A Greek oil-tanker ran aground, resulting in a huge oil spill along the costal areas of Karachi, Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to assess the lung function and follow up change after one year in subjects exposed to crude oil spill in sea water. It was a cross sectional study with follow up in 20 apparently healthy, non-smoking, male workers, who were exposed to a crude oil spill environment during oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with 31 apparently healthy male control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic Spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air have significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)), forced expiratory flow (FEF(25-75%)) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) compared to their matched controls. This impairment was reversible and lung functions parameters were improved when the subjects were withdrawn from the polluted air environment.
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Available from: Gabriela Veronica Aguirre Martinez
"In recent decades, industrial development and anthropogenic activities including maritime transport and port activities, particularly those associated with the petroleum industry, have raised the levels of petrochemical products and derivatives discharged into aquatic environments. However, in the context of these activities, the single most serious source of oil pollution at sea are spill accidents which cause severe damage to the marine biota.    The best-known examples of major marine spills of crude oil include the Bohai Bay oil spill in "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarkers have been tested in order to address the most suitable battery for determining adverse effects of crude oil spills on marine invertebrates. An oil spill with increasing degrees of severity was simulated by mixing crude oil (0%, 0.5%, 2%, 8%, 16%, 32%) with sediment. Carcinus maenas and Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed to this sediment for seven days with the aim of comparing their applicability in biomonitoring studies. Four biomarkers including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were analysed in gill and digestive gland tissues of clams; and in gill and hepato-pancreas tissues of crabs. EROD, GST and GPx enzymatic activities were significantly induced in gill and digestive gland tissues of clams when increasing oil concentrations (p<.01). In crabs all the biomarkers were significantly activated in gill tissues, whereas EROD and LPO activities were induced only in hepato-pancreas tissues (p<.01). Gill and digestive gland in clams and gill in crabs were found to be the most reliable tissues for analysis of biomarkers. The biomarkers selected are thus considered suitable for assessing toxicity of sediments after a marine crude oil spill accident. Both species were found to be sensitive and suitable for biomonitoring purposes.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Chemistry and Ecology
"Therefore, we believe that our study better reflects the long-term effects of oil spill exposure than Crum's study.9 In other studies, clean-up workers who participated in clean-up activities after oil spill exposure showed impaired lung function shortly after the oil spill, which was reversible 1 year after the spill.10,11 In a recent study of the effect of oil spill exposure on 501 clean-up workers, no significant difference in lung function was detected between clean-up workers and controls without exposure to the oil spill 2 years after the spill.8 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast.
Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area.
The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65).
This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Allergy, asthma & immunology research
"The authors recommended performing follow-up studies after oil spills taking samples every 3 months for 3–5 years, noting respiratory disorders and any changes in the skin. Finally, Meo et al. (2008) assessed, by means of spirometry, lung function and followed up the progression after one year in 20 subjects exposed to this oil spill and 31 controls. Subjects exposed to polluted air had significant reductions in lung function compared with their matched controls (P ranging from 0.001 to 0.02 for the different lung function parameters). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Harmful effects of oil spills on diverse flora and fauna species have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been compiled in the literature dealing with the repercussions of oil exposure on human health; most of them have focused on acute effects and psychological symptoms. The objective of this work was to gather all these studies and to analyze the possible consequences of this kind of complex exposure in the different aspects of human health. Studies found on this topic were related to the disasters of the Exxon Valdez, Braer, Sea Empress, Nakhodka, Erika, Prestige and Tasman Spirit oil tankers. The majority of them were cross-sectional; many did not include control groups. Acute effects were evaluated taking into account vegetative-nervous symptoms, skin and mucous irritations, and also psychological effects. Genotoxic damage and endocrine alterations were assessed only in individuals exposed to oil from Prestige. The results of the reviewed articles clearly support the need for biomonitoring human populations exposed to spilled oils, especially those individuals involved in the cleanup, in order to evaluate not only the possible immediate consequences for their health but also the medium- and long-term effects, and the effectiveness of the protective devices used.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Journal of Applied Toxicology