Article

HIV-1 p17 binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans to activated CD4(+) T cells

Institute of Microbiology, University of Brescia Medical School, Brescia, Italy.
Virus Research (Impact Factor: 2.32). 04/2008; 132(1-2):25-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.10.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We have previously shown that HIV-1 p17 binds to activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and enhances secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but we were unable to define a ligand on activated cells. In this work we evaluate the hypothesis that HIV-1 p17 may be a heparin/heparan sulfate-binding protein. HIV-1 p17 contains C- and N-terminal sequences with positively charged residues and a consensus cluster for heparin binding. We demonstrated by affinity chromatography that HIV-1 p17 binds strongly to heparin-agarose at physiological pH. Soluble heparins and heparan sulfate but not chondroitin 4-sulfate and dextran sulfate inhibit binding of HIV-1 p17 to heparin solid phase and to activated CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore the inhibition of cell sulfatation by chlorate treatment completely counteracts HIV-1 p17 binding to activated cells. These results indicate for the first time that HIV-1 p17 can be ascribed to the heparin binding protein family and suggest that this interaction might play a key role in the ability of the protein to induce an inflammatory effect on activated cells.

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    • "These protein-HS interactions contribute to trigger a variety of biological effects related to AIDS-associated pathologies. This includes p17, the matrix protein (64) which up-regulates cytokine production thus deregulating the functions of many immune cells; TAT, the transacting activator of transcription (65) which exerts angiogenic, cell proliferation, chemoinvasion activities and induces peripheral neuropathies, immune suppression, and tumorigenesis; and finally Vpr, the Viral protein R (66), which induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: By targeting cells that provide protection against infection, HIV-1 causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infection starts when gp120, the viral envelope glycoprotein, binds to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor usually CCR5 or CXCR4. As many microorganisms, HIV-1 also interacts with heparan sulfate (HS), a complex group of cell surface associated anionic polysaccharides. It has been thought that this binding, occurring at a step prior to CD4 recognition, increases infectivity by pre-concentrating the virion particles at the cell surface. Early work, dating from before the identification of CCR5 and CXCR4, showed that a variety of HS mimetics bind to the gp120 V3 loop through electrostatic interactions, compete with cell surface associated HS to bind the virus and consequently, neutralize the infectivity of a number of T cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains. However, progress made to better understand HIV-1 attachment and entry, coupled with the recent identification of additional gp120 regions mediating HS recognition, have considerably modified this view. Firstly, the V3 loop from CXCR4-using viruses is much more positively charged compared to those using CCR5. HS inhibition of cell attachment is thus restricted to CXCR4 using viruses (such as T cell line-adapted HIV-1). Secondly, studies aiming at characterizing the gp120/HS complex revealed that HS binding was far more complex than previously thought: in addition to the V3 loop of CXCR4 tropic gp120, HS interacts with several other cryptic areas of the protein, which can be induced upon CD4 binding, and are conserved amongst CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses. In view of these data, this review will detail the present knowledge on HS binding to HIV-1, with regards to attachment and entry processes. It will discuss the perspective of targeting the gp120 coreceptor binding site with HS mimetic compounds, a strategy that recently gave rise to entry inhibitors that work in the low nM range, independently of coreceptor usage.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Frontiers in Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Le virus de l’hépatite murine de type 3 (MHV3) est un excellent modèle animal pour l’étude des différents désordres immunologiques lors d’infections virales. L’hépatite aiguë fulminante induite par ce virus chez la souris susceptible C57BL/6 se caractérise par la présence de plusieurs foyers nécrotiques et inflammatoires dans le foie associée à une immunodéficience en lymphocytes B et T, tuant les souris entre 3 et 5 jours post-infection. L’évolution rapide de cette maladie virale suggère un débalancement dans les mécanismes de l’immunité naturelle sous le contrôle des cellules NK et NK-T et un bris de l’équilibre entre la tolérance hépatique et la réponse inflammatoire. Afin d’élucider les rôles respectifs des différents mécanismes de la défense innée impliqués dans le développement de l’hépatite aiguë, des infections in vivo ont été réalisées chez des souris C57BL/6 avec la souche pathogène L2-MHV3 ou avec des variants du virus MHV3. Ces derniers possèdent des tropismes différents pour les cellules endothéliales sinusoïdales hépatiques et les cellules de Kupffer, tels que les virus faiblement atténué 51.6-MHV3, fortement atténué CL12-MHV3 et non pathogène YAC-MHV3. Ces études in vivo ont montré une diminution des cellules NK spléniques et myéloïdes suite à une infection avec le virus MHV3. Cette chute en cellules NK spléniques reflète un recrutement de ces cellules au niveau du foie. Par contre, les cellules NK se sont avérées permissives à la réplication virale entraînant un processus d’apoptose suite à la formation de syncétia induits par le virus. Les niveaux de recrutement et d’apoptose des cellules NK et NK-T dans le foie reflètent la pathogénicité des variants MHV3 durant les trois premiers jours de l’infection virale bien que les cellules NK recrutées au niveau du foie maintiennent leur activité cytotoxique. L’ajout des IL-12 et IL-18, qui sont normalement diminués lors de l’hépatite aiguë, provoque une production synergique d’IFN-g par les cellules NK, résultant d’une interaction entre l’activation de la voie p38 MAPK et la réplication virale. Par ailleurs, le récepteur viral CEACAM1a (carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1a) serait essentiel à cette synergie, mais exercerait aussi une action inhibitrice dans la production de l’IFN-g. D’autre part, les niveaux de production des cytokines immunosuppressives IL-10, TGF-b et PGE2, impliquées dans la tolérance hépatique et particulièrement produites par les cellules de Kupffer et les cellules endothéliales sinusoïdales, sont en relation inverse avec le degré de pathogénicité des variants du virus MHV3. Finalement, le virus pathogène L2-MHV3 déclenche la production de cytokines inflammatoires par les macrophages, tels que l’IL-6 et le TNF-a. L’induction de ces cytokines par les macrophages serait indépendante de la présence de la molécule CEACAM1a. Cette stimulation est plutôt reliée à la fixation des particules virales sur des récepteurs TLR2, en association avec les régions riches en héparanes sulfates. Tous ces résultats mettent en évidence de nouveaux mécanismes par lesquels le virus MHV3 peut diminuer l’efficacité des mécanismes de l’immunité naturelle sous le contrôle des cellules NK et NK-T intrahépatiques, suite à une stimulation de l’inflammation résultant du bris de la tolérance hépatique. Mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) is an excellent model to study immunological disorders related to viral infections. The fulminant acute hepatitis induced in susceptible C57BL/6 mice is characterized by the presence of necrotic and inflammatory foci in the liver associated with B and T cell immunodeficiencies leading to the death of the animals in 3 to 5 days post-infection. The fulminance of this viral infection suggests a deficiency in the natural immunity mechanisms under control of NK and NK-T cells and an imbalance between the hepatic tolerance and the inflammatory responses. To understand the different mechanisms involved in the acute hepatitis, in vivo infections have been done in C57BL/6 mice with either the pathogenic L2-MHV3, or with its attenuated variants: the weak attenuated 51.6-MHV3, the highly attenuated CL12-MHV3 or the non-pathogenic YAC-MHV3 viruses, possessing different tropisms for liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells. The results demonstrate that splenic and myeloid NK cells are impaired during a MHV3 infection. This impairment is due to a recruitment of these cells in the liver and a virus-induced apoptotic phenomenon. The recruitment and the subsequent apoptosis of NK and NK-T cells during the first three days of infection are in relation with the pathogenicity of the MHV3 variants. In spite of the fact that hepatic recruited NK cells are still cytotoxic, these cells undergo apoptosis due to viral replication via the formation of syncytia. Addition of IL-12 and IL-18, which are impaired during the acute hepatitis, promote a synergistic IFN-g production by NK cells depending of both the p38 MAPK pathway and the viral replication. Moreover, the specific viral receptor CEACAM1a (carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1a) is essential for this response but also exerts an inhibitory action. Levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10, TGF-b and PGE2, mainly produced by Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells, and implicated in the natural hepatic tolerance, are in inverse correlation with the pathogenicity of the MHV3 variants. Finally, viral infection promotes the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-a by macrophages, triggered by the fixation of viral particules to TLR2 and heparan sulfate receptors rather than the engagement of CEACAM1a receptor and viral replication. In conclusion, our results suggest new mechanisms by which the MHV3 virus disturbs the innate immunity under control of NK and NK-T cells, as well as the cytokines involved in the hepatic tolerance to the detriment of the inflammatory response.
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 p17 contains C- and N-terminal sequences with positively charged residues and a consensus cluster for heparin binding. We have previously demonstrated by affinity chromatography that HIV-1 p17 binds strongly to heparin-agarose at physiological pH and to human activated CD4+ T cells. In this study we demonstrated that the viral protein binds to heparan sulfate side chains of syndecan-2, syndecan-4, and CD44v3 purified from HeLa cells and that these heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) co-localize with HIV-1 p17 on activated human CD4+ T cells by confocal fluorescence analysis. Moreover, we observed a stimulatory or inhibitory activity when CD4+ T cells were activated with mitogens together with nanomolar or micromolar concentrations of the matrix protein.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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