Characteristics of clock drawing test (CDT) errors by the dementia type: Quantitative and qualitative analyses

Department of Neurology, Chungnam University Hospital, 640 Daesa-dong, Joong-ku, Daejon 301-721, Republic of Korea.
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Impact Factor: 1.85). 12/2007; 48(1):58-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2007.10.003
Source: PubMed


We wanted to define the characteristics of errors on the clock drawing test (CDT) and we also wanted to determine their value for making the early diagnosis of dementia, so the performance of patients with three types of dementia on the four CDT was evaluated. The patients with subcortical vascular dementia (VaD) and patients with Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) had more stimulus bound responses. Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) made significantly more conceptual deficit (CD) errors. The CD correlated with the severity of dementia and it could be detected in the early and mild stage of dementia. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the errors on the CDT might be useful for making the early differential diagnosis of dementia types.

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    • "Ng (2009) reported mean MMSE scores amongst different clinical conditions including hypertension and diabetes but found no significant associations with decline. In South Korea, Lee et al. (2009) found no significant relationship between MetS and overall cognitive abilities using the Korean version of MMSE (K- MMSE). However, it is important to note that the MMSE is a limited tool for the assessment of neuropsychological status and is unlikely to tap the subtle aspects of cognitive change in the MetS population. "
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    • "On the basis of this result and to improve our knowledge about ADAM10 as a potential peripheral biomarker for AD, in this study, we correlated data on platelet ADAM10 expression and CDT, an extensively used test for the screening of cognitive impairments in the elderly patients. Additionally, CDT is an easy test to administrate and interpret, presenting high sensitivity and specificity (85%), and together with Verbal Fluency Test and Trail Making Test-B, is the main recommended to measure executive functioning (Lee et al., 2009; Bossers et al., 2012). Few studies have correlated CDT with AD biomarkers (Palmqvist et al., 2012), but several have used other cognitive tests to correlate with CSF biomarkers for AD (Buchhave et al., 2009; Llano et al., 2011; Ewers et al., 2012; Palmqvist et al., 2012) or blood biomarkers, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) isoforms (Baskin et al., 2000; Borroni et al., 2003; Zainaghi et al., 2007). "
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