everyone to work entirely from home. While in the past a few might have chosen to partly work from home [10], here almost all knowledge workers must; some of these people might not have before. This was, therefore, a moment in time in which a large number of people had to change the way that they were working and planning their work. ...
... Over the first half of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many knowledge workers having to rapidly switch to remote working from home to prevent the virus from spreading. While many have experience of working partly at home, this was often for only part of the working week and not entirely based at home [10]. The pandemic changed this: all work was from home, everyday. ...
Conference Paper
As a result of transitioning to remote work during the COVID-19 lockdown, many knowledge workers had to quickly invent new ways of managing work while working entirely from home. The research community currently lacks insights about how such a stressful and disruptive event might impact how people plan their work. To start filling this gap, the current study explored how knowledge workers adjust their planning routines, strategies and tools during this unprecedented global crisis. It consists of longitudinal weekly interviews with 15 participants during the UK's COVID-19 lockdown. Early stage analysis of 68 interviews is presented. Findings suggest that workers experienced planning challenges that prevented them from keeping their existing planning routines. We describe those planning challenges together with the new planning routines, strategies and tools that participants developed during this period. These insights are discussed in terms of future research directions that can benefit both workers and organisations to support the transition to productive remote work.
... The general evidence from more dated literature, resumed in a detailed review by Bailey and Kurland (2002), highlights a potentially positive relationship between WFH and performance, mainly driven by the observed lower absenteeism among remote workers (Kitou and Horvath, 2002). Other acknowledged possible channels for a positive relationship are flexibility, autonomy, and savings in commuting time/costs (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007), which allow for longer working hours or harder work (Kelliher and Anderson, 2010). Moreover, leveraging on the advantages for employees enhanced by WFH, firms could potentially increase the returns of such a work practice by pushing down wages, as a sort of (reversed) compensating wage differential. ...
... Frequent telework has been shown to both increase [31] as well as decrease stress [32]. Higher autonomy in managing telework is indicated as significantly lowering the feeling of excessive load and workplace stress [33]. Analyses on a sample of workers who were given the option of part-time telework show that they reported lower stress during the telework days [34]. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated and facilitated the introduction of telework in organizations. This has also impacted the workers' relationship between work and private life. The aim of the current study was to examine the links between resilience and mode of work (stationary vs. remote) and the work-home and homework relationships, and whether they are mediated by passion for work and strategies of coping with stress. The study was carried out on a sample of 1251 participants from Greatvakia, and Vietnam. The following measures were used: The Survey Work-Home Interaction, The Brief Resilience Coping Scale, The Passion Scale, and the Brief COPE. Results showed that the more stationary the mode of work, the lower the intensity of the negative influence of personal life on work. Resilience was revealed to have a positive effect on worker functioning. The study also showed a relationship between education and gender and passion for work. Finally, the importance of furthering the knowledge on the homework and work-home relationships among teleworkers is discussed.
... According to Pocock's [23] study, one-third of the employees need but do not demand flexibility in order to achieve better harmony and balance in their work and non-work lives. Some studies have shown that flexible working arrangements are associated with better employee well-being [24][25][26], higher productivity and performance [8,13,27,28]. In addition to its advantages, flexible and remote working could also lead to some negative consequences. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about serious consequences in business world practices. Among these, flexible working policies have increased to a great extent. This has resulted in serious problems in the work-life balance. In this context, conditions such as having children and marital status have been important factors that can affect work engagement among flexible workers in the post pandemic era. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship of marital status, job experience and having children with work engagement among white-collar workers who work in flexible hours. Data is collected through surveys from 199 flexible working employees. ANOVA and T-tests were employed to analyze the data. The results indicate that only one of the sub-dimensions of work engagement–namely absorption- changes according to their marital status, and yet, the work engagement is not related to having children. In addition, it is seen that there is a significant relationship between job experience and work engagement.
... Muchmore, e-workers' social interactions with their colleagues or managers are impaired by the decrease of face-to-face interactions. They may generate negative effects on employees (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007), concentration difficulties (Vander Elst et al., 2017) or deprived well-being (Charalampous et al., 2019). Therefore, management should ensure trust-based relationships with their employees to guarantee successful outcomes such as job performance, job satisfaction, and digital corporate culture. ...
Article
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The future of work is being redesigned by the world’s largest telework experiment as a consequence of the global pandemic. The research objective was to analyse and debate actual organisational needs in terms of telework and its implications for organisational performance, behaviour, and culture within the context of digital technology. This article challenges the results of previous research on factors related to telework and its outcomes, contributing to the literature through an advanced analysis of employees’ perceptions, for the Business Services industry. Quantitative research is conducted based on a questionnaire. The research hypotheses were tested through Kruskal–Wallis test, Spearman’s correlations, and linear regression, complemented by robustness tests. Findings indicate that the business professionals with pre-pandemic telework experience assigned a higher importance to all organisational dimensions, as compared with the employees having pandemic telework experience, only. The results also show significant relationships between telework and the organisational dimensions, with positive impact for factors contributing to achieving goals while teleworking. The results are mixed in the case of negative factors affecting telework, with a positive impact on organisational performance, and a negative impact on organisational behaviour. Significant changes were found when the digital technology dimension was considered.
... For example, Hayman (2010) reported a potential decrease in work overload when WSF is implemented. In the case of teleworking the literature has shown mixed results, whereas Mann et al. (2000) and Tavares (2017) stated that teleworking can increase work overload, while Gajendran and Harrison (2007) found opposite evidence. The current changes in the way work is performed (Van Steenbergen et al., 2018), makes pertinent a study of how these two types of FWAs interact in their effects on work overload. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has driven organizations to implement various flexible work arrangements. Due to a lack of longitudinal studies, there is currently no consensus in specialized literature regarding the consequences of flexible work arrangements on employee mental health, as well any long term potential impacts. Using the Job Demand-Resource Model, this study documents consequences of the implementation of two types of flexible work arrangement: work schedule flexibility and teleworking on employee mental health over time, and the mediating role played by work overload during the accelerated implementation of flexible work arrangements in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a longitudinal design and probabilistic sampling, 209 workers participated in this study, twice answering a flexible work arrangement and mental health questionnaire during the pandemic. Findings of this moderated-mediation suggest that work schedule flexibility generates positive effects on mental health over time due to decreased work overload, but only for employees not working from home. These results offer theoretical and practical implications applicable to organizations considering implementation of flexible work arrangements, particularly with regard to how these flexible practices could support a balance between demand and resources, their impact on work overload, and employee mental health over time.
... For instance, not all remote workers can enjoy a dedicated home office or enough space to designate for work. While a typical employee will usually find it easier to juggle professional work and personal responsibilities (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007), this task may appear particularly difficult for neurodivergent colleagues who may suffer from difficulties with effective time management, task prioritizing, and organization of work (Tomczak, 2022). Offering flexible work opportunities may be part of a solution to this problem. ...
Article
Purpose The aim of this article is to extend current debates on organizational equality, diversity and inclusion to a consideration of neurodivergence in the remote workplace context. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on the ability, motivation, and opportunity (AMO) model and an emerging strength-based approach to neurodiversity, this conceptual paper integrates research on neurodiversity at work and remote working to provide a novel AMO model for a neuro-inclusive remote workplace. Findings Through a theoretically informed discussion of barriers to effective remote work from the perspective of neurominorities, the AMO model for the neuro-inclusive remote workplace is offered to assist organizations in creating an inclusive remote work environment where both neurominorities and neurotypicals can equally contribute to organizational success. Specific examples of how certain barriers to effective remote work can be mitigated are outlined and explained. Practical implications The conceptual model presented in this paper can assist HR practitioners in developing a comprehensive approach to skill, motivation, and opportunity-enhancing practices that are tailored to the unique needs of neurominorities in a specific context of remote work to generate mutual gains. Originality/value The model of interactions between individual and system factors offered enables a better theoretical understanding of the conditions under which high performance of neurodivergent individuals could be achieved with an associated positive impact on their well-being. The paper contributes to recent calls for more equitable and empathetic approaches to investing in employees with different cognitive profiles and does so in the underexplored context of remote work.
... Without any preparations, remote work became the new normal (Schur et al., 2020), even in positions we previously assumed had to be done on-site (Savić, 2020;Sytch and Greer, 2020). Remote work represents a fundamental shift in organizational work design (Wang et al., 2021) and completely changes physical and psychological interactions, possibilities, and relationships (Konradt et al., 2003;Gajendran, 2007;Contreras et al., 2020;Schur et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2022). This shift in work design makes it important to investigate remote work's effect on important mechanisms at the workplace. ...
Article
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Remote work became the new normal during COVID-19 as a response to restrictions imposed by governments across the globe. Therefore, remote work’s impact on employee outcomes, well-being, and psychological health has become a serious concern. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms and outcomes of remote work is still limited. In this study, we expect remote work to be negatively related to bullying and assume that bullying will mediate remote work’s impact on work engagement and loneliness. To test our hypothetical model, we applied a cross-sectional design using data from a large representative sample of 1,511 Norwegian workers. The data were collected in September 2021 during a period of COVID-19 restrictions in Norway. The results confirmed our hypotheses: remote work was positively related to loneliness and work engagement but negatively related to bullying. Further, bullying was positively related to loneliness and negatively related to work engagement. Moreover, bullying was also found to play a partial mediating role, supporting our hypothesis. This study suggests that remote work is related to both positive and negative mechanisms in the workplace. Remote work can potentially reduce bullying and have a protective function in preventing bullying. However, since remote work has positive relations with both loneliness and work engagement, this study illustrates that organizations should be cautious and perhaps consider a moderate level of remote work. Hence, the results have several implications for HR policies and management.
... Research usually highlights the positive economic benefits of working at/from home, which can be measured quite accurately (higher productivity, numerous savings, reduced office space and associated costs, saving money and time on the way from home to office and vice versa [5]; [10]; [8]; [1]; [19]; [7]. ...
Article
In this study, on the convenience samples of 408 respondents from Serbia, 201 from Montenegro, 221 from North Macedonia, and 201 from Bosnia and Herzegovina, the authors described psychosocial adjustment to work at/from home in the four Western Balkan countries, similarities and differences among the countries and, using qualitative analysis, they presented the profiles of psychosocial adjustment for each country. For this research, a special questionnaire was constructed with answers on a five-point Likert scale. In the analysis and processing of empirical data, ANOVA was used. The results of the research confirmed the findings of other researchers that the attitudes of the respondents towards various psychosocial aspects of working from home are mostly positive, although there are significant differences among the countries; the biggest differences are between respondents from Montenegro and everyone else. Respondents from Montenegro estimate work at/from homeless favorably than all others; they have less time for activities and hobbies, pay less attention to family and partners, find it harder to separate work from private life, show more tension and anxiety while working, their relatives and friends support them less than other respondents. Jobs that are well below their professional education demotivate them. Respondents from North Macedonia are relatively similar to them, while respondents from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina show a much more optimistic image, which is why they are similar. The lack of social care from the state towards the respondents who work at/from home and remotely is common to all respondents, but it is most pronounced in Serbia.
... From a positive perspective, Schall (2019) and Davidescu et al. (2021), propose that teleworking can lead to a decrease in work-family conflict because there are fewer interruptions in working with the family, which leads to greater satisfaction on the part of the worker with his/her job. From a negative perspective, Delanoeije et al. (2019) propose that teleworking has detrimental aspects for the worker, since the boundaries become more permeable and easy to cross, which can generate conflicts within the household (Gajendran and Harrison, 2007). This is due to the possibility of the working day being extended and productive and domestic work being interspersed (Bosch et al., 2020). ...
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The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teleworking on self-reported job satisfaction and workers’ productivity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A survey was administered to 331 teleworkers belonging to industrial companies, whose data were analyzed with a PLS-SEM structural equation model. The results indicate that communication with coworkers, time spent teleworking, and workplace suitability positively affect self-reported productivity, while trust on the part of supervisors and workplace suitability positively affect job satisfaction. On the other hand, work-family conflict negatively affects job satisfaction and self-reported productivity, whereas communication with coworkers, support from supervisor and time spent teleworking have no significant effect on job satisfaction. This study provides relevant information for industrial organizations to improve the job-satisfaction and productivity in large scaled teleworking contexts, as should have been implemented during the mandatory preventive isolation due to the health crisis related to the transmission of SARs-CoV-2.
... Presently the pandemic compels workers to do extra work, even working overtime, because they have to complete the job they were meant to do. This, in addition to social isolation, leads to employees being disconnected from their working environment and triggers work stress, in accordance with our (12) findings of increased work stress . ...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has rendered a large proportion of the workforce unable to commute to work to mitigate the virus's spread. Employees now based at home might like to continue to Work From Home (WFH). These may be fully, or in some capacity, for the foreseeable future, especially in the IT sector. In view of a sudden change in the work environment, we aimed to study the effects of WFH on Information Technology (IT) workers. Methods: Astudy was conducted using a pre-designed questionnaire to compare WFH with routine work and assess its impact on the worker. A total of 876 IT workers consented and participated in the study. They consisted of workers from Bengaluru, Gurugram, and Pune. IT workers who had worked for more than one year in the office and more than six months in WFH during preceding period were eligible for the study. The data was collected via google forms through snowballing technique. Results: The study included 876 Information Technology workers, of which 564 (64%) were males and 312 (36%) were females. About 324 (37%) of the study participants found the work environment suitable for working. A significant lower proportion of stress and productivity outcomes was seen among males as compared to females. About 336 (38%) would prefer working from home even if the pandemic subsides. Conclusion: WFH has had a negative effect on workers' productivity and work-life balance, especially among females who have been hampered with dual responsibilities of work and home care. Hence most females want to return to working in offices.
... Parmi les différentes spécialités de notre population, le génie informatique était inversement associé à l'anxiété. En fait, la nature de cette spécialité permet de travailler à distance (télétravail), ce qui améliore, selon certains auteurs, la satisfaction professionnelle et garantit un meilleur équilibre vie professionnelle-vie privée [12,13]. En revanche, la spécialité d'agronomie était associée aux troubles anxieux. ...
Article
Résumé Les objectifs de notre étude étaient d’évaluer les troubles anxio-dépressifs au sein d’une population d’ingénieurs en activité et d’identifier leurs déterminants socioprofessionnels. Notre étude était de type descriptif et transversal, portant sur une population d’ingénieurs en activité. La collecte de données était menée à travers un questionnaire en ligne comportant : Les données socioprofessionnelles et le questionnaire HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) pour l’évaluation des troubles anxiodépressifs. Cent-sept (107) ingénieurs ont répondu à notre questionnaire. L’âge moyen était de 29,2 ± 4,41 ans et le sexe ratio de 1,37. La plupart des ingénieurs pratiquaientune activité de loisir (71 %). Quant aux caractéristiques professionnelles, les ingénieurs interrogés travaillaient plus de 8 heures par jour dans 45,8 % des cas et sans repos hebdomadaire dans 8,4 % des cas. Une insatisfaction au travail était trouvée chez 40,2 % de notre population. Une anxiété était objectivée dans 43 % des cas et une dépression dans 29 % des cas. Les troubles anxiodépressifs étaient associés à la spécialité d’agronomie, à l’ancienneté professionnelle, à une durée quotidienne de travail supérieure à 8 heures, à l’absence de pause et de repos hebdomadaire et à une insatisfaction au travail. Cependant, un âge jeune (≤ 30 ans), la pratique d’une activité de loisir notamment l’activité sportive et la spécialité informatique semblaient diminuer le risque de ces troubles. Les troubles anxiodépressifs sont non négligeables chez les ingénieurs. De ce fait, le rôle du médecin du travail s’avère primordial pour le dépistage de ces troubles d’une part et pour l’évaluation de leur retentissement socioprofessionnel d’autre part.
... Work-life balance also gives freedom for employees to manage their care responsibilities (such as visiting a public authority or attending a medical appointment during core hours) [46][47][48] and empowers employees to adjust the place and time of work to their individual needs. For some individuals, remote working has provided a release from the restrictions of officebased hours and more flexibility [58][59][60], saving commuting time [61,62], and a lower rate of work-to-life conflict [63]. Sufficient technology resources positively influence employees work-life balance and further better productivity and performance and job satisfaction, as Jamal et al. [64] found in their study. ...
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The purpose of this article is to analyse the impact of telework on the work-life balance, productivity, and health of different generations of Romanian employees. Qualitative and quantitative methods provide the means to exploit the richness of data and deepen the understanding of the phenomenon studied. The quantitative data derived from a research instrument was associated with qualitative data collection. Quantitative research was conducted to achieve the stated purpose using the survey method, the number of respondents being 1098 persons. The research tool was an online questionnaire. Results highlight how telework affected each generation of employees. The satisfaction towards teleworking achieved by Generation Z and Baby Boomers is, on average, higher than that of Generation Y and X. The differences between the age groups (Generation Z, Y, X, and Baby Boomers) in terms of telework satisfaction levels were also tested, considering each of the three aspects examined and presented in the article’s title. At the conceptual level, research brings a new methodological approach as an element of originality that can be used for similar future research. Moreover, new concepts on the effects of telework on employees were connected and analysed simultaneously: work-life balance, productivity, and health of employees during teleworking. At the operational level, this type of research can determine the degree of satisfaction of employees in different companies/organizations and identify solutions to increase employee engagement.
... Over the last three decades, researchers have analysed working from home and its consequences in various disciplines like business and economics, environmental sciences, and psychology (e.g., Bailyn, 1988;Henderson, Koenig, and Mokhtarian, 1996;Gajendran and Harrison, 2007). According to the literature, working from home is characterised by two main aspects. ...
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The situation where one can practise working from home is not easy for some people in Malaysia, especially those with limited space at home. Working from home (WFH), on the other hand, needs to be rethought and thoroughly examined for individuals in the bottom 40 percent (B40) for a variety of reasons. A total of 144 samples from low-income households in Shah Alam responded to the structured questionnaire. The questionnaire focuses on two main investigations: (1) the WFH conditions in terms of space and environment among the B40; and (2) how they manage WFH distractions in connection to the house space and environment. According to survey results, most respondents prefer working in a bedroom or living room since it is a more pleasant environment. The availability of electrical plugs, internet access, and adequate ventilation are further considerations that influence their choice of workspace. The survey’s findings indicated that the lack of a comfortable workspace made the majority of respondents unhappy about practising WFH. The majority of responders suggested that future bedrooms be larger to guarantee that those practising WFH are comfortable. The results of this study are expected to enhance the planning and design of residential living space and pave the way for future low-cost housing development that places greater emphasis on the well-being of the urban poor.
... Al analizar las variables laborales, puede encontrarse que la carga horaria laboral fomenta los WFC (Fu & Shaffer, 2001), al igual que la devoción por el trabajo (Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001) y aquellas profesiones con elevados niveles de interdependencia y responsabilidad (Dierdorff & Ellington, 2008). Aunque cada vez más empresas ofrecen la posibilidad de trabajar desde el hogar o incluso family friendly programs, dichas medidas solo disminuyen levemente los WFC (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Perry-Smith & Blum, 2000). ...
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El trabajo y la familia consisten en importantes fuentes de la felicidad y, a la vez, en potenciales orígenes de conflicto. A pesar de que en las últimas décadas ha aumentado no solo la proporción de familias con doble ingreso, sino también el estrés laboral, no existen instrumentos psicométricos validados en Latinoamérica para evaluar los conflictos laborales que influyen en el entorno familiar y viceversa. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio consistió en la traducción y en la validación de las Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales. La muestra (n = 524) se recogió por Internet y los resultados del análisis factorial confirmatorio evidenciaron unas propiedades psicométricas adecuadas del instrumento, c2(30) = 76.719, p < .001, RMSEA = .060, 90% IC = .044 - .077, SRMR = .040, CFI = .990, TLI = .985. A través de un análisis de invarianza factorial, se comprobó que el instrumento evalúa el mismo constructo, independientemente del género de la persona que responde a sus preguntas. El análisis de validez convergente mostró asociaciones significativas con depresión y ansiedad. Se concluye que la validación de las Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales se realizó de forma exitosa, por lo que su versión traducida puede ser utilizada en el área hispanoparlante.
... Al analizar las variables laborales, puede encontrarse que la carga horaria laboral fomenta los WFC (Fu & Shaffer, 2001), al igual que la devoción por el trabajo (Parasuraman & Simmers, 2001) y aquellas profesiones con elevados niveles de interdependencia y responsabilidad (Dierdorff & Ellington, 2008). Aunque cada vez más empresas ofrecen la posibilidad de trabajar desde el hogar o incluso family friendly programs, dichas medidas solo disminuyen levemente los WFC (Gajendran & Harrison, 2007;Perry-Smith & Blum, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
El trabajo y la familia consisten en importantes fuentes de la felicidad y, a la vez, en potenciales orígenes de conflicto. A pesar de que en las últimas décadas ha aumentado no solo la proporción de familias con doble ingreso, sino también el estrés laboral, no existen instrumentos psicométricos validados en Latinoamérica para evaluar los conflictos laborales que influyen en el entorno familiar y viceversa. Por lo tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio consistió en la traducción y en la validación de las Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales. La muestra (n = 524) se recogió por Internet y los resultados del análisis factorial confirmatorio evidenciaron unas propiedades psicométricas adecuadas del instrumento, c 2 (30) = 76.719, p < .001, RMSEA = .060, 90% IC = .044-.077, SRMR = .040, CFI = .990, TLI = .985. A través de un análisis de invarianza factorial, se comprobó que el instrumento evalúa el mismo constructo, independientemente del género de la persona que responde a sus preguntas. El análisis de validez convergente mostró asociaciones significativas con depresión y ansiedad. Se concluye que la validación de las Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales se realizó de forma exitosa, por lo que su versión traducida puede ser utilizada en el área hispanoparlante.
Article
Purpose This study aims to develop a framework that explains how and when telework is related to emotional exhaustion and task performance, by conceiving work overload as a mediator and self-leadership as a moderator. For this purpose, two studies were conducted. Study 1 aims to understand whether telework would be related to emotional exhaustion and task performance and if work overload would mediate such relationships. Study 2 aims to analyze whether self-leadership was a significant moderator of the mediated relations found in Study 1. Design/methodology/approach The hypotheses were tested in a sample of 207 (in Study 1) and 272 (in Study 2) participants, which were exclusively teleworking. The results were analyzed using PROCESS macro in SPSS. Findings The results of Study 1 showed that telework dimensions were negatively related to work overload, which consequently decreased emotional exhaustion and increased task performance. In Study 2, self-leadership moderated the indirect effect of work overload on the relationship between telework and emotional exhaustion, such that the indirect effect was stronger for those who scored higher in self-leadership. However, it was not significant for task performance. Originality/value This paper adds to research on telework by focusing on the employee's mental health and performance, in the context of mandatory confinement. The authors identified telework dimensions that may act as resources to cope with the increased work overload inherent to telework, as well as the importance of personal resources in these relationships.
Chapter
Unter dem Begriff „New Work“ bzw. „New Ways of Working“ werden vielfältige Szenarien einer zukunftsorientierten Arbeitswelt diskutiert. Hierzu zählen nicht zuletzt Bürowelten, die Agilität und Produktivität von Unternehmen steigern, die Arbeitgeberattraktivität bei Beschäftigten aller Generationen sichern sowie deren Wohlbefinden fördern sollen. Verbunden sind damit nicht nur strukturell-architektonische Neuerungen. New Work berührt wesentliche Fragen der Führung, der Zusammenarbeit sowie der Kommunikation und bedingt damit einen tiefgehenden unternehmenskulturellen Wandel in der Organisation. Ausgehend von der Analyse wesentlicher Trends bei der Gestaltung flexibler und attraktiver Arbeitswelten skizziert der Beitrag zentrale Elemente und Voraussetzungen innovativer Konzepte von Büroarbeit. Sodann wird aufgezeigt, wie der Übergang von tradierten Büro-Konfigurationen zu zukunftsfähigen Arbeitsumgebungen erfolgreich gelingen kann.
Thesis
„Homeoffice jetzt – wo immer es möglich ist“ (Heil, 2021). Diese Forderung stellte Bundesminister für Arbeit und Soziales, Hubertus Heil (SPD), im Rahmen eines Interviews mit dem Norddeutschen Rundfunk. Die Ermöglichung des Home-Office, also des Arbeitens von zuhause aus, soll während der Corona-Pandemie dazu beitragen, dass Kontakte reduziert und Infektionsketten unterbrochen werden. In der Tat ist der Anteil an Arbeitnehmern, die während der aktuellen Zeit ausschließlich oder überwiegend von zuhause arbeiten, recht gering. Während vor der Corona-Pandemie etwa vier Prozent aller Arbeitnehmer im Home-Office ar- beiteten, sind es einer Erhebung der Hans-Böckler-Stiftung (2021) zufolge, deren Ergebnisse Sie in der obigen Abbildung sehen, aktuell circa 20 Prozent. Im europäischen Vergleich ist das nur Mittelmaß. Spitzenreiter ist Belgien mit einer Home-Office-Quote von circa 50 Prozent (Eurofound, 2020).Doch wie sind diese Anteile zu bewerten? Ist eine hohe Home-Office-Quote tatsächlich erstrebenswerter für Arbeitgeber und Arbeitnehmer? Diese Fragestellung soll in diesem Artikel be- antwortet werden. Insbesondere werden die arbeits- und organisationspsychologischen Aspekte der Thematik beleuchtet.
Article
Purpose Based on the job demands and resources (JD-R) model and conservation of resources (COR) theory, this paper aims to develop and test a model that examines the moderating role of daily remote work hours and the mediating role of work–family conflict on the effects of excessive workload and time pressure on life satisfaction due to mandatory remote work arrangements. Design/methodology/approach Hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyze data from 400 professionals working in the IT sector in Turkey. Scales developed by previous researchers were used to measure excessive workload, time pressure, work–family conflict and life satisfaction. While these four variables were measured with 19 statements, daily remote work hours were determined with a single question. The collected data were validated using confirmatory factor analysis, and the hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the reliability and validity of the data were confirmed. Finally, PROCESS was applied to examine moderated mediation. Findings According to the analysis results obtained from the above sample data, daily remote work hours moderate the mediating role of work–family conflict in the relationships between (1) excessive workload and life satisfaction and (2) time pressure and life satisfaction. In other words, the findings show that job-related demands arising from workload, time pressure and remote work hours prevent employees from meeting their family obligations, thereby increasing work–family conflict and ultimately affecting life satisfaction. Practical implications The study can help employers, managers, human resource professionals, policymakers and researchers increase employees' life satisfaction due to the changes in job demands experienced by employees in companies that have transitioned to remote work practices. It can provide new approaches for dealing with dissatisfaction arising from work-related conflicts in Turkey's changing environment. The results can greatly facilitate the Turkish companies' efforts to create more innovative work arrangements and make an outstanding contribution to improving employee performance in Turkey's transition to remote work practices by focusing on reducing workload, time pressure and long working hours and creating employee-centered remote work models. Originality/value As per World Health Organization, the world will face frequent pandemic in the coming years, and thus organizations should be aware of remote work practices that will become widespread. This study provides a new perspective on the impact of employees' changing job demands on work–family conflict and life satisfaction during organizations' transition to new work arrangements in the face of the social crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study also contributes to closing the research gap between job demands, work–family conflict and life satisfaction.
Chapter
It is no longer possible to avoid the current digital transformation. This opinion seems to be shared by the majority of scholars and practitioners, when considering the recent attention paid to the challenges and opportunities related to this growing and diffused phenomenon. In addition, the industry 4.0 is depicted and considered as providing benefits for employees, for the environment, and for the processes as well as it creates new business venues (Müller et al. 2018).KeywordsDigital transformationTechnologiesWorkforce transformation
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Online services that bring together those who want to take part in volunteering projects and volunteering opportunities are called volunteer match platforms. To increase volunteer engagement these platforms need to reach more people. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the expectations of users from these platforms and design and manage the platforms accordingly. This study aims to examine the main aspects impacting the engagement of volunteers in volunteer match platforms. For this purpose, 8 potential users of a newly established volunteer match platform in Turkey, Köprü Project, were interviewed. As a result of the study, it was found that the most important aspects of volunteer match platforms for potential users are gaining trust both for the projects and the platform, providing social media links of the projects on the platform, and regularly communicating with its users.
Article
Purpose Teleworking seems to be the new future of the workplace. It has been widely adopted during the COVID-19 crisis, which has greatly influenced work organization conditions. This pandemic and its accompanying changes represent significant challenges for employees' performance, depending on their age if the study considers the physical and psychological vulnerabilities of older employees and their assumed or expected difficulties to cope with the new information and communication technologies (ICTs). This study aims at examining the direct effects of teleworking, and age on job performance (in-role). As well as analyzing the moderating effect of age on the relationship between teleworking and in-role job performance in times of crisis. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected in Canada from 18 companies, with a sample of 272 employees. Multivariate regression and moderation regression analyses were performed using Stata 13. Findings Results revealed that when teleworking, older age is associated with lower job performance and younger age is associated with higher job performance. Conversely, when working on-site, older age is associated with higher job performance, whereas younger age is associated with lower job performance. Practical implications From a practical perspective, these results highlight the importance of decision authority and recognition. As well as the presence of age disparities related to work arrangements. Managers need to adopt an inclusive approach and develop work arrangements that take into consideration employees' needs and ages. Some insights and practical recommendations are presented in this paper to support managers and human resource practitioners. Originality/value Studies examining the in-role job performance of teleworkers and the effects of age are sparse. This study helps to expand research on human resources management, job performance and age.
Article
In this paper, we exploit the natural experiment of the COVID-19 outbreak and investigate the role of collaborative integration and workplace flexibility in scholarly productivity. Using data on the quantity and quality of the journal and working paper submissions, we first identify a discontinuity pattern in the productivity of Chinese scholars around the Chinese New Year (CNY). Second, we find that COVID-19 has a negative impact on the productivity of Chinese scholars in terms of quantity and quality post-CNY. Furthermore, the short-term detrimental effect on scholarly productivity is induced mainly through the channel of collaborative integration and workplace flexibility due to mitigation policy shocks in terms of social distancing and working-from-home arrangements. The results suggest while advances in virtual communication technologies can facilitate productivity by lowering collaboration costs, virtual team communication cannot be a perfect substitute for face-to-face communication in collaborative integration. In addition, higher workplace flexibility might hinder productivity in sectors relying more on the skills of self-management and discipline.
Article
Purpose To cope with the existing pandemic situation and to be organizationally responsive, firms need to be strategically flexible, where they need to develop dynamic capabilities (DCs) by continuously reconfiguring their resource base. To address such challenges, firms heavily rely on information and communication technologies (ICT) because of advancement in disruptive technologies. This study aims to explore techniques used by higher education institutional (HEI) leaders to successfully address challenges posed by global disruption, i.e. COVID-19 with the help of advanced ICT software such as Zoom, Google Meet and Microsoft Teams. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach was adopted to explore strategic factors such as strategic flexibility (SF) and DC that disclose shortcomings in the current extant literature. A total of 15 interviews were conducted with heads of departments of HEIs in the United Arab Emirates. Data were analyzed using NVivo software. Findings The findings suggested three dimensions of SF (resources, operational and collaborative) and four dimensions of DC (strategic planning, innovative, adaptability and technological) for firms to adopt to be strategically flexible, where DC serves as building blocks of SF. Originality/value This research provides a framework as an avenue for future researchers and practitioners on how to strategically manage their resources and be strategically flexible in turbulent environment such as pandemics. Theory-based investigations on strategic capabilities and DC from resource-based perspective are still under-researched, emphasizing the need for theoretically based research on strategic responsiveness, especially during the times of environmental complexities such as COVID-19 pandemics. This research enriches strategic management research by exploring the important antecedents of organizational responsiveness, including SF and DC together with the support of human factor, i.e. leadership qualities of HEIs managers. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is among the first to systematically explore main dimensions of DC and SF based on the resource-based theory of strategic management in the Middle Eastern context.
Article
The balanced life is a state of equally moderate-to-high levels of satisfaction in important and multiple life domains that contribute to overall life satisfaction. This book strives to improve the reader's understanding of what the balanced life is, and how it can be both achieved and maintained. Its primary goal is therefore to identify the major principles of life balance, and to introduce a comprehensive construct of the balanced life reflective of these principles. It discusses how life balance substantially contributes to subjective well-being – defined as life satisfaction, a preponderance of positive over negative feelings, and absence of ill-being – and explores strategies to attain life balance. It argues that achieving life balance, through manipulating one's thoughts and taking concrete action, will lead to increased personal happiness. Aimed at professional, academic, and lay audiences, this book is grounded in scientific studies related to work-life balance and the balanced life.
Chapter
Im Zuge der Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung der Corona-Pandemie wird Telearbeit flächendeckend in Unternehmen eingesetzt, um Kontakte zu reduzieren und die Gesundheit der Mitarbeitenden zu schützen. Anhand einer umfassenden Analyse der Literatur und einer Fallstudie in einem mittelständischen, produzierenden und international agierenden Unternehmen wird dargelegt, inwiefern sich die Erkenntnisse zur Telearbeit geändert haben und welche Voraussetzungen erfüllt sein müssen, damit die Telearbeit aktuell und zukünftig erfolgreich eingesetzt werden kann. Während vor der Pandemie grundsätzlich die Vorteile der Telearbeit thematisiert werden, ist nun ein Fokuswechsel auf die Herausforderungen zu erkennen. Das theoretische Rahmenwerk von Wang et al. (2020), welches die Voraussetzungen für eine erfolgreiche Telearbeit beschreibt, wird im Rahmen dieser Ausarbeitung überprüft und erweitert.
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I denne studien undersøkes betydningen av den koronarelaterte nedstengningen av norsk arbeidsliv for opplevelsen av jobbfellesskap. Dette gjøres ved å undersøke 1) om det har vært noen endring i opplevd jobbfellesskap fra tiden like før nedstengningen 12. mars 2020 til slutten av juni 2021 og 2) betydningen av koronarelaterte endringer i arbeidssituasjonen. I analysene av endring over tid benyttes data fra spørreskjemaundersøkelsene Medbestemmelsesbarometeret 2020 (N=3575) og Pandemiundersøkelsen 2021 (N=3067). Endringene i arbeidssituasjonen studeres i pandemiutvalget, og vi ser mer konkret på betydningen av hjemmekontor, permitteringer, endringer i arbeidsoppgaver og arbeidstid. Resultatene viste ingen endring i opplevelsen av jobbfellesskap fra før pandemien til juni 2021. Utviklingen over tid var imidlertid forskjellig på Sør- og Vestlandet sammenliknet med i Oslo og omegn. Når det gjelder endringene i arbeidssituasjonen, fant vi ingen sammenheng for hjemmekontor eller permitteringer. Sammenhengen mellom endring i arbeidsoppgaver og opplevd jobbfellesskap kunne heller ikke påvises med sikkerhet. Analysen viste videre at både reduksjon og økning i arbeidstid var negativt korrelert med opplevelsen av jobbfellesskap. Funnene diskuteres opp imot ulike perspektiver på fellesskapsdannelse og organisatoriske endringer. Studien bidrar til å belyse hvordan opplevelsen av jobbfellesskap kan være på det samme nivået til tross for store endringer i sosiale og materielle strukturer.
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Given the increase in remote working due to the social distancing requirements as part of the response to the Covid-19 Pandemic, the variable of work-from-home has become more salient in the business community. The existing literature squarely places remote working as an antecedent to employee perceptions of Organizational Justice throughout many industries. The same literature presents work from home in a positive frame of reference in a pre-pandemic world. However, in the Covid-19 environment, many perceptions have changed regarding employment. Likely overall perceptions regarding work from home have also shifted because more people engage in the activity. We argue that perceptions of work from home through the frame of reference found in the literature of Organizational Justice have shifted to be more negative. To study this phenomenon, we gathered social media data in comments from a work discussion forum on the Reddit website. We coded the data with an a priori codeset and assigned dummy variables for analysis. The dataset was analyzed via a five-way Factorial ANOVA examining the influences of the four independent variables of Organizational Justice (Distributive, Procedural, Interpersonal, and Informational Justice) and the temporal occurrence of Covid-19 on the sentimental polarity of comments surrounding the topic of work from home. Our findings indicated that Informational Justice significantly contributes to more negative sentiment regarding work-from-home. Additionally, when Distributive, Interpersonal, and Informational Justice and Distributive and Informational Justice interact, sentimental polarity grows more negative for work from home. Discussion of results, implications for practice, and limitations presented.
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This review identifies and describes the main outcomes and complications associated with remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic review of the literature was carried out. This included observational studies whose population or partly carried out remote work, published between March 1, 2020, and November 30, 2020. The descriptors were adapted to MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Scopus and PsycINFO databases. We found 139 studies; 15 articles were included in this synthesis. A total of 18,818 remote workers were reported, of which women represented between 18.2%-100%. The findings describe the increased use of electronic devices, sedentary lifestyle, anxiety, depression, feelings of loneliness, sleep disorders and the presence of musculoskeletal pain in remote workers. Therefore, it is necessary to provide assistance and education to the remote worker in order to improve their conditions, reduce the associated complications and positively impact their lifestyle.
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Purpose This study examines whether group-level homogeneity in telecommuting status is associated with performance differences between teleworkers and non-teleworkers at the individual level. The authors further investigate the impact of group-level task interdependence on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach A group of 225 employees in 41 work groups were surveyed, and employee performance data from the organization was used. A multilevel perspective was used to examine the influence of normative telecommuting on individual performance. Findings It was found that while performance differences between telecommuters and non-telecommuters in mixed groups favor non-telecommuters, those differences become non-significant as the proportion of telecommuters increases. Results further show that when group task interdependence is low, there are no performance differences between telecommuters and non-telecommuters. When group task interdependence is high, telecommuters perform better as the proportion of telecommuters in the group increases. Research limitations/implications Future studies should examine the group norms that are formed in predominantly telecommuting groups that support successful telecommuting outcomes. Practical implications Telecommuters perform better in groups with proportionally more telecommuters, even when task interdependence is high. Originality/value This study furthers our understanding around how telecommuting can be managed at the group level to maximize performance potential.
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Background The Covid-19 pandemic has brought significant changes to the way people work and there are several reasons to believe that working from home will become more common in the future. Yet more knowledge is needed on whether the effectiveness of leadership differs if the work is performed remotely compared to on-site work. Purpose The aim of this study is to examine the place of work as a moderator for the effectiveness of leadership on employee well-being. Method A survey was answered by 364 white-collar workers, employed by a larger Swedish municipality, who because of the covid-19-pandemic were offered to work from home. Results The employees working in their regular office perceived having more sufficient work equipment. No other differences were found in the investigated variables. Supportive leadership was associated with all investigated well-being variables in the hypothesised directions. Place of work did not moderate the relationship between Support leadership and the investigated well-being outcomes (Job satisfaction, Stress, General well-being). Conclusion This study shows that there are few differences between employees working from home or working on-site during the Covid-19 pandemic. The supportive leadership of the closest manager seem to be important for well-being regardless of the worksite.
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The COVID-19 pandemic brought with it the generalisation of working methods that existed beforehand, such as teleworking. Remote work has shown significant advantages, both for companies and for employees. However, teleworking has shown itself prone to certain psychosocial risks, even being viewed as an “accelerator” of the burnout process. Although research supports that teleworking promotes autonomy and flexibility, there is also evidence that teleworking performed at high-intensity may create conflict in the personal life. Intense workload, reduced and scant social support perceived in remote working were predictors, not solely of emotional weariness, but moreover of other dimensions of burnout: cynicism and lack of personal realisation. The experiences described by those who have worked remotely during the pandemic were: the ease with which schedules or rest days disappear, meeting too many demands through different channels (phone, WhatsApp, email) and with limited time. Also, taking into account that the employees lacked training and that on many occasions they were overwhelmed by techno-stress. Thorough studies are needed on the health consequences of teleworking, which clearly define their aims and take into account the complexity of mediating and modulating variables. Future research should seek to identify what behaviours and resources of teleworking can be beneficial in meeting demands and what aspects contribute to exhaustion.
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Purpose The author examined the association between public employees' satisfaction with pandemic-induced telework satisfaction and job autonomy, organizational goal clarity, organizational justice, and performance-based culture. In addition, the author analyzed the moderating effects of generation and gender on the relationships between job autonomy, organizational goal clarity, organizational justice, performance-based culture, and pandemic-induced telework satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach This study used survey data collected from 4,339 Korean public employees, comprising 1,983 central government officials and 2,356 metropolitan government officials, during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study conducted a structural equation model to test hypotheses. Findings The author found that job autonomy, organizational goal clarity, organizational justice, and performance-based culture were positively associated with pandemic-induced telework satisfaction. In addition, this research found the moderating effects of generation and gender on the relationships between job autonomy, organizational goal clarity, organizational justice, performance-based culture, and pandemic-induced telework satisfaction. Originality/value This study’s results can guide public organizations in developing public management strategies to improve pandemic-induced telework satisfaction. In particular, public organizations need to cope effectively with the broad prevalence of telework triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic by establishing high job autonomy, a performance-oriented culture, a fair evaluation system, and clear and measurable performance goals and adjusting telework according to the generational and gender characteristics.
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An examination of the literature on conflict between work and family roles suggests that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. A model of work-family conflict is proposed, and a series of research propositions is presented.
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The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure our most basic understandings of our experience, they are "metaphors we live by"--metaphors that can shape our perceptions and actions without our ever noticing them. In this updated edition of Lakoff and Johnson's influential book, the authors supply an afterword surveying how their theory of metaphor has developed within the cognitive sciences to become central to the contemporary understanding of how we think and how we express our thoughts in language.
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Through a review of the literature, this chapter identifies the impacts of telecommuting on organizations and employees and provides recommendations concerning the management of telecommuting. Key success factors of telecommuting programs, such as choosing the right jobs and employees, managerial attitude and expertise, are identified and discussed. Finally, this chapter present several essential steps that organizations should follow when implementing a telecommuting program. Purchase this chapter to continue reading all 23 pages >
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There are many contradictions concerning expected telecommuting experiences and outcomes. At one extreme telecommuting is believed to benefit the employee by providing increased flexibility and job satisfaction and reduced stress. On the other extreme telecommuting has been said to result in very negative experiences and outcomes for employees including isolation, increased stress and limited career advancement opportunities. This research attempts to separate the telecommuting myths and realities by examining the impact of this work arrangement on work experiences and outcomes for professional employees. This research found telecommuting experiences and outcomes are largely positive for professional employees. The telecommuters reported significantly more autonomy, boundary spanning activities and career advancement prospects and significantly less time and strain-based work-family conflict than their non-telecommuting peers. The only negative experience that was found was that telecommuters received less career support than non-telecommuters. The lack of career support did not hinder career advancement prospects.
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The bulk of our understanding of teams is based on traditional teams in which all members are collocated and communicate face to face. However, geographically distributed teams, whose members are not collocated and must often communicate via technology, are growing in prevalence. Studies from the field are beginning to suggest that geographically distributed teams operate differently and experience different outcomes than traditional teams. For example, empirical studies suggest that distributed teams experience high levels of conflict. These empirical studies offer rich and valuable descriptions of this conflict, but they do not systematically identify the mechanisms by which conflict is engendered in distributed teams. In this paper, we develop a theory-based explanation of how geographical distribution provokes team-level conflict. We do so by considering the two characteristics that distinguish distributed teams from traditional ones: Namely, we examine how being distant from one's team members and relying on technology to mediate communication and collaborative work impacts team members. Our analysis identifies antecedents to conflict that are unique to distributed teams. We predict that conflict of all types (task, affective, and process) will be detrimental to the performance of distributed teams, a result that is contrary to much research on traditional teams. We also investigate conflict as a dynamic process to determine how teams might mitigate these negative impacts over time.
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Addresses how to make telecommuting work for software managers. It is possible to create a telecommuting culture-an environment in which people can successfully work from wherever they happen to be physically. The critical component of that culture is building and maintaining an open and trustful communication between the manager and the employee and between the employee and the rest of the team. One way to build that three-way communication is to create a track record of successful deliverables by clarifying the work required, facilitating interaction rules, clarifying how people work with each other one-on-one, and specifying how the telecommuter participates with the team
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This article presents a cognitive model of empowerment. Here, empowerment is defined as increased intrinsic task motivation, and our subsequent model identifies four cognitions (task assessments) as the basis for worker empowerment: sense of impact, competence, meaningfulness, and choice. Adopting an interpretive perspective, we have used the model also to describe cognitive processes through which workers reach these conclusions. Central to the processes we describe are workers' interpretive styles and global beliefs. Both preliminary evidence for the model and general implications for research are discussed.
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After summarizing the literature on the various models for the role of social support in the process of work stress, two studies are reported. In the first study, correlations between (1) social support and workplace stressors and (2) between social support and strains as well as (3) incrementalR2s across 68 studies, when the interaction term of stressors and support was added to the regression of strain on stressors and support, were meta-analytically cumulated. Potential moderators of these relationships were weak, suggesting the presence of three general constructs of stressors, strains, and social support. In the second study, the various models for the role of social support in the process of workplace stress were tested for the general constructs identified in the first study. Results indicated that social support had a threefold effect on work stressor–strain relations. Social support reduced the strains experienced, social support mitigated perceived stressors, and social support moderated the stressor–strain relationship. Evidence for mediational and suppressor effects of social support on the process of work stress was weak. In addition, the argument that social support is mobilized when stressors are encountered was not consistent with the available empirical evidence. A similar lack of support was found for the arguments that support is mobilized when strains are encountered and that support is provided when individuals are afflicted with strains.
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Innovations in telecommunications technology increase the possibilities of working from the home. Implications of work-at-home arrangements for the individual's quality of working life are discussed. Included are discussions of several major aspects of the work experience relevant to quality of working life, analyses of the differences along these aspects between working at home and working at a normal workplace, and speculation about the possible consequences for the individual of the transfer of jobs from employers' premises to employees' homes.
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Researchers have found that men and women frequently encounter different work experiences. There has been some speculation that women who choose to telecommute will have more negative experiences than men who choose to telecommute. This study examines whether the work experiences of professionals who telecommute differ by gender. An analysis of 44 professional men and 45 professional women who telecommute from a large telecommunications firm fails to show a difference in work experiences, including autonomy, boundary spanning activities, career support, work-family conflict and career advancement prospects. Infact, the only significant differences between these groups were the number of hours spent in caretaking responsibilities and salary.
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Many companies now offer their employees opportunities to telecommute. What variables influence an employee's decision to accept the opportunity? In this study, telecommuting workers responded to a vignette describing a manager and an employee at a time when the employee had been given the opportunity to apply for a telecommuting program. The vignette systematically varied (a) the manager's promptness in mentioning an employee mistake; (b) the manager's reaction to neg ative feedback; (c) the manager's loyalty to employees; and (d) the length of time the manager and employee had known each other. The results showed that rela tionship duration significantly affected whether respondents thought that the employee should telecommute. Managerial reaction to criticism and managerial loyalty significantly affected forecasts of the worker's and manager's working together successfully. The results suggest that relationship predictability (duration) may constrain, and that communication behaviors (reaction to criticism, and loy alty) may facilitate an individual's decision whether to telecommute (Bernardino, 1996). The results also support the concept of telecompetence (Warisse, 1996) which argues that interpersonal factors influence the adoption and use of new communication technologies.
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Technological advances have enabled dramatic change in organizational design and communication as expressed through such actions as corporate downsizing and increased telecommuting. Technology fosters these changes because comput ers and telecommunication technology minimize the impact of time and place on organizational communication. However, with new technology channels for communication come new challenges to the ethical standards for social conduct. Many times, employees and other individual members of the electronic commu nications community do not use technology in the manner that its developers envisioned. In this paper, we explore ethical issues heightened by the use of technology as well as examining some of the means for managing these ethical concerns. We advance the argument that ethical problems are not inherent in technological advances. Instead, it is how human beings choose to use, appro priate, and interact with one another by incorporating these new tools that may lead to ethical dilemmas in business contexts.
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Thisfinal article presents a summary ofthefindings in thefourpreceding substantive studies, placing them in the context of the theoretical formulations underlying the work. It then discusses some of the issues involved in attempts to do research on the effects of experience and change.
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Three types of organizational responses to nonwork were identified according to orientations toward the work-nonwork relationship and toward the employer-worker relationship. The attitudes and experiences of 221 managers active in multiple domains were used to assess the effectiveness of the types. The type that enhanced the flexibility of the work-nonwork boundary, and involved the employer providing resources for workers to fulfill nonwork responsibilities themselves, proved most effective. This framework serves to shift the thinking about work-nonwork programs from a practice-by-practice focus to a more strategic level.
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The present study explores the central tenet of media richness theory, derived from contingency theory: when (1) information processing capabilities match (2) information processing demands, (3) performance will improve. This article tests whether using communication media that differ (1) in media richness or social presence (2) in conditions of differing task analyzability (3) affects self-reported performance components such as quality of work, effectiveness, productivity, ability to obtain information, decision-making ability, access to others, etc. The article first reviews the theoretical constructs of media richness and social presence, task characteristics, and performance, with particular reference to organizational computer-mediated communication media. It also identifies important but untested assumptions that media richness theory has, to date, made about the forms of the relationships among these variables. The theory assumes that use-performance relationships are nonmonotonic, that is, that the relationship between use and outcomes is positive when a medium's richness “fits” task requirements, and negative when it does not. The theory also assumes that use-performance relationships are symmetric, that is, that the relationship between use and outcomes in different task conditions is similar but opposite for “rich media” and “lean media.” Hypotheses test the direction and form of relationships involving use of online databases in several pooled organizations, electronic mail in one organization, voice mail in two organizations, and videoconferencing in one organization, in task conditions varying in analyzability. Results are mixed, depending on analytical method and dataset used, but show modest support for the contingent effect of task condition on the relationship between use of these new media and performance components. Results are stronger for information-lean media than for information-rich media. The results are generally monotonic and asymmetric, thus qualifying prior media richness assumptions. Implications for theory and research include slight support but conceptual qualification of media richness theory, and an improved understanding of new organizational media. Implications for management and practice include a need to appreciate appropriate uses of and opportunities for different communication media in organizational contexts. This paper is written with the assistance of: Paul J. Hart, Ph.D., Computer and Information Systems Department, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida; Jack Torobin, Ph.D., Delphi Communication Services, Los Angeles, California; Douglas Shook, Ph.D., Communication Sciences, Los Angeles, California; Joyce E. Tyler, M.A., Arthur Andersen, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia; Lynne Svenning, Ph.D., Telecommunications Research Group, Wilmington, Delaware; John Ruchinskas, Ph.D., Telecommunications Research Group, Los Angeles, California, and Arden, Delaware.
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We review and summarize the literature on work stress with particular emphasis on those studies that examined the effects of work characteristics on employee health. Although there is not convincing evidence that job stressors cause health effects, the indirect evidence is strongly suggestive of a work stress effect. This evidence comes from occupational studies that show differences in health and mortality that are not easily explained by other factors and within-subject studies that demonstrate a causal effect of work experiences on physiological and emotional responses. We argue that studies relying on self-reports of working conditions and outcomes, whether cross-sectional or longitudinal, are unlikely to add significantly to the accumulated evidence. Finally, we make recommendations for how organizational researchers are most likely to contribute to this knowledge.
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An elaboration of Davis, England and Lofquist's (1968) work adjustment model is employed to explain how flexible working hours can influence employee satisfaiction, performance, absenteeism, tenure, organizational commitment, and job involvement. Through need full illment, stress reduction, and the harmonization of work with human circadian rhythms, flexible working hours can contribute to a greater correspondence between (1) an individual's abilities and the ability requirements of the job, and (2) an individual's needs and the satisfaiction of those needs by, the work environment.