Inhibitory Effect of YC-1, 3-(5′-Hydroxymethyl-2′-Furyl)-1-Benzylindazole, on Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization in Rat

Department of Ophthalmology, Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
Ophthalmic Research (Impact Factor: 1.42). 01/2008; 40(1):35-40. DOI: 10.1159/000111157
Source: PubMed


It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effects of YC-1, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, one of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors, on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats.
Thirty female Brown Norway rats underwent laser photocoagulation to induce CNV. Twenty of them (treatment group) were treated with a single intravitreal injection of 5 microg YC-1, and the remaining 10 (control) were sham-treated with a single intravitreal injection of 2.5 mg/ml dimethyl sulfoxide 2 weeks after laser photocoagulation. The expression of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CNV was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Fluorescein angiography was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after single intravitreal YC-1 (5 microg) and dimethyl sulfoxide (2.5 mg/ml) injection, grading fluorescein leakage from 0 to 3. The size of the CNV was measured on histologic sections.
Both HIF-1alpha and VEGF were expressed in CNV lesions in the control group 4 weeks after laser photocoagulation, whereas the expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were not observed in the intravitreally YC-1-treated group. The mean fluorescein leakage score decreased from 2.56 +/- 0.49 to 0.79 +/- 0.71 in the intravitreally YC-1-injected group and from 2.62 +/- 0.49 to 1.58 +/- 0.60 in the control group. Sixty-eight (71.6%) out of 95 CNV lesions of intravitreally YC-1-treated eyes (71.4%) and 12 (21.8%) out of 55 lesions in DMSO-treated eyes showed a decreased fluorescein leakage score of 2 or more. The mean difference of fluorescein leakage scores between the intravitreally YC-1-treated group and the control group was significant (p = 0.004). The mean thickness of the CNV lesions in the intravitreally YC-1-treated group (27.30 +/- 6.47 microm) was smaller than that of the control group (64.36 +/- 8.26 microm, p < 0.001). There was no ocular inflammation, retina hemorrhage or systemic toxicity induced by YC-1 treatment.
These results suggest that YC-1 inhibits the HIF-1 expression after photocoagulation and suppresses the development of laser-induced CNV formation.

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    • "HIF-1α expression was detected in surgically excised human CNV membranes [82]–[83] and its level elevated in the eyes of laser induced CNV animal models (23, 18032914, 22915031) [23], [81]–[84]. While in pharmacologically or genetically HIF-1α-depleted mice, CNV was significantly suppressed with reduction of intraocular VEGF and/or ICAM-1 [23], [81]–[84]. Here, our results demonstrated that the HIF−1α activation induced by laser treatment was significantly suppressed by curcumin, which are compatible with previous results that curcumin or its derivate had the ability to down-regulated HIF−1α and VEGF expression in vascular endothelial cells and blocked angiogenesis in vitro [85]–[86]. Our data, at least in part, also suggest that the suppression of the expression of angiogenic and inflammatory molecules observed after laser injury is due to curcumin-induced inhibition of the NF-κB and HIF−1α pathway. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of curcumin on the development of experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6N mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of curcumin daily for 3 days prior to laser-induced CNV, and the drug treatments were continued until the end of the study. The CNV area was analyzed by fluorescein-labeled dextran angiography of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid flat mounts on day 7 and 14, and CNV leakage was evaluated by fluorescein angiography (FA) on day 14 after laser photocoagulation. The infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages and GR-1 positive granulocytes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on RPE-choroid flat mounts on day 3. Their expression in RPE-choroid complex was quantified by real-time PCR (F4/80) and Western blotting (GR-1) on day 3. RPE-choroid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were examined by ELISA on day 3. Double immunostaining of F4/80 and VEGF was performed on cryo-sections of CNV lesions on day 3. The expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the RPE-choroid was determined by Western blotting. Curcumin-treated mice had significantly less CNV area (P<0.05) and CNV leakage (P<0.001) than vehicle-treated mice. Curcumin treatment led to significant inhibition of F4/80 positive macrophages (P<0.05) and GR-1 positive granulocytes infiltration (P<0.05). VEGF mainly expressed in F4/80 positive macrophages in laser injury sites, which was suppressed by curcumin treatment (P<0.01). Curcumin inhibited the RPE-choroid levels of TNF-α (P<0.05), MCP-1 (P<0.05) and ICAM-1 (P<0.05), and suppressed the activation of NF-κB in nuclear extracts (P<0.05) and the activation of HIF-1α (P<0.05). Curcumin treatment led to the suppression of CNV development together with inflammatory and angiogenic processes including NF-κB and HIF-1α activation, the up-regulation of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines, and infiltrating macrophages and granulocytes. This provides molecular and cellular evidence of the validity of curcumin supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated CNV.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "As YC-1 is able to reduce RGC viability without inducing cell death, we think that YC-1 should be independent of RGC survival-related optic pathologies. Recently, Song et al. established that YC-1 can inhibit HIF-1 expression and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats [49]. On the other hand, YC-1 was found to suppress pathological retinal neovascularization and enhance physiologic revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses in a mouse with oxygen-induced retinopathy by impairing the ischemia-induced expression of HIF-1 and its downstream angiogenic molecules [50]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. YC-1, a potential anticancer drug, is known to be able to decrease the stability and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α that is triggered by hypoxia and related to RGC survival. We hypothesized that YC-1 may alter RGC cell viability through the down-regulation of HIF-1α. Cell viability of the RGC-5 cell line was measured with a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry, a LIVE/DEAD viability assay, and high-content screening (HCS) with MKI67 (K(i)-67) monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell death and cellular proliferation. We found that cells treated with 20 µM YC-1 for 24 h decreased the HIF-1α level in an RGC-5 cell line using immunoblotting and reduced the live cell number in an MTT assay. Results of flow cytometry and HCS demonstrated that reducing the cell proliferation of RGC-5 cells, not cell death, led to the decreased level in the MTT assay. Our findings demonstrate that YC-1-induced down-regulation of HIF-1α might reduce RGC cell proliferation and viability under normoxia, which implies a role of YC-1 in the neuroprotective effect for further clinical applications.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Molecular vision
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays a key role in tumor promotion by inducing approximately 60 genes required for tumor adaptation to hypoxia; thus, it is viewed as a target for cancer therapy. For this reason, YC-1, which down-regulates HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha at the post-translational level, is being developed as a novel anticancer drug. We here found that YC-1 acts in a novel manner to inhibit HIF-1. In the Gal4 reporter system, which is not degraded by YC-1, YC-1 was found to significantly inactivate the COOH-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) of HIF-1alpha, whereas it failed to inactivate CAD(N803A) mutant. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, YC-1 stimulated factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) binding to CAD even in hypoxia, whereas it failed to increase the cellular levels of hydroxylated Asn803 of CAD. It was also found that YC-1 prevented p300 recruitment by CAD in mammalian two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. The involvement of FIH in YC-1-induced CAD inactivation was confirmed in EPO-enhancer and Gal4 reporter systems using FIH small interfering RNA and dimethyloxalylglycine FIH inhibitor. Indeed, FIH inhibition rescued HIF target gene expressions repressed by YC-1. In cancer cell lines other than Hep3B, YC-1 inhibits HIF-1alpha via the FIH-dependent CAD inactivation as well as via the protein down-regulation. Given these results, we suggest that the functional inactivation of HIF-alpha contributes to the YC-1-induced deregulation of hypoxia-induced genes.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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