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Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2007, 4:23 http://www.jissn.com/content/4/1/23
Page 5 of 5
(page number not for citation purposes)
posed mechanism of action remains speculative without
supplemental data from further studies that investigate
the in vivo pharmacological actions of PS during stress
creating golf exercise.
The moderate increase in stress levels in the placebo group
indicate that further research is required to investigate the
effects of PS supplementation under competition condi-
tions since the elite golfer experienced elevated cortisol,
heart rate, cognitive and somatic anxiety, and lower self-
confidence during competition compared to practice .
The effect of stress on golf performance might be easier to
study on subjects with a lower handicap since their golf
swing is more automated and more stable under various
It is concluded that six weeks of PS supplementation
shows a statistically not significant tendency (p = 0.07) to
improve perceived stress levels in golfers and significantly
improves (p < 0.05) the number of good ball flights dur-
ing tee-off which might result in improved golf scores.
KRG is the inventor of patent "Food Item For Increasing
Cognitive Capacity" (WO 02/078464). All other authors
declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors participated in the design of the study. MW
analyzed statistics and MW, FA, LS and HH collected data.
RJ, with the support of MW and HH, drafted the manu-
script. JB validated the ball flight test method. All authors
have read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors would like to thank Dr. Michael Kingsley, University of Wales
Swansea, and Bill Yanko, Golf Professional, Member of the PGA, for a crit-
ical reading of the manuscript and Cargill Texturizing Solutions, Lise-Meit-
ner-Str. 30, D-85354 Freising, Germany, and Giventis GmbH,
Weingartenstr. 2, D-64646 Mörfelden, Germany, for funding this research
and Chemi Nutra, 4463 White Bear Pkwy, Suite 105, White Bear Lake, MN
55110, USA, for funding the manuscript publication.
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