Celiac Disease and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Department of Gastroenterology, Singleton Hospital, Swansea, United Kingdom.
Clinical Medicine & Research 11/2007; 5(3):184-92. DOI: 10.3121/cmr.2007.738
Source: PubMed


Celiac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is relatively common in western populations with prevalence around 1%. With the recent availability of sensitive and specific serological testing, many patients who are either asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms can be shown to have CD. Patients with CD have modest increases in risks of malignancy and mortality compared to controls. The mortality among CD patients who comply poorly with a gluten-free diet is greater than in compliant patients. The pattern of presentation of CD has altered over the past three decades. Many cases are now detected in adulthood during investigation of problems as diverse as anemia, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, unexplained neurological syndromes, infertility and chronic hypertransaminasemia of uncertain cause. Among autoimmune disorders, increased prevalence of CD has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune liver diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. Prevalence of CD was noted to be 1% to 19% in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, 2% to 5% in autoimmune thyroid disorders and 3% to 7% in primary biliary cirrhosis in prospective studies. Conversely, there is also an increased prevalence of immune based disorders among patients with CD. The pathogenesis of co-existent autoimmune thyroid disease and CD is not known, but these conditions share similar HLA haplotypes and are associated with the gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4. Screening high risk patients for CD, such as those with autoimmune diseases, is a reasonable strategy given the increased prevalence. Treatment of CD with a gluten-free diet should reduce the recognized complications of this disease and provide benefits in both general health and perhaps life expectancy. It also improves glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and enhances the absorption of medications for associated hypothyroidism and osteoporosis. It probably does not change the natural history of associated autoimmune disorders.

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    • "Among autoimmune disorders, an increased prevalence of CD and autoimmune thyroid diseases has been found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune liver diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease [26]. Thus, a similar genetic predisposition is common to many autoimmune diseases, and the genes in the HLA complex are among the strongest predisposing genetic factors [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A higher prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) has been reported in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), though coexistence with other autoimmune diseases has not been evaluated. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of the more frequent autoimmune diseases and organ- and non-organ specific autoantibodies in WBS. We longitudinally analysed 46 WBS patients to evaluate the prevalence and co-occurrence of the major autoantibodies and HLA typing for CD diagnosis. These data were compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls and Down (DS) and Turner (TS) syndrome patients. CD was diagnosed in one (2.2%) WBS patient; this differed significantly from DS and TS (respectively, 10.5% and 9.4%; P < 0.005) but not from healthy controls (0.6%; P = NS). However, no patients with WBS showed anti-thyroid antibodies or other organ- and non-organ specific autoantibodies, which differed significantly from DS (respectively, 10.5% and 7.0%; P < 0.005) and TS (respectively, 9.4% and 9.3%; P < 0.005) patients but not from healthy controls (1.1% and 2.3%). The frequencies of CD-specific HLA-DQ heterodimers were not significantly higher than controls, even though the WBS patients more frequently carried the DQA1*0505 allele (57% vs. 39%; P < 0.05). CD may not be more frequent in patients with WBS. In fact, no evidence of a significantly higher prevalence of other autoimmune diseases or positivity of the main organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies was found in WBS, such as showed in the healthy controls and unlike by the patients with Turner or Down syndrome. This should prompt us to better understand the occurrence of CD in WBS. Other studies or longer follow-up might be useful to clarify this issue.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Medical Genetics
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    • "All of the mentioned problems are also common in celiac disease. Celiac disease is frequent in 4to33.6% of children with short stature, 2.4% of those with diabetes type 1, and 2to5% of those with hypothyroidism (12, 13). It is highly possible that such problems in children with thalassemia never be considered as celiac disease (14). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to investigate the frequency of celiac disease in children with β-thalassemia major (B-TM) in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods In this study, the prevalence of celiac disease in children with B-TM was evaluated. Children with B-TM were screened for celiac disease by ant-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) IgA antibody, IgA level and anti-tTG IgG. A total of 1500 school healthy children in Shiraz with age/sex matched were selected as control group. Results A total of 215 B-TM patients with mean age of 12.7 ± 4.4 years, were included into the study (52.1% was male). None of the patients were positive for anti-tTG IgA. Eight cases were IgA deficient in whom anti-tTG IgG was investigated but none of them were positive for anti-tTG IgG. The finding in control group has a seroprevalence of 2% and biopsy proven disease of 0.6%. Conclusion Many patients with thalassemia major have multiple non specific symptom that are not justifiable with underlying disease and might be due to atypical celiac disease. We didn't find any case of celiac disease among more than 200 children with β-thalassemia major in Shiraz, southern Iran. So it seems reasonable to screen only those who have features, even not classical, of celiac disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
    • "CD has been found at an increased rate in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (Grave's disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis), with a prevalence ranging from 2% to 7% [96–99]. This same observation has been made in patients with CD, in whom serological signs of autoimmune thyroid disease were found up to 26%, occurrence of thyroid dysfunction was detected in up to 10% of cases, and risk of thyroid disease was estimated 3-fold higher as compared to controls [3, 98, 100–102]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013
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