Isolated Recession of the Gastrocnemius Muscle: The Baumann Procedure
The Baumann procedure consists of intramuscular lengthening (recession) of the gastrocnemius muscle in the deep interval between the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. The goal of the procedure is to increase ankle dorsiflexion when ankle movement is restricted by a contracted gastrocnemius muscle. Unlike the Vulpius procedure, the Baumann procedure truly isolates the lengthening site to the gastrocnemius muscle and does not lengthen the soleus muscle. The Baumann procedure has not previously been studied in cadaver specimens. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of 15 normal cadaver specimens had four sequential releases: a single gastrocnemius recession, a second gastrocnemius recession, a single soleus recession, and an Achilles tenotomy. Ankle dorsiflexion was measured with a goniometer initially, after each muscle recession, and after the tenotomy. After the second gastrocnemius recession, the average increase in ankle dorsiflexion measured 14 degrees with the knee extended and 8 degrees with the knee flexed. The Baumann procedure treats equinus contracture of the gastrocnemius muscle by improving ankle joint dorsiflexion. The procedure is indicated when the results of the Silfverskiöld test are positive.