Article

Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students

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Abstract

Electronic communications technologies are affording children and adolescents new means of bullying one another. Referred to as electronic bullying, cyberbullying, or online social cruelty, this phenomenon includes bullying through e-mail, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital messages or images sent to a cell phone. The present study examined the prevalence of electronic bullying among middle school students. A total of 3,767 middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 who attend six elementary and middle schools in the southeastern and northwestern United States completed a questionnaire, consisting of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and 23 questions developed for this study that examined participants' experiences with electronic bullying, as both victims and perpetrators. Of the students, 11% that they had been electronically bullied at least once in the last couple of months (victims only); 7% indicated that they were bully/victims; and 4% had electronically bullied someone else at least once in the previous couple of months (bullies only). The most common methods for electronic bullying (as reported by both victims and perpetrators) involved the use of instant messaging, chat rooms, and e-mail. Importantly, close to half of the electronic bully victims reported not knowing the perpetrator's identity. Electronic bullying represents a problem of significant magnitude. As children's use of electronic communications technologies is unlikely to wane in coming years, continued attention to electronic bullying is critical. Implications of these findings for youth, parents, and educators are discussed.

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... The prevalence of cyber victimization worldwide ranges from 10% to 40% (Kowalski et al., 2007). In Chile, the last National Survey of Violence in the School Context (ENVAE) carried out in 2014 found that 26.2% of 7th to 12th grade students reported being victimized regularly (Chile, Ministerio del Chile Ministerio del Interior, 2016). ...
... As a phenomenon of online social interaction (Souza et al., 2018), it can be characterized as one type of bullying behavior that incorporates the use of technologies. Even though there is an important overlap between bullying and cyberbullying (Slonje et al., 2013), scholars have argued for the need to make clear distinctions between offline and cyber bullying and victimization (Olweus, 2013), considering specific features of the cyber context such as anonymity (Kowalski & Limber, 2007) as well as the occasions and context in which victimization can occur (Tokunaga, 2010). Therefore, prevention programs and interventions against cyberbullying should not simply be an adaptation of successful programs against traditional bullying. ...
Article
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Cyberbullying among adolescents has negative consequences for their mental health, especially when it comes to depressive symptoms. Previous studies highlight individual protective factors such as coping strategies; however, there are no studies that examine the harmful effects of cyberbullying and the implications of different coping strategies on depressive symptoms in the context of a pandemic in diverse regional and national samples. We used two independent samples (the first consisted of 463 adolescents, 73.4% females, and the second had 694 adolescents, 85.45% females, all 15–19 years old). We ran moderation models through ordinary least squares regressions on depressive symptoms. Our results found that victims have higher levels of depression. Disconnecting from social media is associated with depressive symptoms when the frequency of cyberbullying is low. Ignoring the situation is associated with lower depressive symptoms when the cyberbullying frequency is low. Our study adds evidence of the importance and specificity of coping strategies while facing cyberbullying in a context of an adolescent's increased virtual interactions.
... One explanation for this is the fear of retaliation of becoming the victim (Balakrishnan, 2018;Bauman, 2013), and so bystanders reframe from constructive intervention strategies. Bystanders may also lack the skills and awareness on how to respond to cyberbullying when they witness it (Gini et al., 2008;Kowalski & Limber, 2007). A focus on bystander processes is warranted not least because peer support can help alleviate victims' suffering (Sainio et al., 2011), so it is important to explore different factors associated with bystander intervention to promote constructive intervention strategies to combat cyberbullying. ...
... Young people were more likely to perceive public forms of cyberbullying as more severe, followed by semi-public and private forms. Public acts of cyberbullying have the potential to be distributed to a wider audience and increase the negative impact for the victim (Kowalski & Limber, 2007;Nocentini et al., 2010). As such, young people may perceive such victimisation via public domains more severely due to the perceived greater impact. ...
Article
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Cyberbullying often occurs in group-based situations; therefore, how young people respond when they witness cyberbullying is important in the process of combating the issue. This study examined how young people perceive the severity of cyberbullying incidents and how they respond as a bystander according to different factors associated with cyberbullying (i.e., publicity, anonymity, type, and victim response). The final sample was 990 (545 female, 403 male, 42 non-disclosed) students aged between 11 and 20 years (Mage = 13.16, SDage = 2.14) from two schools and one college in England. Participants responded to 24 hypothetical vignettes which were manipulated to measure publicity, anonymity, type of cyberbullying, and victim response. Participants responded to items assessing a. perceived severity, and b. bystander responses. The bystander responses examined were: ignore the incident, encourage the bully, seek adult help, seek friend help, provide emotional support to the victim, and challenge the bully. Perceived severity was higher in public scenarios, when the bully was anonymous, and when the victim was upset. Victim response was the most influential factor across all response strategies on how young people react to cyberbullying, followed by the publicity of the incident, the anonymity of the bully, and to a limited extent, the type of cyberbullying. The results suggest that bystanders do respond differently to cyberbullying according to the publicity, anonymity, type of cyberbullying, and victim response.
... Anahtar Kelimeler: Siber zorbalık, siber mağduriyet, ergen, benlik kavramı, akran ilişkileri Giriş Siber zorbalık; internet bağlantılı elektronik cihazlar kullanılarak e-posta, anlık mesajlaşma, sohbet odaları, sosyal paylaşım siteleri/uygulamaları veya mesajlar aracılığıyla gerçekleştirilen, kasıtlı ve zarar verme amaçlı, zaman içinde tekrarlanan davranışlar olarak tanımlanabilmektedir (Hinduja ve Patchin, 2014;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Li, 2008;Slonje ve Smith, 2008;Ybarra ve Mitchell, 2004). Siber zorbalığın; anonim olma, kişinin internete erişebildiği her yerde ve her zaman yaşanabilme, çok hızlı ve çok sayıda kişiye ulaşabilme, fiziksel etkileşim gerektirmeme, denetleyecek birinin olmaması ve yakalanma riskinin düşük olması gibi kendine has özellikleri bulunmaktadır (Englander ve Muldowney, 2007;Hinduja ve Patchin, 2011;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Li, 2008;Tokunaga, 2010;Willard, 2007). ...
... Anahtar Kelimeler: Siber zorbalık, siber mağduriyet, ergen, benlik kavramı, akran ilişkileri Giriş Siber zorbalık; internet bağlantılı elektronik cihazlar kullanılarak e-posta, anlık mesajlaşma, sohbet odaları, sosyal paylaşım siteleri/uygulamaları veya mesajlar aracılığıyla gerçekleştirilen, kasıtlı ve zarar verme amaçlı, zaman içinde tekrarlanan davranışlar olarak tanımlanabilmektedir (Hinduja ve Patchin, 2014;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Li, 2008;Slonje ve Smith, 2008;Ybarra ve Mitchell, 2004). Siber zorbalığın; anonim olma, kişinin internete erişebildiği her yerde ve her zaman yaşanabilme, çok hızlı ve çok sayıda kişiye ulaşabilme, fiziksel etkileşim gerektirmeme, denetleyecek birinin olmaması ve yakalanma riskinin düşük olması gibi kendine has özellikleri bulunmaktadır (Englander ve Muldowney, 2007;Hinduja ve Patchin, 2011;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Li, 2008;Tokunaga, 2010;Willard, 2007). Ergenler arasındaki siber zorbalığa yönelik araştırmalar, siber zorbalığın dikkate alınması gereken bir sorun olduğunu göstermektedir (Camerini, Marciano, Carrara ve Schulz, 2020;Ding ve diğerleri, 2020;Eroğlu, Aktepe, Akbaba, Işık ve Özkorumak, 2015;Kavuk-Kalender, Keser ve Tugun, 2019;Peker, 2015;Zhu, Huang, Evans ve Zhang, 2021). ...
Article
The purpose of this research is; to examine the relationship of cyberbullying and victimization among adolescents with the selfconcept and peer relationships, which is important developmentally in this period. The sample of the study consisted of 879 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 17. Simple random sampling method was used in sample selection. The research was carried out in relational screening model. Within the scope of the research, Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale, Peer Relationships Scale and Revised Cyberbullying Inventory were used as data collection tools. Pearson Coefficient of Correlation and Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis were used in data analysis. As a result of the research, it was seen that cyberbullying and victimization increase as adolescents' general self-concept decreases. The dimensions of self-concept, ‘behavior and compliance’ and ‘happiness and satisfaction’ are determined as the prominent variables in this relationship. While there is no meaningful relationship between general peer relationships and cyberbullying and victimization; cyberbullying and victimization have increased as loyalty in peer relationships increases. The results of the research reveal a high level of positive relationship between cyber victimization and bullying. Results were discussed and recommendations were given in the light of the literature.
... Lise öğrencilerinin çevrim içi ortamlarda maruz kaldığı ve baş etmeye çalıştığı, çeşitli araştırmacılar tarafından elektronik zorbalık, çevrim içi zorbalık, dijital zorbalık ya da internet zorbalığı olarak tanımlanabilen siber zorbalık 2000'li yıllardan itibaren araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmeye başlamıştır (Akbaba ve Şahin, 2017;Aktepe, 2013;Hoff ve Mitchell, 2009;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Myers, McCaw ve Hemphill, 2011;Shariff, 2008;Willard, 2007). Bir ya da birden fazla birey tarafından ve kasıtlı/sistematik bir biçimde gerçekleştirilen tekrarlı ve zarar verici davranışlardan oluşan siber zorbalık, zorbalık yapan (zorba) ve zorbalığa maruz kalan (mağdur) arasında genellikle güç dengesizliğinin ya da eşitsizliğinin bulunduğu düşmanca davranışlardır (Belsey, 2005;Hoff ve Mitchell, 2009;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Myers vd., 2011;Patchin ve Hinduja, 2006;Raskauskas ve Stoltz, 2007;Shariff, 2008). ...
... Lise öğrencilerinin çevrim içi ortamlarda maruz kaldığı ve baş etmeye çalıştığı, çeşitli araştırmacılar tarafından elektronik zorbalık, çevrim içi zorbalık, dijital zorbalık ya da internet zorbalığı olarak tanımlanabilen siber zorbalık 2000'li yıllardan itibaren araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmeye başlamıştır (Akbaba ve Şahin, 2017;Aktepe, 2013;Hoff ve Mitchell, 2009;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Myers, McCaw ve Hemphill, 2011;Shariff, 2008;Willard, 2007). Bir ya da birden fazla birey tarafından ve kasıtlı/sistematik bir biçimde gerçekleştirilen tekrarlı ve zarar verici davranışlardan oluşan siber zorbalık, zorbalık yapan (zorba) ve zorbalığa maruz kalan (mağdur) arasında genellikle güç dengesizliğinin ya da eşitsizliğinin bulunduğu düşmanca davranışlardır (Belsey, 2005;Hoff ve Mitchell, 2009;Kowalski ve Limber, 2007;Myers vd., 2011;Patchin ve Hinduja, 2006;Raskauskas ve Stoltz, 2007;Shariff, 2008). Okulda ya da okul çevresinde gerçekleşen akran zorbalığının yeni, farklı ve örtülü biçimi olan siber zorbalık sürecinde kişi ya da kişiler cep telefonlarını, interneti, sosyal medyayı, sohbet odalarını ya da e-postaları kullanarak akranlarına zarar verirler (Campbell, 2013;O'Connor, 2009;Willard, 2007). ...
... We also included gender identity, race, ethnicity, and free and reduced lunch status as covariates in the current study. These covariates were included as previous researchers have found gender differences in levels of social stress (Brown et al., 2014) and cyber-victimization (Brochado et al., 2017;Kowalski & Limber, 2007), as well as differences by race and ethnicity (Hong et al., 2016;Kowalski et al., 2019). ...
... First, age was associated with higher levels of cyber-victimization, which suggests that prevention programs may need to be started earlier than sixth grade. Although previous researchers have found that female adolescents report higher levels of cyber-victimization (e.g., Kowalski & Limber, 2007), the current study did not find those mean level differences. However, male students were less likely to report cyber-victimization in the full SEM model. ...
Article
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An alarming number of early adolescents (ages 11-14) have experienced cyber-victimization. However, little research has examined how problematic social media use (PSMU), or the conflict that can arise from using social media, is associated with experiences of cyber-victimization. The current study examined the association between PSMU and cyber-victimization, investigating the mediating role of social stress (i.e., feelings of isolation and social exclusion). Participants were assessed across two-time points: during the spring of sixth grade (N = 316) and during the fall of seventh grade at a large middle school. Assessments included measures of PSMU, cyber-victimization, and social stress. Through a mediational path analysis, results indicated that PSMU (Wave 1) was associated with higher levels of cyber-victimization (Wave 2) through higher levels of social stress (Wave 1). These findings indicate that social stress is an important mechanism to consider in the relationship between PSMU and cyber-victimization experiences among early adolescents. Implications for prevention and intervention programs, as well as future research directions, are discussed.
... However, the nature of the relationship between demographic traits and involvement in cyberviolence is unclear. Past work on cyberbullying shows inconclusive and contradictory results regarding the effect of age (Hinduja and Patchin 2008;Sev c ıkov a and Smahel 2009;Slonje and Smith 2008;Smith et al. 2006;Ybarra et al. 2006;Ybarra and Mitchell 2004) and gender (Aricak et al. 2008;Bauman 2012;Kowalski and Limber 2007;Li 2007;Ortega, Calmaestra, and Mora-Merch an 2007;Slonje and Smith 2008;Smith et al. 2008;Wolak, Mitchell, and Finkelhor 2007) on involvement in online bullying. The relationship between cyberviolence and race is also not fully understood, though there is some evidence that whites are more likely than racial/ethnic minorities to engage in online extremist behavior . ...
... In short, higher empathy enables an individual to look at things from the viewpoint of others and prevents them from rationalizing their adverse behaviors, and it also gives rise to the taking of responsibility for their behaviors and, thereby, behaving more sanely. Despite certain opinions arguing that people are unable to develop empathy in an electronic environment since they do not see others (Kowalski & Limber, 2007;Pornari & Wood, 2010;Schneider et al., 2012), a number of studies suggest that cyber bullies have the risk of becoming the victim at the same time, and that those that are both cyber bullies and victims have higher empathic skills (Renati et al., 2012). The relevant studies show that cyber bullies became the victims and were exposed to cyber bullying behaviors at least once in their lives (Postorine, 2014;Renati et al., 2012) or that 82.4% observed cyber bullying behaviors (Moses, 2013), which supports the preceding opinion. ...
Chapter
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The aim of this study is to investigate a mediator role of emphatic tendency in the relationship between moral disengagement and cyber bullying. The participants comprised 338 Turkish adolescents. The age of participants ranged between 11 and 18 years. The study data was gathered using the Moral Disengagement Scale, the Cyber Bullying Scale and the Emphatic Tendency Scale. The data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. A bootstrapping analysis was conducted in order to determine any indirect effects. The results show that moral disengagement predicted cyber bullying positively and emphatic tendency negatively, and that emphatic tendency predicted cyber bullying negatively. It was further found that the structural equation model, which proposes that moral disengagement, has a direct and an indirect effect through emphatic tendency on cyber bullying was confirmed. The results of the study are discussed in the light of Social Cognitive Theory, and suggestions for future studies are made.
... In practice, cyberbullying behaviors are often similar to psychological, relational, and indirect forms of traditional bullying (e.g., rumors, harassment, hate, threats, exclusion, rejection), but there are a number of characteristics that differentiate the two forms. First, those inclined to cyberbully others can remain "virtually" anonymous through the use of screennames in social media apps, games, and comment threads, as well as via temporary/secondary email and "burner" (e.g., throwaway) social media accounts (Burgess-Proctor et al., 2009;Kowalski & Limber, 2007). Secondly, it seems much easier to be cruel and malicious through texts, posts, social media comments, direct messages, or other forms of online communications because of the geographic distance separating the aggressor and the target, and the fact that personal and social norms, rules, morals, and law-are rendered less relevant when interacting through these mediums (Diener, 1980;Udris, 2014;Wachs et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Bullying and cyberbullying prevention remain a major priority for schools, communities, and families, and research is clear that positive, constructive parenting practices can play a key preventive role. The current work explores six dimensions of parenting (warmth, structure, autonomy support, rejection, chaos, and coercion), and their specific relationship to school and online bullying. Using survey data from a nationally representative sample of 1474 English-speaking 12- to 17-year-old US youth, we found that students whose parent(s) exhibit warmth, structure, and autonomy support are less likely to have engaged in bullying or cyberbullying offending, while those with parental relations marked by rejection, chaos, and coercion are more likely to have participated in both forms of peer aggression. Implications for developing stronger parent-child relationships through improved parenting practices as a mechanism for bullying prevention are discussed.
... Numerous studies have shown that boys are more likely to become perpetrators (Dehue et al., 2008;Olweus, 2010), while girls are more often victims . Other studies have reported no significant difference (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008;Mishna et al., 2010;Slonje & Smith, 2008) or have found girls to be more involved in cyberbullying than boys (Kowalski & Limber, 2007). ...
Article
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Background Cyberbullying has recently attracted attention because of its increasing occurrence and serious consequences for victims. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence rates of cyberbullying and the association between cyberbullying and protective/risk factors (cognitive empathy, assertiveness, cooperation, pro-social behaviour, and social support) among Polish adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants (822 students, 448 girls and 374 boys, M = 12.97, SD = 1.02) completed a computer-based online questionnaire. Results The majority of respondents did not experience cyberbullying in the last six months, while a significant group still experienced cyberbullying regularly (28.1%). Engaging in cyberbullying appeared to be even less common: it was reported by 12.3% of respondents. Family and peer social support appeared to be the strongest protective factor against experiencing cyberbullying while assertiveness was a characteristic that makes a person more likely to engage in cyberbullying. Conclusions The results of our study can serve as guidance for preventive interventions against cyberbullying.
... El cyberbullying -también llamado acoso electrónico-se define como una agresión intencional y repetida a través de las TIC y de la cual la víctima no puede defenderse fácilmente (Kowalski y Limber, 2007). El bullying o acoso escolar es también una agresión intencional, reiterada y con una desigualdad de fuerza o poder. ...
Book
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La Ciberpsicología es mencionada en un artículo en español en el año 1999 por Gordo-López, cuando ya tenía unos años de investigación y desarrollo en Estados Unidos (Suler, 1996). La Ciberpsicología estudia la relación entre las personas y el uso de la tecnología en nuestro día a día, su impacto en la conducta humana y su relación con inteligencia artificial. Su objetivo es comprender, prevenir en forma primaria y secundaria trastornos psicológicos y psicopatológicos, así como fomentar nuevas y buenas prácticas en el uso de las tecnología de la información y comunicación (TIC). Así como también investigar aplicaciones en salud, educación, organizaciones… incluyendo todos los ámbitos de la Psicología, dirigidas a mejorar la experiencia de los usuarios. También intenta determinar si las teorías existentes en la Psicología pueden aplicarse al comportamiento que se manifesta en el espacio digital también llamado ciberespacio. El cual alude a un marco espacio-temporal donde no hay un pacto social sobre qué comprende, y donde no solamente navegan personas, sino que incorporamos sistemas de inteligencia artificial con los que interactuamos. Por ejemplo, “hablamos” con asistentes de voz de smartphone que aprenden de nosotros, y compartimos información que nos etiqueta en cada una de nuestras interacciones en el espacio de internet. A partir de esta “nueva realidad”, sin duda que la Psicología debe actuar para investigar y comprender las implicaciones evolutivas, en los ámbitos educativo, organizacional, clínico y comunitario que redefinen roles y requieren prevenir riesgos psicodigitales. Implica un cambio de paradigma humano de tal magnitud que cambia por las próximas décadas nuestros modelos sociales. Además de que hará cada vez más necesario la inclusión de este tipo de contenidos en los programas curriculares y académicos en Psicología, los cuales actualmente carecen de contenidos teóricos y prácticos que formen psicólogos/as competentes en el espacio digital que abarca la Ciberpsicología. Hay que tener presente que gran parte del mérito por el cual las tecnologías están siendo ampliamente adoptadas corresponde a la Psicología por aportar su conocimiento del ser humano. Ahora, llegada la segunda década del siglo, urge empoderar a profesionales para atender a una población que habita tanto en el plano físico como el digital, no solamente interactuando, sino generando activos digitales humanos. Por ejemplo, un vídeo o un post que publicamos hace 15 años, no solamente puede ser visto por otras personas, sino que pueden opinar, y modificarlo digitalmente de modo que algo que sería una representación de cómo éramos se convierte en un activo, al que le pueden poner voz diferente, asociar ese post a otras personas o abrir una polémica digital. Al mismo tempo, ya la tecnología permite imitar voz, rostro, reproducir emociones, etc. Conocemos las bases del cerebro y la conducta, pero no estamos preparados para una sociedad en la cual el declive de la palabra escrita corre en dirección opuesta al audiovisual y los íconos. Cada vez más escribimos menos, y nos comunicamos con símbolos. La tecnología como oportunidad, pero también como espacio en el que se dan comportamientos agresivos, adicciones, sobreexposición. En este libro asistimos a una obra colectiva de profesionales con trayectoria y recorrido de países hispanohablantes. Su aportación en los diferentes capítulos ofrecen una mirada del uso de la tecnología en la atención a la salud mental, al individuo digital y su aplicación en los ámbitos familiar, escolar y relacional comportamental. La finalidad es establecer una aproximación, basada en la evidencia, que permita a profesionales y estudiantes de la Psicología adquirir los conocimientos base en los cuales empezar a comprender la magnitud del fenómeno en este siglo XXI.
... Bullying through electronic media has become a great alarm for educators, parents, media and government. Considerable research has shown that many students are engaged in cyber bullying which shows the seriousness of the problem (Kowalski & Limber, 2007;Li, 2006;Willard, 2004). Merritt (2013) reported cyber bullying is a big issue in Asia as it is elsewhere. ...
Article
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Present study was aimed to explore the phenomenon of cyber bullying victimization among university students. It has twofold objectives i.e; to prepare and validate indigenous instruments and to study the experiences and perceptions of cyber bullying victimization among university students. For this purpose, sample (N=223) of students age 18-30 years was collected from different private and government sector universities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Study was done in two phases. In phase I instruments were developed and validated. Instruments used were Cyber Bullying Victimization Questionnaire (CBVQ) developed by Campfield (2008), adapted in present study to measure prevalence, experiences and bother so meness about cyber bullying whereas; Perception of Cyber Bullying Questionnaire (PCBQ) developed indigenously in present study. CBVQ was emerged with two factors through Principle Component Analysis (PCA) found reliability coefficient as .94. PCBQ emerged with two factor found reliability coefficient ranging from .72 to .82. Psychometrics of scales were established. Gender difference was explored. Results indicated that 88.6% university students engaged in cyber bullying. It was found that cyber bullying is more prevalent among male university students and they scored high on cyber bullying experiences. Female students scored high on perception about reasons and remedies of cyber bullying. These measures will be helpful to give quantitative assessment in future for measuring cyber bullying experiences and perception of cyber bullying among
... Ybarra and Mitchell (2004) stated that students in the 15-17 age range exhibit more cyberbullying behaviors than students in the 10-14 age group. Kowalski and Limber (2007) stated that the tendency of students aged 11-14 to show cyberbullying increased as the grade level increased. In some studies, it has been concluded that cyberbullying does not differ according to grade levels (Elmas, 2016;Slonje and Smith, 2008). ...
... Although the findings obtained from studies examining the incidence of cyberbullying have shown different results, it shows that cyberbullying is seriously high in almost every society. The results of studies investigating the prevalence of cyberbullying show that the rate of students who engage in cyberbullying varies between 2% and 59.4%, and the rate of students exposed to cyberbullying varies between 2.6% and 63.6% (Kowalski & Limber, 2007;Arıcak et al. 2008;Özdemir et al. Akar, 2011;Kocahasan, 2012;Schneider et al. 2012;Eroğlu et al. 2015;Peker et al. 2016;Lee and Shin, 2017;Uluçay and Melek, 2017;Taştekin and Bayhan 2018;Matos et al. 2018;Doğan Çevirgen, 2018;Başak & Baştürk, 2019;Izığır, 2019;Mikhaylovsky et al., 2019;Sarı & Seferoğlu, 2019;Kaygısız, Çakır, 2020;Tuğ Karoğlu & Çılğın, 2020 ;Zhang, Han and Ba, 2020;Özer, Şad, 2021;Gómez-León, 2021). ...
Article
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In this study, the concepts of "Peer Bullying" and"Cyber Bullying", which is in the form of a literaturereview, is discussed. In recent years, the number of studieson peer bullying are increased, which is the most commontype of aggression among students at schools. This isbecause, the peer bullying have psychological, social andphysical consequences over the children who bully as wellas those who are exposed to being bullied. In addition, thedevelopment of the educational technologies, the use of theinternet and mobile devices became a part of school of theirlife, have also led to an increase in the number ofcyberbullying cases. Today, it is seen that the peer bullyingamong students is becoming more intense in virtualenvironments, such as the internet and mobile phones.Identifying the overlapping between bullying andcyberbullying or revealing and examining the similaritiesand differences of these two phenomena is one of theimportant research topics in this field. In this study, it isaimed to contribute to the literature by reviewing thedefinitions of peer bullying and cyberbullying, which arevery common and important problems in most cultures, thesimilarities and differences between both types of bullying,and the studies conducted around the world on this subject Key words: bullying, peer bullying, cyberbullying.
... The increased adolescent presence in cyberspaces is consistent with our finding, showing that 91.9% of the adolescents were social media users and regular Internet users, which might have contributed to the prevalence of cyberbullying among adolescents. In addition, the most common medium used by cyberbullying victims and perpetrators in our study were instant messaging and text messages, which were consistent with other studies [15,68,78,79]. ...
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Social media engagement has contributed to the rise of cyberbullying, which has recently triggered tragic suicides among adolescents. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying, suicidal behaviour, and their association among adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. The study was conducted among 1290 secondary school adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old in Peninsular Malaysia using a self-administered and anonymous online questionnaire. Our findings reveal that the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetrator is 13.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The prevalence of suicidal behaviour among adolescents is 17.1%, in which 11.9% had suicidal thoughts, 10.2% had a suicide plan, and 8.4% had made a suicide attempt. Multiple logistic regression shows that adolescents experiencing cyberbullying victimization is a significant risk factor (p < 0.001) for suicidal behaviour after adjusting for other confounders. An alarming number of adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia found to be involved in cyberbullying and its significant association with suicidal behaviour warrant the need to strengthen current interventions. Since the study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, our findings make an important contribution in reporting current trends in cyberbullying and suicide among adolescents, especially when they are becoming ever-more present in cyberspaces.
... The Electronic Bullying Questionnaire (EBQ) was first presented as a 23-item self-report measure by Kowalski and Limber (Kowalski & Limber, 2007), and later revised by Moore, Huebner and Hills (Moore et al., 2012), to evaluate cyberbullying among middle school students. The EBQ consists of cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimisation scales, each scored separately as a mean, with higher scores reflecting higher frequencies of cyberbullying (perpetration or victimisation). ...
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The knowledge regarding cyberbullying and its consequences has increased during the past two decades. A more detailed insight into the characteristics of cyberbullying and cyber victimisation requires a significant diversity of measures. However, no agreement on the best measurement method has been reached. The present literature review aimed to identify and present the instruments and measures constructed and utilised to assess cyberbullying and/or cyber victimi-sation. A systematic search identified 2031 publications. The selection process resulted in 11 assessment instruments, which were analysed. According to the findings, the starting point in the construction or adaptation of assessment instruments specific to our context should be a consistent, enhanced and standardised definition of cyberbullying comparable to the ones used worldwide, followed by the precise criteria for the representativeness of the target population and carefully considered both socio-cultural factors and the time frame. Finally, it is necessary to conduct comprehensive statistical analyzes in order to develop and verify the psychometric properties of the cyberbullying assessment tool that would be adequate for the assessment of this phenomenon in Serbia. KEY WORDS: cyberbullying / measurement / assessment / cyber harassment
... Examples can be found of males being more vulnerable than females (Kalia & Aleem, 2017;Salmivalli & Pöyhönen, 2012); few or no significant differences in victimisation by gender (Brown et al., 2014;Hinduja & Patchin, 2008;Q. Li, 2006;Smith et al., 2008); and females being more vulnerable (Aboujaoude et al., 2015;Kowalski & Limber, 2007;J. Wang et al., 2009;Wolke et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
Environmental criminology concerns the role of opportunities (both people and objects) existing in the environment that make crimes more likely to occur. Research consistently shows that opportunity perspectives (particularly with regard to individuals’ lifestyles and routines) help in explaining the prevalence and concentration of crimes. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating crime patterns from an opportunity perspective both outside western countries and in relation to cybercrimes. Hence, it is not clear whether non-Western and online contexts exhibit similar patterns of crime as would be predicted by an opportunity perspective. This thesis is concerned with criminal victimisation in Taiwan – a less researched setting in the field of environmental criminology. It covers both offline victimisation (with a focus on burglary) and online victimisation from the aforementioned opportunity perspective. The goal of this thesis is to identify individual- and area-level characteristics that affect the patterns of victimisation in Taiwan. To achieve this, the thesis draws on a range of secondary datasets, including police recorded crime statistics, the Taiwan Area Victimisation Survey, and the Digital Opportunity Survey for Individuals and Households. With the application of quantitative modelling, the thesis suggests that the generalisability the lifestyle-routine activity approach in explaining crime patterns in Taiwan should be taken with caution. The findings provide partial support for its applicability in relation to burglary and cybercrime in Taiwan. Furthermore, the findings reported here in relation to patterns of repeat and near repeat victimisation depart from those observed in the western literature. The thesis concludes by discussing the implications of the findings for academic research and practice in crime prevention.
... In contrast with the present study's findings, other authors have pointed out that age is a predictor of cyberbullying. In children, cyberbullying can be found in primary school (Garaigordobil, 2015) and the period of early to mid-adolescence; specifically, cyberbullying is most frequently found between the ages of 12-15 years (mid-secondary education) (Kowalski & Limber, 2007), after which the rate starts to decline during the period of late secondary education (ages 16-18 years) (Giménez Gualdo et al., 2015). However, evidence of cyberbullying being present among emerging adults (university students, age of more than 18 years), also exists (DeSmet et al., 2018). ...
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Chapter
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Although a growing number of studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of cyberbullying victimization, less is known about the gender differences in developmental nature of cyberbullying victimization. This study aims to examine 1) developmental pathways of cyberbullying victimization by gender, and 2) gender differences in the risk and protective factors. Relying on longitudinal data of Korean youth, we found three latent trajectories for girls and four subgroups for boys. In general, results found somewhat different developmental patterns of cyberbullying victimization by gender. Also, results showed both gender similarities and differences in predictors. Peer support was the only consistent factor across boys and girls and there were gendered predictors as well. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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This systematic review of research on the self-reported prevalence of cyberbullying (victimization and perpetration) in Canadian children and youth includes 45 studies from structured English and French searches of 8 scholarly databases plus Google Scholar and Web. Two researchers performed full-text reviews of English-language studies to abstract data and assess eligibility and risk of bias. Summary prevalence estimates were avoided on account of heterogeneity in included studies, regional variation in prevalence, and ageing or biased data. Prevalence estimates are increased by well-elaborated definitions and multiple-item measures, and inflated by the use of non-representative samples, conflation of bullying with aggression, and long reference periods. Findings suggest that cyberbullying is less prevalent than all forms of offline bullying and occurs frequently in few youth. Sex differences are small, but point to higher female victimization. Prevalence seems to increase with age, peaking around grade 9 before stabilizing or decreasing in high school.
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Article
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Thesis
En las últimas dos décadas, el fenómeno del ciberacoso ha sido estudiado por investigadores internacionales pertenecientes a diferentes disciplinas científicas como la psicología y pedagogía. No obstante, en México no existe aún una definición consensada de este concepto que se transforma con rapidez, a la par de las innovaciones que ofrecen las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones (TIC). En este trabajo se muestra que el acoso cibernético está directamente relacionado con los factores de riesgo percibidos por la sociedad contemporánea, sobre todo por los más jóvenes. Por esta razón se retomaron los postulados de la historia de los conceptos de Koselleck y de la sociedad de riesgo de Beck y Olivé con miras a proponer la fundamentación histórica y metodológica necesaria para estudiar el fenómeno del ciberacoso en nuestro país. En este sentido, esta tesis de corte cualitativo pone el acento en una línea de tiempo donde conceptos y riegos convergen en acontecimientos marcados por amenazas, avisos y crueldad en el ciberespacio previas a las acciones ejecutadas o filmadas para su reproducción, cuyo contenido se analizará en este escrito con la finalidad de visibilizar las percepciones de diferentes agentes de la sociedad, dado que son éstos últimos quienes conceptualizan y definen las experiencias violentas como riesgos. De esta manera, los cortes en distintos momentos históricos oscilan entre la emergencia del bullying tradicional, que ha sido investigado desde la década de los setenta del siglo pasado, pasando por sucesos clave como la masacre del Instituto Columbine en 1999, el fenómeno del happy slapping o paliza feliz en Europa a partir del año 2004, hasta llegar al caso del Colegio Americano del Noreste en Monterrey en 2017. Este último acontecimiento se enfoca en la dinámica presente en la sociedad mexicana donde el fenómeno del ciberacoso ya es visible y preocupante.
Cyberbullying is a universal public health concern that affects adolescents. The growing usage of electronic gadgets and the Internet has been connected to a rise in cyberbullying. The increasing use of the Internet, along with the negative outcomes of cyberbullying on adolescents, has required the study of cyberbullying. In this paper author reviews existing literature on cyberbullying among adolescents. The concept of cyberbullying is explained, including definitions, types of cyberbullying, characteristics or features of victims and cyberbullies, risk factors or causes underlying cyberbullying, and the harmful consequences of cyberbullying to adolescents. Furthermore, examples of programs or intervention to prevent cyberbullying and recommendations for further studies are presented.
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Μια έκφανση του οικογενειακού συστήματος είναι η- μονογονεϊκή οικογένεια, η αύξηση της οποίας έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την αύξηση του αριθμού των μαθητών/-τριών που ζει σε ένα διαφορετικό οικογενειακό περιβάλλον από την πυρηνική οικογένεια. Στόχος της παρούσας έρευνας είναι η διερεύνηση των αντιλήψεων 254 εκπαιδευτικών Προσχολικής και Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης αναφορικά με τους παράγοντες που δύνανται να επηρεάζουν την εκπαιδευτική επιτυχία των μαθητών/-τριών που προέρχονται από μονογονεϊκά περιβάλλοντα. Για τις ανάγκες της έρευνας κατασκευάστηκε ένα ερωτηματολόγιο μέτρησης των αντιλήψεων των εκπαιδευτικών αναφορικά με τη μονογονεϊκότητα. Τα ευρήματα της έρευνας αποκαλύπτουν ότι η ηλικία των ερωτηθέντων εκπαιδευτικών, το μορφωτικό τους επίπεδο, αλλά και το αν υπηρετούν στην Προσχολική ή Δημοτική Εκπαίδευση, φαίνεται να επηρεάζουν τη διαμόρφωση των αντιλήψεών τους. Διαπιστώνεται, επίσης, η ανάγκη για δημιουργία προγραμμάτων επιμόρφωσης και στήριξης των εκπαιδευτικών, με σκοπό την καλύτερη διαχείριση των δυσκολιών που ενδέχεται να απορρέουν από την ολοένα και μεγαλύτερη αύξηση της συχνότητας του κοινωνικού φαινομένου της μονογονεϊκότητας και του οικογενειακού πλουραλισμού.
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The aim of this study is to determine the dimensions of digital parenting awareness, to develop a scale related to digital parenting awareness level of parents, and to investigate the level of digital parenting awareness in terms of gender, education level, family roles, age, smartphone usage time and perceived internet addiction in children. Exploratory sequential design, which is accepted as a mixed method, was used in the research. Initially, qualitative interviews and content analysis were conducted; and dimensions of digital parenting awareness were determined. Accordingly, a scale was developed. Then, digital parenting awareness level was examined according to various variables. The study was conducted as three different studies carried out with four different groups. In Study 1, individual interviews were conducted with twelve parents with children who attended primary school to collect data. For study 1, pre-coding method, which is a qualitative method, was found appropriate. Interviews were conducted through a semistructured interview form prepared by the researcher. Parents' consent was obtained; so, interviews were recorded. According to the obtained results; it is concluded that digital parenting awareness has five dimensions. In order to carry out study 2, “Digital Parenting Awareness Scale, whose reliability and validity analyses were performed over the item pool prepared by taking individual interviews and literature into consideration, was developed. In the scale development stage, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on 461 and 291 parents with primary school children, respectively. Internal consistency coefficients, test-half analysis, item analysis and criterion validity findings were obtained in order to certify the reliability of the scale. The data in Study 2 were collected online. According to the results obtained, a valid and reliable four-dimensional and 16-item “Digital Parenting Awareness Scale” was achieved. Finally, within the scope of Study 3, whether digital parenting awareness differs according to gender, level of education and domestic roles by adopting a screening type model; and whether there was relationship between age, smartphone usage time and perceived internet addiction in children by adopting digital parenting awareness and relational screening model were investigated. In order to perform the Study 3, 409 parents with children attending primary school were reached online. To perform screening type model, T-test and one-way ANOVA analysis and to perform the relational screening model, correlation analyses were used. According to the findings of Study 3, it was determined that gender, education level and domestic roles differ significantly according to some sub-dimensions of digital parenting awareness; on the other hand, there is a significant relationship between digital parenting awareness and age, smartphone usage time and perceived internet addiction in children. In line with the findings obtained, a discussion was made by taking the literature and suggestions into account; and suggestions were made to parents, guidance teachers and researchers. Keywords: digital parenting, digital parenting awareness, digital, parent, exploratory sequential design.
Chapter
The increased reliance on information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the workplace, while producing many positive outcomes, may also expose workers to cyberbullying. To date, much of the extant research on cyberbullying has focused on middle and high school youth; however, cyberbullying is not limited to a particular age demographic or setting. Unlike face-to-face workplace bullying, workplace cyberbullying may be brought into the workplace or carried home from the workplace. The current chapter defines cyberbullying, including how it differs from related constructs such as cyber incivility and cyber aggression. The chapter then reports prevalence rates of workplace cyberbullying, followed by a discussion of antecedents and consequences of cyberbullying exposure. Prevention and intervention goals in the workplace are also discussed as employers are now being tasked with tackling this issue in the workplace.
Chapter
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Children and adolescents spend a great deal of time using and interacting through electronic technologies, including cell phones, gaming consoles, and the internet. Cyberbullying occurs through electronic technologies, including gaming consoles, email, instant messaging, chatrooms, social media, and text messages via mobile phones. The attention given to cyberbullying incidences are due to the nature of electronic communications. Through electronic technologies, children and adolescents can remain anonymous, allowing them to harm their victims without experiencing repercussions. Cyberbullying can also involve multiple bystanders who are also capable of resharing content. The literature in this chapter draws on research from various disciplines, including communication, computer science, education, media studies, psychology, social work, and sociology. Furthermore, the literature involves a variety of different research designs, including cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies as well as qualitative and quantitative designs.
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This study develops and validates measures of traits and attitudes for predicting online aggression. Over 362 participants ranging from 18 to 71 years in age completed online surveys on their attitudes, feelings, and experiences regarding online interactions and activities, in addition to reporting on several pre-established personality tests and demographic information. Participants also reported their own engagement in a variety of antisocial and prosocial online behaviors. Respondents' positive attitudes and tendencies toward online bullying (the Net Bully scale) and feelings of power and control when online (the Net Power scale) predicted their aggressive online behaviors (the Hostile Net Behaviors scale). Conversely, feelings that online interactions and activities are personally important (the Net Importance scale) predicted prosocial online behaviors (the Net Friendly scale). The merit of these scales to serve future research on online aggression and bullying is discussed.
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The purpose of this article is to examine cyberbullying among children and adolescents, referred to as “youths” throughout the article. An extension of traditional bullying, cyberbullying is a form of bullying which takes place by means of electronic technologies, such as email, instant messaging, Facebook, and text messaging through mobile devices. Drawing on research from a variety of disciplines, such as psychology, education, social work, sociology, and computer science, this article is organized into nine sections. The article will draw on multidisciplinary qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-design research methodologies from psychology, sociology, social work, and criminology. Furthermore, this article reviews literature utilizing cross-sectional, longitudinal, qualitative, and quantitative research methodologies to describe cyberbullying.
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Cyberbullying is inducing significant socio-cultural problems and psychological disorders, which require a rapid solution. Cyberbullying is an extension of the traditional bullying that involves the typical behaviors of bullying perpetrated through the use of various technologies, electronic devices in particular (e-mail, instant messaging applications, media, etc.). While providing differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying, this review aims at investigating how the new media can be used to prevent such phenomenon and investigating its psychological impact on victims. The focus will be on tools and interventions that are capable of identifying online bullying, on existent treatments with special regard to strategies that take advantage of technologies to fight cyberbullying. In particular, the web will be considered as a mean to assist a vast number of people; moreover, the role of virtual reality as a tool to help victims overcoming psychological distress within safe and protected environments will be object of discussion.
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Today, gender representation in media and advertising could be responsible for creating and maintaining female stereotypes that have a negative impact on women's psychological and social well-being. From a psychological point of view, women have to face several issues including the objectification of their body, which could have negative effects on their mental, emotional, and physical health; furthermore, the portrayal of the female body as a sexual object could be associated with aggressive inclinations and behaviours against women, but also with cyber-bullying victimization in terms of body-shaming and revenge porn. Finally, it is relevant to consider how the use of gender stereotypes in advertising and media could lead to a distorted perception of gender roles, mostly based on outdated socio-cultural expectations of how men and women should behave and present themselves, that could be passed on to the next generations.
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Cyberbullying represents an actual risk, especially for the online generation which is continuously connected and socialize through the internet. This article presents and comments on some cyberbullying issues (e.g. relative anonymity of perpetrators and repetition of bullying acts) and is devoted to educators engaged in cyberbullying prevention. The first step for cyberbullying prevention is the knowledge acquisition of what cyberbullying is and how it occurs within a specific context. This is not an easy task since cyberbullying is a complex and creep new phenomenon, so much that researchers' opinion is often divided on its definition and there isn't agreement on many aspects concerning it.
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This chapter assesses the phenomenon of cyberbullying as a risk involved in educating children in the contemporary world. While online technologies become a vital part of teenagers' worlds, cyberbullying is becoming a significant problem. In this chapter, cyberbullying is regarded as a social issue that builds on the existing social structures and hierarchies inherent in societies. A sociological perspective is used in analyzing bullying and cyberbullying in relation to power, various forms of capital, and the gender order. The discussion also takes a critical stance and focus on technology as a social construct. Cyberbullying studies conducted in Turkey, which is defined as a ‘lower use, some risk' country for children and prevention strategies against cyberbullying will also be subject to analysis in this chapter. This discussion proposes that a sociological analysis of the underlying mechanisms will be useful in establishing a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of cyberbullying as a social issue.
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The documented effects of cyberbullying take a burden on all those involved, but also impact the wider social environment as well. Victims experience difficult emotions: feelings of humiliation and worthlessness, shame, fear, despair, and sadness. In the long run, they may suffer reduced self-esteem and interpersonal problems: difficulties in establishing contacts and a tendency to withdrawal and isolation. The consequences for perpetrators include the consolidation of aggressive patterns of behavior, the lowering of the sense of responsibility for their own actions, the tendency to antisocial behavior, and the easy slide into conflicts with the law. Witnesses of violence, who are not able to effectively oppose it, or who do not try, often keep their feelings of guilt, dissatisfaction, and self-recrimination for years. For some, it will internalize patterns of passivity, helplessness, and unresponsiveness in difficult situations. This being the case, deepening our knowledge about all of the participants involved in cyberbullying and their mutual relations is of crucial importance.
Article
Résumé La notion de harcèlement scolaire, qui est la traduction de school-bullying, est un concept récent. On parle de harcèlement scolaire lorsqu’un élève est soumis, de manière répétée et à long terme, à des comportements intentionnellement agressifs visant à lui porter préjudice, le blesser, le mettre en difficulté et établir une relation dominant-dominé de la part d’un ou plusieurs élèves. L’échec de la dynamique de groupe, l’incapacité à verbaliser ses émotions, la difficulté à se mettre à la place de l’autre sont des éléments clés dans le harcèlement scolaire. Ce phénomène touche 15 à 20 % des élèves en incluant victimes et harceleurs. Les conséquences psychologiques sont dramatiques avec, à court terme, des symptômes de stress post-traumatiques, des syndromes anxiodépressifs, un retrait scolaire anxieux et, à plus long terme, les séquelles psychologiques se manifestent par des dépressions pouvant aller jusqu’au suicide. Les répercussions du harcèlement scolaire sont très sérieuses, car il survient à un âge où le jeune est en pleine construction identitaire au sein d’un groupe de pairs. La prévention se développe de plus en plus dans les établissements scolaires et permet de limiter le phénomène, mais sa reconnaissance doit se poursuivre. L’intervention précoce et la mise en place d’un suivi adapté sont nécessaires pour accompagner tant les victimes que les agresseurs.
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The first objective of the present study was to describe the nature of cyber aggression and victimization among emerging adults by focusing on what digital technologies are used and the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim. The second objective of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between cyber victimization, cyber aggression, suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-harm, depression, loneliness, anxiety, and grade point average among emerging adults over four years, using cross-lagged modeling. The findings of the study were consistent with cross-sectional studies, with the present study revealing longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between cyber aggression, cyber victimizations, suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-harm, depression, anxiety, and GPA over four years. Additional research attention should be given to understanding more about these associations.
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship of academic achievement and perceived social support with cyberbullying (CB) and cybervictimization (CV) in university students. 550 university students completed the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory for University Students (RCBI), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and a sociodemographic form. CB and CV scores were negatively correlated with MSPSS' family and friends subscale scores (r=-.23, r=-.12, r=-.23, and r=-.34, respectively). GPA level was negatively correlated with CB and CV scores (r=-.38 and r=-.52, respectively). Low perceived social support and low academic achievement level may be related to both CB and CV in university students. Keywords: academic achievement, cyberbullying, cybervictimization, family support, perceived social support
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Since the 1990s, the possibilities of geospatial analysis in conjunction with GIS have dramatically increased in the context of the consolidation of geostatistical data, high-precision GPS, improvement of PC processing capability, and expedited LAN access. In light of the new situation, the author discusses how social networking tools have permeated our daily lives, and how the unfounded rumours fly over the internet are easily spread, how easy for people to obtain such unconfirmed information and be instigated, and how the intangible online rumours have a concrete effect on the real world. It is the location information that links virtual world to the real world and makes possible to cause an action to really occur. In this chapter, the author intends to establish a notion of "geospatial stigmatization" - the geospatial dimension of stigmatization. In doing so, two recently published Japanese websites, Oshimaland and Hasansha-Map, are illustrated as cases of the present study. These two are both digital archives of human-related ulterior properties geotagged to electronic maps and caused massive controversies. By investigating these websites, we will be able to obtain a better understanding on how better PGIS should be, because they both created under the influence of people-powered mapping paradigm.
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This chapter focuses on the social media vulnerabilities due to excessive usage among the youth in developing countries like India. The increasing psychological dependence and ubiquitousness in the availability of technological gadgets make interaction possible at any time to anyone making the act of cyberbullying easier. The vulnerable sections of every society, especially the children, youth, and women, face incremental psychological health issues due to the negative impact of ever-increasing cyberbully-ing in one way or another. The chapter reports descriptively the extensive damages that are inflicted by social media platforms on the productivity of the developing countries due to the negative influence on the youth and working population of the developing countries including India.
Article
Cyberbullying is one example of a psychosocial developmental phenomenon caused by mediatization, a meta-process that increasingly shapes everyday practices and social relationships via mediating technologies and media organizations. Research on cyberbullying started less than two decades ago and has grown exponentially during the last few years. Despite the large body of evidence, the research field still is in its “forming” phase, and there are still major topics of debate. The main goal of this paper is to discuss some of the major challenges, identify major research gaps, and give some directions for future research. Summarizing the main findings from meta-analyses and systematic reviews, topics like definition and measurement, theoretical perspectives, risk and protective factors, developmental patterns, as well as prevention and intervention of cyberbullying and cyber victimization are discussed, and promising avenues for future research are outlined.
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Nowadays, developing technology increases to communication possibilities. The rapidly changing communication pıssibilities also brings the foreign language requirement. Technological innovations are dragging the effect of visual media abd the focus of our lives. These rapid changes are also reflected in educational practices. Eliminate borders with obsolete technology, foreign language requirement has also increased in all areas.These rapid changes with the new tendencies in the process of foreign language learning and teaching, it is increasing the need for new perspectives in education. The concept of visual literacy has entered our lives with the influence of media and visuals. New approaches have increased the need to use multiple learning occasion. In this context, there have been many studies on foreign language training until today. Materials used in the teaching of foreign languages are very important. Different materials are needed to parallel with the new orientation. Language teaching is not only objective in developing a strong grammer and vocabulary, it aims to be able to use the target language in every ambiance. In order toincrease the functionally of language skills, strategies and criteria facilitate the understandig ad expression of texts that are appropriate for student-centered purposes come to the fore. Literary texts are srtuctures with different cultural elements. Poetry, novels, fables, stories, literary genres such as comics are being used effectively in foreign language teaching course. Comics are one of the highlightd of this type of textwith visuals. Comics are text types in which shapes and colors, short sentences, visual and text can be followed together. Comics are an important materialthat enables language development and intercultural communation. According to the constructivist approach,comics are motivating materials that activate the student and increase attention and curiosity. In this study was the educational dimension of comics investigated. The study was carried out with the questionnaires of the forth grade students of German language teaching department of Trakya University and the student who had graduated from other German programs with open-ended questions. In order to be able to evaluate teacher candidates and graduate teachers, special attention has been paid to our ability to take courses such as special teaching methods, orientations and media literacy. The questionnaire was formed ad semi- structured quantitative and qualitative data collection tool. Information was also collected with individual and focus groups. In this study, learning effect ofcomic book usage in German learning are is examined. The purpıse of this research isto measure the attitudes towards the use of comics in teaching these languages. Keywords: Foreign Language Teaching, Comics, New Orientations Visual Media Tools
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Adolescents’ use of social media (e.g., text messaging, online video games, and social networking sites) as a method of interacting with peers has become increasingly ubiquitous in recent decades. Adoption of these technologies by teens as a primary mode of communicating with peers has been accompanied by many developmental costs and benefits. In this chapter, some of the unique ways in which peer relations and adolescent development are affected by digital communications platforms are explored. Then, ways that digital communications technologies can promote healthy or unhealthy peer relations that either support or undermine healthy adolescent development are considered. Finally, recommendations for how teachers and schools can approach adolescents' use of these technologies to promote healthy development inside and outside the school setting are discussed.
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Gender differences in regard to aggressive behaviour were investigated in a series of studies of schoolchildren of different age cohorts: 8-year-olds (N = 85), 11-year-olds (N = 167), and 15-year-olds (N = 127). Different types of aggressive behaviour were measured with peer nomination techniques, supported by self-ratings. The social structure of the peer groups wene also studied. The results of the 11-year-old cohort were previously persented by Lagerspetz et al. [1988; Aggressive Behavior l4:403-414], but they are compared here with the other age groups. The principal finding was that girls of the two older cohorts overall make greater use of indirect means of aggression, whereas boys tend to employ direct means. Previously, the main dilference between the genders has been thought to be that boys use physical aggressive strategies, while girls prefer verbd ones. Our studies suggest that the differentiation between direct and indirect strategies of aggression presents a more exact picture. Indlrect aggressive shategies were not yet fully developed among the 8-year-old girls, but they were already prominent among the 11-year-old girls. Aggressive behaviour was assessed overall by the children themselves to be the highest in ttris age gmup.
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The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Re- searchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in com- munity life and social relationships. This research exam- ined the social and psychological impact of the lnternet on 169 people in 73 households during their first i to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psycho- logical well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in partici- pants'communication with family members in the house- hold, declines in the size of their social circle, and in- creases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy, and for the design of technology.
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This paper reports on a qualitative investigation of explanations for teenage girls' indirect aggression (e.g., spreading false rumours, excluding peers from the group) which is part of a larger study on the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression. Focus groups were conducted with fifty-four 15–16-year-old girls. These focus group data were supplemented with interviews with six pairs of girls and a focus group discussion with a pilot group of eight 16-year-olds and separate individual interviews with ten key teachers. The overall aim of this part of the study was to explore why girls are indirectly aggressive to their peers. The key explanations proposed by the girls and their teachers were a desire to create excitement in girls' lives together with a range of friendship and group processes, centred around having close intimate relationships and belonging to the peer group. This study enriches our understanding of girls' indirect aggression and adds to earlier research conducted mainly using quantitative methods.
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Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age provides the most current and essential information on the nature and prevalence of this epidemic. Examining the latest research, the authors have utilized vital studies involving over 3,500 middle school students, online research projects and the use of social network sites, and data from focus groups of victims and perpetrators and their parents. Written in an accessible style, this volume provides educators, parents, psychologists, and policy-makers with critical prevention techniques and strategies for effectively addressing electronic bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This research focuses on the evolving area of cyberviolence and draws on a pioneering study to discuss benefits and risks of online interaction among adolescent girls. This new area of inquiry introduces educators to the social and cultural communities of the Internet, a virtual venue with unique perspectives on power, identity, and gender for children and youth.
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In the 1990s, many incidents revolved around student-on-student violence, usually involving guns. Schools implemented many programs to keep guns and gangs out of schools. In the 21st Century, school violence is taking on a new and more insidious form. New technologies have made it easier for bullies to gain access to their victims. This form of bullying has become knozvn as cyber-hullying. This article provides a window on this little knozon world and offers practical suggestions for dealing with this nezv challenge.
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Previous research suggests that Internet use may be associated with decreases in well-being among adolescents. However, there has been little investigation of the relationship between well-being and social aspects of Internet use. In the present study, 130 7th graders from a middle-class public school in California completed dispositional measures of well-being, and on three subsequent evenings they responded to questions regarding their Internet use (including detailed logs of instant messages) and daily well-being. Time spent on-line was not associated with dispositional or daily well-being. However, as suggested by intimacy theory, the closeness of instant message communication partners was associated with daily social anxiety and loneliness in school, above and beyond the contribution of dispositional measures.
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The key aim of the present research was to study the “functionality” of two global variables in the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire and to examine the appropriateness of different cutoff points of these variables for prevalence estimation. Several empirical and conceptual analyses strongly attested to the functionality of the two selected variables in terms of construct validity and selected measurement properties. Similarly, a number of analyses indicated that (having been bullied/having bullied other students) “2 or 3 times a month” was a reasonable and useful lower-bound cutoff point. With this cutoff point, “involved” students, victims, and bullies differed very markedly and in clearly different ways from “non-involved” students in conceptually related variables. Prevalence estimates derived in this way can be conveniently obtained, have a reasonably well-defined meaning, can be easily understood by users, and can be reproduced unambiguously by different researchers/administrators and at different times. An important background for the article is the fact that several common methods, including peer nominations, are not well suited for prevalence estimation. Prevalence data for victims, bullies, and bully-victims are also presented. All data were derived from the New Bergen Project Against Bullying, comprising a sample of 5,171 students from 37 schools in the town community of Bergen, Norway. At the time of the data collection, the spring of 1997, the 2,544 girls and 2,627 boys were in grades 5 through 9, with modal ages of 11 through 15 years. Aggr. Behav. 29:239–268, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Although violence among US youth is a current major concern, bullying is infrequently addressed and no national data on the prevalence of bullying are available. To measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among US youth and to determine the association of bullying and being bullied with indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including problem behavior, school adjustment, social/emotional adjustment, and parenting. Analysis of data from a representative sample of 15 686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools throughout the United States who completed the World Health Organization's Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey during the spring of 1998. Self-report of involvement in bullying and being bullied by others. A total of 29.9% of the sample reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying, as a bully (13.0%), one who was bullied (10.6%), or both (6.3%). Males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying. The frequency of bullying was higher among 6th- through 8th-grade students than among 9th- and 10th-grade students. Perpetrating and experiencing bullying were associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment (P<.001); however, different patterns of association occurred among bullies, those bullied, and those who both bullied others and were bullied themselves. The prevalence of bullying among US youth is substantial. Given the concurrent behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, the issue of bullying merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.
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This exploratory study of 339 students at the University of New Hampshire found that approximately 10% to 15% of students reported receiving repeated e-mail or Instant Messenger (I-M) messages that "threatened, insulted, or harassed," and more than half of the students received unwanted pornography. Approximately 7% of students reported online harassment to an authority. Messages originated from strangers, acquaintances, and significant others. No difference in online harassment was found based on demographic variables except sexual orientation. Sexual minority students were more likely to receive online harassment from strangers than were heterosexual students. Implications for further research and for policy/program development are discussed.
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To date, research focused on "traditional" (i.e. in-person) youth bullying behaviour has documented serious psychosocial challenges for those involved. How this literature translates to youth engaging in aggressive behaviours online has yet to be examined. Using the largest US sample of youth Internet users to date, psychosocial characteristics of youth engaging in Internet harassment were examined. Results from the nationally representative survey suggested that Internet harassment is a significant public health issue, with aggressors facing multiple psychosocial challenges including poor parent-child relationships, substance use, and delinquency. Comparisons to traditional bullies were made, with similarities and differences noted.
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