Inhibitory Effect of YC-1, 3-(5′-Hydroxymethyl-2′-Furyl)-1-Benzylindazole, on Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization in Rat
Department of Ophthalmology, Sungkyunkwan University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea Ophthalmic Research
(Impact Factor: 1.42).
01/2008; 40(1):35-40. DOI: 10.1159/000111157
It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effects of YC-1, 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, one of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibitors, on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats.
Thirty female Brown Norway rats underwent laser photocoagulation to induce CNV. Twenty of them (treatment group) were treated with a single intravitreal injection of 5 microg YC-1, and the remaining 10 (control) were sham-treated with a single intravitreal injection of 2.5 mg/ml dimethyl sulfoxide 2 weeks after laser photocoagulation. The expression of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in CNV was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Fluorescein angiography was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after single intravitreal YC-1 (5 microg) and dimethyl sulfoxide (2.5 mg/ml) injection, grading fluorescein leakage from 0 to 3. The size of the CNV was measured on histologic sections.
Both HIF-1alpha and VEGF were expressed in CNV lesions in the control group 4 weeks after laser photocoagulation, whereas the expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were not observed in the intravitreally YC-1-treated group. The mean fluorescein leakage score decreased from 2.56 +/- 0.49 to 0.79 +/- 0.71 in the intravitreally YC-1-injected group and from 2.62 +/- 0.49 to 1.58 +/- 0.60 in the control group. Sixty-eight (71.6%) out of 95 CNV lesions of intravitreally YC-1-treated eyes (71.4%) and 12 (21.8%) out of 55 lesions in DMSO-treated eyes showed a decreased fluorescein leakage score of 2 or more. The mean difference of fluorescein leakage scores between the intravitreally YC-1-treated group and the control group was significant (p = 0.004). The mean thickness of the CNV lesions in the intravitreally YC-1-treated group (27.30 +/- 6.47 microm) was smaller than that of the control group (64.36 +/- 8.26 microm, p < 0.001). There was no ocular inflammation, retina hemorrhage or systemic toxicity induced by YC-1 treatment.
These results suggest that YC-1 inhibits the HIF-1 expression after photocoagulation and suppresses the development of laser-induced CNV formation.
Available from: Songtao Yuan
- "HIF-1α expression was detected in surgically excised human CNV membranes – and its level elevated in the eyes of laser induced CNV animal models (23, 18032914, 22915031) , –. While in pharmacologically or genetically HIF-1α-depleted mice, CNV was significantly suppressed with reduction of intraocular VEGF and/or ICAM-1 , –. Here, our results demonstrated that the HIF−1α activation induced by laser treatment was significantly suppressed by curcumin, which are compatible with previous results that curcumin or its derivate had the ability to down-regulated HIF−1α and VEGF expression in vascular endothelial cells and blocked angiogenesis in vitro
–. Our data, at least in part, also suggest that the suppression of the expression of angiogenic and inflammatory molecules observed after laser injury is due to curcumin-induced inhibition of the NF-κB and HIF−1α pathway. "
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of curcumin on the development of experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms.
C57BL/6N mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of curcumin daily for 3 days prior to laser-induced CNV, and the drug treatments were continued until the end of the study. The CNV area was analyzed by fluorescein-labeled dextran angiography of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid flat mounts on day 7 and 14, and CNV leakage was evaluated by fluorescein angiography (FA) on day 14 after laser photocoagulation. The infiltration of F4/80 positive macrophages and GR-1 positive granulocytes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on RPE-choroid flat mounts on day 3. Their expression in RPE-choroid complex was quantified by real-time PCR (F4/80) and Western blotting (GR-1) on day 3. RPE-choroid levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were examined by ELISA on day 3. Double immunostaining of F4/80 and VEGF was performed on cryo-sections of CNV lesions on day 3. The expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the RPE-choroid was determined by Western blotting.
Curcumin-treated mice had significantly less CNV area (P<0.05) and CNV leakage (P<0.001) than vehicle-treated mice. Curcumin treatment led to significant inhibition of F4/80 positive macrophages (P<0.05) and GR-1 positive granulocytes infiltration (P<0.05). VEGF mainly expressed in F4/80 positive macrophages in laser injury sites, which was suppressed by curcumin treatment (P<0.01). Curcumin inhibited the RPE-choroid levels of TNF-α (P<0.05), MCP-1 (P<0.05) and ICAM-1 (P<0.05), and suppressed the activation of NF-κB in nuclear extracts (P<0.05) and the activation of HIF-1α (P<0.05).
Curcumin treatment led to the suppression of CNV development together with inflammatory and angiogenic processes including NF-κB and HIF-1α activation, the up-regulation of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines, and infiltrating macrophages and granulocytes. This provides molecular and cellular evidence of the validity of curcumin supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for the suppression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated CNV.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "As YC-1 is able to reduce RGC viability without inducing cell death, we think that YC-1 should be independent of RGC survival-related optic pathologies. Recently, Song et al. established that YC-1 can inhibit HIF-1 expression and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats . On the other hand, YC-1 was found to suppress pathological retinal neovascularization and enhance physiologic revascularization of the retinal vascular plexuses in a mouse with oxygen-induced retinopathy by impairing the ischemia-induced expression of HIF-1 and its downstream angiogenic molecules . "
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ABSTRACT: The survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a hallmark of many optic neurodegenerative diseases such as glaucoma. YC-1, a potential anticancer drug, is known to be able to decrease the stability and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α that is triggered by hypoxia and related to RGC survival. We hypothesized that YC-1 may alter RGC cell viability through the down-regulation of HIF-1α.
Cell viability of the RGC-5 cell line was measured with a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Flow cytometry, a LIVE/DEAD viability assay, and high-content screening (HCS) with MKI67 (K(i)-67) monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell death and cellular proliferation.
We found that cells treated with 20 µM YC-1 for 24 h decreased the HIF-1α level in an RGC-5 cell line using immunoblotting and reduced the live cell number in an MTT assay. Results of flow cytometry and HCS demonstrated that reducing the cell proliferation of RGC-5 cells, not cell death, led to the decreased level in the MTT assay.
Our findings demonstrate that YC-1-induced down-regulation of HIF-1α might reduce RGC cell proliferation and viability under normoxia, which implies a role of YC-1 in the neuroprotective effect for further clinical applications.
Available from: nanoarchive.org
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 plays a key role in tumor promotion by inducing approximately 60 genes required for tumor adaptation to hypoxia; thus, it is viewed as a target for cancer therapy. For this reason, YC-1, which down-regulates HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha at the post-translational level, is being developed as a novel anticancer drug. We here found that YC-1 acts in a novel manner to inhibit HIF-1. In the Gal4 reporter system, which is not degraded by YC-1, YC-1 was found to significantly inactivate the COOH-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) of HIF-1alpha, whereas it failed to inactivate CAD(N803A) mutant. In coimmunoprecipitation assays, YC-1 stimulated factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) binding to CAD even in hypoxia, whereas it failed to increase the cellular levels of hydroxylated Asn803 of CAD. It was also found that YC-1 prevented p300 recruitment by CAD in mammalian two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. The involvement of FIH in YC-1-induced CAD inactivation was confirmed in EPO-enhancer and Gal4 reporter systems using FIH small interfering RNA and dimethyloxalylglycine FIH inhibitor. Indeed, FIH inhibition rescued HIF target gene expressions repressed by YC-1. In cancer cell lines other than Hep3B, YC-1 inhibits HIF-1alpha via the FIH-dependent CAD inactivation as well as via the protein down-regulation. Given these results, we suggest that the functional inactivation of HIF-alpha contributes to the YC-1-induced deregulation of hypoxia-induced genes.
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