Maternal Smoking and the Vitamin D-Parathyroid Hormone System during the Perinatal Period

Research Unit, University Hospital of the Canaries, University of La Laguna, Canary Island, Spain.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 01/2008; 151(6):618-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.05.003
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the effect of smoking on the vitamin D-parathyroid hormone (PTH) system during the perinatal period.
Sixty-one healthy women with singleton pregnancies and their newborns participated in a cohort study. We compared serum PTH and BsmI polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP) in a smoking group (n = 32) versus a non-smoking group (n = 29), controlling for lifestyle confounders. The mothers were examined at 30 to 32 weeks and 38 to 40 weeks of pregnancy, and the infants were examined at 2 to 3 days of postnatal life.
Mothers who smoked and their newborns showed decreased serum PTH (30-32 weeks, 26.9 +/- 10.7 pg/mL versus 37.1+/-19.5 pg/mL; 38-40 weeks, 32.2 +/- 13.5 pg/mL versus 46.2 +/- 21.9 pg/mL, P = .005; newborns, 43.4 +/- 21.8 versus 64.1 +/- 34.2 pg/mL, P = .02) and increased phosphorus. Newborns of mothers who smoked also had significantly lower anthropometric measurements and serum 25(OH)D (14.2 +/- 6.2 ng/mL versus 22.3 +/- 11.3 ng/mL, P = .009). In addition, pregnant women who smoked had lower bALP (30-32 weeks, 31 +/- 15 U/L versus 44+/-29 U/L; 38-40 weeks, 55 +/- 32 U/L versus 97 +/- 62 U/L, P = .005).
Smoking during pregnancy negatively influences calcium-regulating hormones, leading to relative hypoparathyroidism in both the mother and their newborns.

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    • "Vitamin D deficiency was seen in mothers (66.8%) and infants (93.3%) in Iran [22]. There are few studies about the impact of smoking on bone metabolism, the status of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and parathyroid hormone system during pregnancy which the majority of them have investigated the smoker women [4,20,21]. There is no study evaluating the impact of being a passive smoker during pregnancy on vitamin D and biochemical parameters in mothers and newborns. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exposure to cigarette smoke during pregnancy leads to several adverse effects on mother and child. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of being a passive smoker during pregnancy on vitamin D level and related biochemical indices including parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in mothers and newborns. Methods One hundred eight pregnant women and their newborns participated in a historical cohort study in two equal groups (n = 54) with and without cigarette smoke exposure. Maternal blood and urine samples and blood samples of umbilical cord were obtained in the delivery room. Concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and related biochemical indices in samples of maternal and cord blood were investigated. Exposure to cigarette smoke was evaluated through questionnaire and maternal urine and umbilical cord serum cotinine levels. Results The mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in maternal serum was 9.28 ± 5.19 ng/mlin exposed and 10.75 ± 5.26 ng/ml in non-exposed group(p > 0.05). The mean concentration of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in cord serum was 10.83 ± 6.68 ng/ml in the exposed and 11.05 ± 4.99 ng/ml in the non-exposed group(p > 0.05). The exposed mothers had significantly higher parathyroid hormone level (p = 0.013), lower serum calcium (p = 0.024) and higher serum alkaline phosphatase (p = 0.024). There was a significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D within both exposed and non-exposed groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion Maternal exposure to cigarette smoking during pregnancy negatively influences serum calcium level and increase parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase in mothers.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of mineral metabolism abnormalities is almost universal in stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the presence of abnormalities in milder CKD is not well characterized. Data on adults > or =20 yr of age from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 (N = 3949) were analyzed to determine the association between moderate declines in estimated GFR (eGFR), calculated using the Modfication of Diet in Renal Disease formula, and serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) > or = 70 pg/ml. The geometric mean iPTH level was 39.3 pg/ml. The age-standardized prevalence of elevated iPTH was 8.2%, 19.3%, and 38.3% for participants with eGFR > or = 60, 45 to 59, and 30 to 44 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively (P-trend < 0.001). After adjustment for age; race/ethnicity; sex; menopausal status; education; income; cigarette smoking; alcohol consumption; body mass index; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; vitamin D supplement use; total calorie and calcium intake; and serum calcium, phosphorus, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels-and compared with their counterparts with an eGFR > or = 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)-the prevalence ratios of elevated iPTH were 2.30 and 4.69 for participants with an eGFR of 45 to 59 and 30 to 44 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively (P-trend < 0.001). Serum phosphorus > or = 4.2 mg/dl and 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 17.6 ng/ml were more common at lower eGFR levels. No association was present between lower eGFR and serum calcium < 9.4 mg/dl. This study indicates that elevated iPTH levels are common among patients with moderate CKD.
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