Extended Transthoracic Resection Compared With Limited Transhiatal Resection for Adenocarcinoma of the Mid/Distal Esophagus

Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Annals of Surgery (Impact Factor: 8.33). 01/2008; 246(6):992-1000; discussion 1000-1. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31815c4037
Source: PubMed


To determine whether extended transthoracic esophagectomy for adenocarcinoma of the mid/distal esophagus improves long-term survival.
A randomized trial was performed to compare surgical techniques. Complete 5-year survival data are now available.
A total of 220 patients with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus (type I) or gastric cardia involving the distal esophagus (type II) were randomly assigned to limited transhiatal esophagectomy or to extended transthoracic esophagectomy with en bloc lymphadenectomy. Patients with peroperatively irresectable/incurable cancer were excluded from this analysis (n = 15). A total of 95 patients underwent transhiatal esophagectomy and 110 patients underwent transthoracic esophagectomy.
After transhiatal and transthoracic resection, 5-year survival was 34% and 36%, respectively (P = 0.71, per protocol analysis). In a subgroup analysis, based on the location of the primary tumor according to the resection specimen, no overall survival benefit for either surgical approach was seen in 115 patients with a type II tumor (P = 0.81). In 90 patients with a type I tumor, a survival benefit of 14% was seen with the transthoracic approach (51% vs. 37%, P = 0.33). There was evidence that the treatment effect differed depending on the number of positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen (test for interaction P = 0.06). In patients (n = 55) without positive nodes locoregional disease-free survival after transhiatal esophagectomy was comparable to that after transthoracic esophagectomy (86% and 89%, respectively). The same was true for patients (n = 46) with more than 8 positive nodes (0% in both groups). Patients (n = 104) with 1 to 8 positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen showed a 5-year locoregional disease-free survival advantage if operated via the transthoracic route (23% vs. 64%, P = 0.02).
There is no significant overall survival benefit for either approach. However, compared with limited transhiatal resection extended transthoracic esophagectomy for type I esophageal adenocarcinoma shows an ongoing trend towards better 5-year survival. Moreover, patients with a limited number of positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen seem to benefit from an extended transthoracic esophagectomy.

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    • "The choice for the type of surgery is based on tumour stage, tumour location, lymph node involvement, and the condition of the patient. Transthoracic oesophagectomy generally results in a higher lymph node yield and a trend to a higher 5-year overall survival, but also in a higher mortality and morbidity rate [3] [8] [9]. Surgical treatment of oesophageal cancer has a high rate of post-operative complications, especially in patients with multiple co-morbidities and a higher age [8] [10] [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Preferred treatment for resectable oesophageal cancer is surgery with or without neoadjuvant treatment. However, oesophageal surgery has high morbidity and in vulnerable patients with co-morbidity other treatment modalities can be proposed. We examined determinants in decision making for surgery and factors affecting survival in patients with resectable oesophageal cancer in southern Netherlands. Methods: All patients with resectable (T1-3, N0-1, M0-1A) oesophageal cancer (n=849) diagnosed between 2003 and 2010 were selected from the population-based data of the Eindhoven Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis and multivariable Cox survival analysis were conducted to examine determinants of surgery and survival. Results: Forty-five percent of the patients underwent surgery. In multivariable survival analysis only surgery, chemoradiation alone and tumour stage influenced overall survival (OS). Patients aged ≥70 yrs, a low socioeconomic status (SES), one or more co-morbidities, cT1-tumours, cN1-tumours, a squamous-cell carcinoma, and those with a proximal tumour were significantly less often offered surgical resection. Older patients and patients with cT1 tumours were less likely to receive chemoradiation alone. Patients with clinically positive lymph nodes or a proximal tumour were more likely to receive chemoradiation alone. Conclusion: Treatment modalities including surgery and chemoradiation alone as well as stage of disease were independent predictors of a better OS in patients with potentially resectable oesophageal cancer. Therefore, the decision to perform potentially curative treatment is of crucial importance to improve OS for patients with potentially resectable oesophageal cancer. Although age and SES had no significant influence on overall survival, a higher age and low SES negatively influenced the probability to propose potentially curative treatment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "Data reported by the International Union Against Cancer/ American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) showed that approximately 44% of initially resected cancers of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction had lymph node metastasis and this high incidence contributed to the causes of poor survival [2]. Nevertheless some surgeons, especially those in Japan, have been conducting extended lymphadenectomy to provide better prognosis, most prospective trials have failed to demonstrate its survival benefit and its clinical significance is now considered to be limited [3-6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), a known lymph node homing receptor for immune cells, has been reported as a key molecule in lymph node metastasis. We hypothesized a clinicopathological correlation and functional causality between CCR7 expression and lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We performed immunohistochemical analysis of 105 consecutive and 61 exclusive pathological T1 ESCC patients, followed by adhesion assay and in vivo experiment using a newly developed lymph node metastasis mouse model. The adhesive ability in response to CC-chemokine ligand 21/secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine (CCL21/SLC) was assessed in the presence or absence of lymphatic endothelial cells and anti-CCR7 antibody. We established a heterotopic transplantation mouse model and analyzed lymph node metastasis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Positive CCR7 expression in immunohistochemistory was detected in 28 (27%) of 105 consecutive patients and 17 (28%) of 61 T1 patients, which significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.037 and p = 0.040, respectively) and poor five-year survival (p = 0.013 and p = 0.012, respectively). Adhesion assay revealed an enhanced adhesive ability of CCR7-expressing cells in response to CCL21/SLC, in particular, in the presence of lymphatic endothelial cells (p = 0.005). In the mouse model, lymph nodes from mice transplanted with CCR7-expressing cells showed significantly higher DNA levels at 5 weeks (p = 0.019), indicating a high metastatic potential of CCR7-expressing cells. These results demonstrated the significant clinicopathological relationship and functional causality between CCR7 expression and lymph node metastasis in ESCC patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    • "Indeed, there is evidence that preoperative chemoradiotherapy increases the rate of complete resection i.e. local control for patients with locally advanced disease even if this was not always translated into a survival benefit in individual studies [19,20]. Similarly, transthoracic approach allows greater lymphadenectomy (eight more lymph node retrieved compared with transhiatal approach) [21] that might provide increased local control and disease free survival [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of tumor recurrence for patients operated on for cancer of oesophagogastric junction or oesophagus by Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy. Patients undergoing potentially curative Ivor-Lewis oesophageal resection between January 1999 to December 2008 at a single center institution were retrospectively analyzed. Their clinical records, details of surgical procedure, postoperative course, pathological findings, recurrence and long term survival were reviewed retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed. One hundred and twenty patients were analyzed. Fifty three patients (44%) presented recurrence during median follow-up of 58 months. Five-year relapse free survival (RFS) rate was 51% (95%CI = [46; 65%]). On multivariate analysis, pT stage > 2 (HR = 2.42, 95%CI = [1.22; 4.79] p = 0.011), positive lymph node status (HR = 3.69; 95% CI = [1.53; 8.96] p = 0.004) and lymph node ratio > 0.2 (HR = 2.57; 95%CI = [1.38; 4.76] p = 0.003) were associated with a poorer RFS and their combination was correlated to relapse risk. Moreover, preoperative tumor stenosis was associated with an increased risk of local recurrence (HR = 3.46; 95% CI = [1.38; 8.70] p = 0.008) whereas poor or undifferentiated tumor was associated with an increased risk of distant recurrence (HR = 3.32; 95% CI = [1.03; 10.04] p = 0.044). pT stage > 2, positive lymph node status and lymph node ratio > 0.2 are independent prognostic factors of recurrence after Ivor-Lewis surgery for cancer. Their combination is correlated with an increasing risk of recurrence that may argue favorably, in addition with preoperative tumor stenosis assessment, for adjuvant treatment or reinforced follow-up.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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